We are at the beginning of a new age of business, where dynamic interaction is the driving force for whatever kind of business. To draw from a known analogy, “bring your own device” (BYOD) exemplifes the trends of devices accessing processes and information on enterprises. In the upcoming years, not only phones, tablets, and computers will demand access, but also sensors and embedded systems will deliver and request information. In the traditional way of handling dynamic interaction, the attempt was to secure the whole infrastructure of a company. To follow the analogy, BYOD is often seen as a threat, and answered in the classical way by preventing employees from using their devices, as security cannot be ensured. A second variant of counteracting classic threats such as insuf cient authentication and loss of devices is addressed through an approach of integrating, managing, and securing mobile devices. But these strategies cannot be applied to sensors and other kinds of cyber-physical systems. Companies cannot stop integrating embedded systems into their infrastructures, as their businesses and processes need them to remain competitive. So, they need to be able to assess the dynamic interaction impact of integrating a new system into their infrastructure in a manageable way, which conventionally suffers from two aspects:
i. Secure interaction issues in current systems are described through an integrated approach, and do not open for scalability.
ii. Measurable security in terms of quantiable results is not industry.
A paradigm shift in handling dynamic interaction is required, addressing the need for securing information instead of securing infrastructure. The paradigm shift includes the need for a security methodology definition first, and for the consequent measurability.
SHIELD addresses both these shortcomings, providing the methodology and the means of integrating new infrastructures, new ways of communication, and new devices. It thereby answers the upcoming trends of wireless sensors, sensor networks, and automated processes. Though the focus of SHIELD is on introducing security for cyber-physical systems, we see that these security measures need to be the basis for running automated processes. Consequently, the solution proposed in this book addresses a metrics-based approach for a quantitative assessment of both the potential attack scenario and the security measures of the information, and outlines the methodology of measurable security for systems of cyber-physical systems.
Measurable security is often misinterpreted as a good risk analysis. The SHIELD approach works toward measuring security in terms of cardinal numbers, representing the application of special security methods as compared to the specific threat scenario. The approach is based on the semantic description of a potential attack scenario, the security-related aspects of sensors/systems, and security policies that should be applied irrespective of the scenario.
Through SHIELD, we address measurable security and introduce countable numbers for the security components of systems. We also address the scalability aspect by using composition techniques that are able to build a security representation of the composed system (system of systems) based on the individual security representations of each individual element. This simplifies the process of measuring the security of the composed system, and opens up the opportunity to build the system in an incremental way.
This approach is particularly indicated to manage all the security aspects of cyber-physical systems, embedded systems that are interconnected, interdependent, collaborative, and smart. They provide computing and communication, monitoring, and control of physical components and processes in various applications. Many of the products and services that we use in our daily lives are increasingly determined by cyber-physical systems and, the software that is built into them is the connection between the real physical world and the built-in intelligence. The SHIELD approach also represents an answer to dependability aspects.
Dependability is a key aspect of cyber-physical systems, in particular in safety-critical environments that may often require 24/7 reliability, 100% availability, and 100% connectivity, in addition to real-time response. Moreover, security and privacy are both important criteria that affect the dependability of a system; therefore, this book focuses on security, privacy, and dependability issues within the context of embedded cyber-physical systems, considering security, privacy, and dependability both as distinct properties of a cyber-physical system and as a single property by composition.
Increasing security, privacy, and dependability requirements introduce new challenges in emerging Internet of Things and Machine to Machine scenarios, where heterogeneous cyber-physical systems are massively deployed to pervasively collect, store, process, and transmit data of a sensitive nature. Industry demands solutions to these challenges—solutions that will provide measurable security, privacy, and dependability, risk assessment of security critical products, and configurable/composable security. Security is frequently misconstrued as the hardware or software implementation of cryptographic algorithms and security protocols. On the contrary, security, privacy, and dependability represent a new and challenging set of requirements that should be considered in the design process, along with cost, performance, power, and so on.
The SHIELD methodology addresses security, privacy, and dependability in the context of cyber-physical systems as “built in” rather than as “addon” functionalities, proposing and perceiving with this strategy the first step toward security, privacy, and dependability certi cation for future cyberphysical systems.
The SHIELD general framework consists of a four-layered system architecture and an application layer in which four scenarios are considered: (1) airborne domain, (2) railways, (3) biometric-based surveillance, and (4) smart environments.
Starting from the current security, privacy, and dependability solutions in cyber-physical systems, new technologies have been developed and the existing ones have been consolidated in a solid basement that is expected to become the reference milestone for a new generation of “security, privacy, and dependability-ready” cyber-physical systems. SHIELD approaches security, privacy, and dependability at four different levels: node, network, middleware, and overlay. For each level, the state of the art in security, privacy, and dependability of individual technologies and solutions has been improved and integrated (hardware and communication technologies, cryptography, middleware, smart security, privacy, and dependability applications).
The leading concept has been the demonstration of the composability of security, privacy, and dependability technologies and the composition of security, depending on the application need or the attack surrounding.
To achieve these challenging goals, we developed and evaluated an innovative, modular, composable, expandable, and highly dependable architectural framework, concrete tools, and common security, privacy, and dependability metrics capable of improving the overall security, privacy, and dependability level in any specific application domain, with minimum engineering effort.
Through SHIELD, we have (i) achieved a de facto standard for measurable security, privacy, and dependability; (ii) developed, implemented, and tested roughly 40 security-enhancing prototypes in response to specific industrial requests; and (iii) applied the methodology in four different domains, proving how generic the approach is.
The book’s main objective is to provide an innovative, modular, composable, expandable and high-dependable architectural framework conceived and designed with the SHIELD methodology, which allows to achieve the desired security, privacy, and dependability level in the context of integrated and interoperating heterogeneous services, applications, systems, and devices; and to develop concrete solutions capable of achieving this objective in specific application scenarios with minimum engineering effort.
The book is organized in two parts:
Section I: SHIELD Technologies and Methodology for Security, Privacy, and Dependability is dedicated to the SHIELD methodology, to technical aspects of new and innovative security, privacy, and dependability technologies and solutions, and to the SHIELD framework.
Section II: SHIELD Application Scenarios, New Domains, and Perspectives covers four different application scenarios for SHIELD in the airborne domain, railway domain, biometric security, and smart environments security (smart grid, smart vehicles, smart cities, etc.). This section also describes some domain-independent technology demonstrators and provides an overview of the industrial perspectives of security, privacy, and dependability and of the results obtained by adopting the SHIELD methodology in other European research projects.
This book is foreseen for system integrators, software engineers, security engineers, electronics engineers, and many other engineering disciplines involved in the extremely rapidly digitalizing world. But also, managers and policy makers in industry and public administration can make use of it to get awareness on the security challenges of this massive digitalization. The book is intended to be written in a language as plain as possible to reach a wide audience. The goal is to raise awareness on security aspects of the cyber-physical systems that are increasingly being connected to the rest of the world. Systems are often responsible for critical infrastructures that provide the foundations of our modern society. It provides the shortcomings of current approaches, indicates the advances coming from the distributed approach as suggested by SHIELD, and addresses the state of the art in security in various market segments.
Finally, it must be acknowledged that Measurable and Composable Security, Privacy, and Dependability for Cyberphysical Systems: The SHIELD Methodology is the result of the two SHIELD projects co-funded by the ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking (https://www.artemis-ju.eu/). Several institutions of different European countries have participated in SHIELD and this book would not have been possible without all the work carried out during all those years by this team of highly professional researchers. The participation by major European industry players in embedded systems security, privacy, and dependability, also made possible the commercial exploitation of the results developed in the SHIELD projects.