Article

A HOPE for Study Abroad: Evidence From Tennessee on the Impact of Merit-Aid Policy Adoption on Study Abroad Participation

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Two distinct literature bases exist documenting the benefits of study aboard participation and state-adopted merit-aid policies. However, few, to date, have estimated the impact of merit-aid adoption on study abroad participation. Results from our study demonstrate the potential positive externality merit-aid policy adoption has on study abroad participation. In addition, we find that increases in study abroad participation is concentrated primarily within public doctoral/research institutions and institutions with students from more affluent families.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... One recent analysis of how public funding may influence socio-economic inequalities in education abroad participation (Kramer & Wu, 2019) examines how a state-funded merit-based financial aid policy in Tennessee, USA, influenced the share of students participating in education abroad. They conclude that "on average, the adoption of broad-based merit-aid policies increases participation in study abroad programs. ...
... With the exception of some European initiatives, few policies address equality of opportunity in education abroad participation. Such policies may be particularly important, as broad-based policies to increase college enrollment may inadvertently generate further inequalities in education abroad participation (Kramer & Wu, 2019). ...
... Knowledge about the relationship between education abroad participation and country-level as well as institutional-level characteristics is primarily derived from cross-sectional data. Thus, more impact assessmentssuch as the longitudinal study by Kramer and Wu (2019) are needed. Kramer and Wu's (2019) use of institution-level rather than studentlevel data limits conclusions about whether inequality has changed, but their work provides an example of how researchers can study the effects of policies on socio-demographic inequalities in education abroad participation. ...
Chapter
In recent years, the body of evidence suggesting that studying abroad during higher education can positively influence students’ personality development, academic knowledge and skills, intercultural competences, and employment prospects has increased. Policy makers and scholars alike want to understand who reaps these benefits and who does not. Hence, we review studies examining how key socio-demographic variables (gender, age, socio-economic background, and ethnicity) influence the likelihood of studying abroad. We describe the extent to which students are over- or under-represented in different national study abroad populations depending on their socio-demographics, summarize explanations for the observed patterns, and discuss initial evidence on how socio-demographic inequalities in study abroad participation have changed over time. Based on this synthesis, we identify ways forward for research and derive implications for policy makers and practitioners. https://www.routledge.com/Education-Abroad-Bridging-Scholarship-and-Practice-1st-Edition/Ogden-Streitweiser-Van-Mol/p/book/9781138364288
... Perna et al., 2015), the availability of institutional or state funding (e.g. Kramer & Wu, 2021;Whatley, 2017), the economic wealth of countries, and the quality of national higher education systems (e.g. Beine et al., 2014;Rodríguez et al., 2011;Vögtle & Windzio, 2016). ...
... Regarding students' and graduates' socio-demographics, in particular, further research should better examine the role of policy interventions for the generation of inequalities. With few exceptions (e.g.Kramer & Wu, 2021;Netz & Finger, 2016), it has hardly been examined how policy interventions influence socio-demographic inequalities in study abroad participation. We know even less about how policies may inadvertently promote unequal outcomes of studying abroad, or about effective policies to maximise the benefits of studying abroad for disadvantaged student groups. ...
Article
Full-text available
This editorial to the special issue on heterogeneous effects of studying abroad starts with a review of studies on the determinants and individual-level effects of studying abroad. On that basis, it illustrates the necessity to place more emphasis on effect heterogeneity in research on international student mobility. It then develops a typology of heterogeneous effects of studying abroad, which shall function as an agenda for future research in the field. Thereafter, the editorial introduces the contributions to the special issue. It concludes by summarising major findings and directions for future research.
... Some of the benefits that have been investigated in the literature have included: personal and professional connections; immersing in a new culture and community; personal growth; new knowledge and expanding horizons. International students may also be faced with challenges as they embrace studying in a new country (Brown, 2009;Hartwig, 2017;Kramer & Wu, 2019;Trede, Bowles & Bridges, 2013). This is compounded when the students are preservice teacher education students and are required to teach in a classroom as part of their study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many students embark on an international experience (study tour and/or practicum/placement) during their teacher education program. There are benefits and challenges for those participating in such programs. Reflection is a useful tool in enabling the students to reflect on their experiences; capitalise on the benefits and assist in meeting the challenges that may arise. This paper reports on how reflection was used in a three-week program for international students conducted in a school in The Netherlands. Reflection is an important part of the program as the students are required to socialise into a new country and culture; a new university setting; and then a new school site-multi socialisation (Barton & Hartwig, 2017). The aim of this specific program was the development of participants both as global citizens and as global teachers (Stokhof & Fransen, 2017). Reflection enabled the students to appreciate and understand their experiences in the community of multi international students, foreign pupils and teachers in a foreign school context, thus supporting their development as global citizens and global teachers.
... Finally, the relationship between the expansion of ISM programmes and the development of social inequality deserves more attention in further research. Evidence from Germany (Netz and Finger 2016) and the USA (Kramer and Wu 2019) suggests that the introduction of major student aid schemes has particularly boosted study abroad participation among students from a high social origin. Yet, it remains to be examined in detail whether existing policies have increased or decreased inequality in access to ISM, and which policies enable a particularly fruitful personality, skill, and eventually also professional development. ...
Article
Full-text available
Studying abroad can positively influence students’ personality development, transversal skills, and labour market outcomes. At the same time, students from a high social origin are more likely to study abroad than students from a low social origin. Against this background, recent research has suggested that international student mobility (ISM) may foster the reproduction of social inequality. However, this assumption has hardly been tested empirically. Drawing on social stratification theory, we first demonstrate that a scenario in which ISM increases social inequality (cumulative advantage) is as plausible as a scenario in which it decreases social inequality (compensatory levelling). We then address the sketched research gap by testing whether the effect of studying abroad on graduates’ labour income varies across social groups in the German labour market. Using data from the 2005 DZHW Graduate Panel, we perform a propensity score matching and calculate random effects growth curve models to examine the role of ISM for the development of social inequality during the first 10 years of graduates’ careers. In line with the scenario of cumulative advantage, our results suggest that graduates from a high social origin benefit more from ISM than graduates from a low social origin. Considering that students from a high social origin are also more likely to study abroad in the first place, we conclude that ISM tends to foster the reproduction of social inequality in the German labour market.
Article
Full-text available
The notion of merit-aid is not a new development in higher education. Although previous researchers have demonstrated the impact of state-adopted merit-aid funding on student decision-making, fewer studies have examined institutional pricing responses to broad-based merit-aid policies. Using a generalized difference-in-difference approach, we extend previous empirical work by examining the impact of merit-aid on institutional pricing strategies while considering both the institution’s tuition-setting authority and the relative strength of the merit-aid program. In this study, we find that colleges and universities with the authority to set their own tuition increased their in-state tuition and fees following broad-based merit-aid policy adoption; however, institutions with state-controlled tuition-setting authority respond to broad-based merit-aid policies by lowering their in-state tuition and fees. Our findings suggest that the incentives and dynamics of each state’s policy environment are significant determinants of institutional responses to state-level policy adoptions.
Article
Full-text available
Rapid growth in the population of children of immigrants has occurred during an era of soaring college costs in the United States. Despite well-established knowledge that immigrant parents hold high educational expectations for their children and that children of immigrants will make up a large share of the U.S. college-aged population, little is known about how immigrant families prepare financially for their children’s postsecondary education. We use data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 to examine the patterns and predictors of college savings behavior among Asian and Latino foreign-born parents of high school students in the United States. Relative to white U.S.-born parents, Asian immigrant parents have higher odds of saving and have more money saved for their 10th-grader’s college education. In contrast, Latino immigrant parents are less likely than white U.S.-born parents to save for their children’s college education. However, among parents who save, Latino immigrant parents do not differ from white U.S.-born parents in the amount saved. For both Asian and Latino immigrant parents, income is less predictive of saving than it is for white U.S.-born parents, and the odds of saving increase with U.S. experience. Findings improve understanding of college access and the long-term socioeconomic prospects of children of immigrants in the U.S.
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the effect of a statewide merit-based scholarship program on educational outcomes in Arizona. It tests whether Arizona’s Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) scholarship has an effect on a comprehensive set of educational outcomes such as the number of applicants, student admissions, first-year first-time enrollment, ACT scores of entering freshman, retention rates, as well as on the level of tuition and fees at the three schools targeted by the program; Arizona State University, University of Arizona and Northern Arizona University. Both difference-in-differences estimation as well as synthetic control methods shows that AIMS has an economically and statistically significant effect enrollment. Enrollment effects are greatest among African American and Hispanic students and are significant for both men and women. While point estimates suggest that AIMS also lead to increases in tuition and fees, these results are not robust to placebo tests.
Article
Full-text available
Alongside the educational expansion and internationalisation of economies, it has become more important for students’ labour market success to spend part of their studies abroad. However, only a fraction of German students studies abroad. In particular, students from underprivileged families refrain from doing so. While the social selectivity of international student mobility is well documented, the mechanisms underlying this pattern of inequality are insufficiently understood. Aiming to narrow this research gap, we examine an early stage of the process leading to international mobility and address the question why students from underprivileged families intend to study abroad less often. Applying theories of rational choice and cultural reproduction, we develop a theoretical framework that integrates several mechanisms explaining the observed social inequality. Using a nationally representative panel data set from the German School Leavers Survey, we estimate logistic regressions and effect decompositions. Our findings indicate that underprivileged students’ lower likelihood of forming a study abroad intention partially results from previous life course events. Related to their previous educational decisions and experiences, underprivileged students have worse performance-related preconditions for studying abroad. Furthermore, their higher cost sensitivity and lower benefit expectation explain their reluctance to study abroad. Download: https://rdcu.be/4qMB
Article
Full-text available
Background With college tuition and student loan debt rising, high school students and their families are increasingly concerned about “how to” pay for college. To address this, federal/state policy makers encourage individuals to financially prepare for college early in their child's life. Drawing from social reproduction theory, we anticipate wide inequalities in who engages in college financial preparations and savings and when they begin these activities. Purpose This study updates and extends the literature on how families financially prepare for college. Data High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), a nationally representative sample of 9th grade students who began high school in 2009. Research Design We use logistic and multinomial regression to estimate four different outcomes: (1) whether the family plans to help the student pay for college; (2) whether the family has financially prepared for college; (3) whether the family has opened a college savings account; and (4) when families financially prepare for college (kindergarten, elementary, or secondary school). Results Our results have implications for social reproduction theory as we find that socioeco-nomically privileged families have greater likelihoods of financially preparing their children for college before or soon after their children enter formal schooling. Conclusions Current policy efforts to encourage college financial preparation may disproportionately benefit already-privileged families and likely exacerbate educational inequalities.
Article
Full-text available
Whether indirectly from governmental and non-governmental organizations or directly from higher education institutions, students receive messages that they should study abroad. Studying in a foreign country is considered essential if students are to be marketable to future employers and prepared to lead the U.S. into a new era. Despite the presence of such messages, the understanding of what it means to be absent from the undergraduate student population willing and able to study in a foreign country is severely limited. Importantly, what are the perceptions and experiences of students who repeatedly hear the value of study abroad and who, at the same time, are not willing and/or able to participate? The purpose of this critical qualitative study was to seek answers to this question by exploring the perceptions and experiences of a population that continues to experience low rates of study abroad participation: Latina/o undergraduate students.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined US undergraduate students’ intent to study abroad upon college entry and their actual participation in study abroad during their undergraduate years, correlating the college outcomes of three cohorts to identify trends. The findings show that study abroad intent and participation are interrelated and shaped by an array of factors, including gender, race or ethnicity, major, and involvement in college activities. While mathematical ability and helping to promote racial understanding negatively affected study abroad intent, aspiring to earn an advanced degree, time spent socializing with friends, artistic ability, seeking to improve understanding of other countries and cultures, and expectations to join a social fraternity or sorority, to be satisfied with college, and to participate in student clubs or groups positively influenced study abroad intent. Also, the findings indicate that involvement in the student government, a music or theater group, a political club, club sports, and off-campus study negatively affected participation in study abroad. Finally, the findings reveal that study abroad made a unique contribution to college outcomes, such as understanding moral and ethical issues, communication skills, academic performance, and overall satisfaction. Implications for higher education researchers, study abroad professionals, senior administrators, faculty advisors, and college students are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This article reports the findings of an investigation into the impact of study abroad experiences on self‐efficacy perceptions among foreign language (FL) learners. Thirty‐nine American college students taking part in both short‐term and semester‐long academic programs in France and Spain completed self‐efficacy surveys at the beginning and at the end of their foreign sojourns. Students were also asked to complete a questionnaire documenting the nature and extent of their interactions with members of the host country. Statistical analysis of the self‐efficacy measures in this investigation revealed that participation in a study abroad program (regardless of its length or destination) had a significant impact on self‐efficacy perceptions in all FL subskills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking). Furthermore, the extent of self‐efficacy gains was found to be associated with the extent and type of interaction with members of the host country. Pedagogical implications of these finds are discussed, along with suggestions on how to maximize the motivational benefits of foreign study programs.
Article
Full-text available
We present new evidence on the effects of merit aid scholarship programs on residential migration and educational attainment using Census data on 24 to 32 year olds in the U.S. from 1990 to 2010. Eligibility for merit aid programs slightly increases the propensity of state natives to live in-state, while also extending in-state enrollment into the late twenties. These patterns notwithstanding, the magnitude of merit aid effects is of an order of magnitude smaller than the population treated, suggesting that nearly all of the spending on these programs is transferred to individuals who do not alter educational or migration behavior.
Article
Full-text available
In 1993, the creation of Georgia’s HOPE Scholarship Program accelerated interest in understanding the effects of merit-based student financial aid. This article compares a sample of “borderline” HOPE recipients (students just above the eligibility threshold) with similar nonrecipients to examine differences on four college performance outcomes. The HOPE Scholarship recipients accumulated more credit hours, achieved slightly higher grade point averages, and were more likely to have graduated after 4 years of college. In addition, HOPE recipients who attended 4-year institutions of higher education were more likely to persist in college. Most merit aid recipients lost their scholarships, however, which slightly reduced recipients’advantages on grade point average and credit hour accumulation. Differences in persistence and graduation are significant only for those who maintain eligibility for the scholarship, suggesting that scholarship retention is critical if merit aid programs are to help achieve several of the broad goals of higher education.
Article
Full-text available
Twenty-one states offer merit scholarships that require students to maintain a minimum grade point average (GPA). Using a comprehensive administrative database from Clemson University, this study estimates the relationship between the incentives created by a South Carolina merit scholarship (LIFE) and students' academic performance. I hypothesize that being at risk of gaining or losing this scholarship will lead to increased effort and, as a consequence, higher grades. The results suggest that the incentives created by the scholarship increase GPAs by as much as 0.101 on a four-point scale, controlling for student and course characteristics. Moreover, the results indicate that for men the relationship between the risk of gaining or losing the scholarship and grades is large and statistically significant; for women, however, there is little evidence that the scholarship is related to grades. © 2009 American Education Finance Association
Article
Full-text available
The current study explored differences in financial behaviors between college students in Georgia who retained the merit-based HOPE Scholarship and those who lost it. Logistic regression was used to analyze data from a sample of 557 undergraduate students from a large southeastern university. Students who initially had HOPE Scholarships but lost them were less likely to have used recommended financial management practices and had higher credit card as well as student loan debt than students who retained HOPE Scholarships. The results sug- gest that students who had lost the HOPE Scholarship may be more financially vulnerable than initially ex- pected, particularly given their higher levels of debt and maladaptive financial management practices.
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the amount of the second language (L2) use and linguistic gains made by students in three short-term language immersion programs: (1) traditional study abroad, (2) service-oriented study abroad, and (3) foreign language (FL) housing. These were chosen because they represent three distinct program types, providing students with different ways of interacting in the target language and different types and amounts of contact with native speakers. This allowed us to evaluate relationships between study setting, language use, and language gains. Learners completed language logs detailing their use of the L2 as well as pre- and post-immersion oral tests to assess gains in fluency, pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. Although the traditional study abroad group used the L2 the most, findings demonstrate much of this use was due to coursework. When comparing use outside of the classroom, the service learning group used the target language significantly more than students in the FL house and traditional study abroad. Also two of the groups, those in the FL house and service-oriented study abroad demonstrated significant linguistic gains. Results also suggest a positive relationship between time speaking the L2 with non-native speakers and linguistic gains. (Contains 5 tables.)
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the relationship between students' motivations and their intention to participate in study abroad programs using a model based on expectancy theory. We surveyed U.S., Chinese and French business students who studied in their home countries. Results suggest that certain motivations are common among students from the three countries. We found that the direction of the relationship between motivations and the intent to study abroad varied among the three countries, that nationality moderates all of the relationships, and that different levels of the barriers moderate the relationship between motivations and the intention to study abroad. (Contains 6 tables and 3 figures.)
Article
Full-text available
Since the early 1990s, state governments have distributed billions of dollars in financial aid through merit-based college scholarships, most of which have no means tests. The model for most of these programs is Georgia's Helping Outstanding Pupils Educationally (HOPE) scholarship. Given the high correlation between precollege academic achievement and family income, the program characteristics raise the question: to what extent are HOPE disbursements simply rent payments to households otherwise inclined to send their children to college? This article addresses the rent question by examining the effect of HOPE on automobile consumption. The relatively swift passage of the lottery law and establishment of the program created an unanticipated windfall large enough to encourage the financing of consumer durables purchases, such as automobiles, out of household savings targeted for college. First, we compare car registrations in Georgia with those in sets of control group states before and after HOPE. We do not find a statistically significant overall HOPE effect, but allowing the HOPE coefficient to vary by year reveals statistically significant percentage increases in registered vehicles in 1994 and 1995, when the program's income cap was raised and then removed. Next, we examine the relationship between car registrations and HOPE recipients by county. Our results indicate that the number of HOPE recipients attending degree-granting institutions increases car registrations in counties above the 75th percentile in per capita income; there is no evidence of a relationship in counties below the 25th per capita income percentile. © 2007 American Education Finance Association
Article
Full-text available
A new model of consumer behavior is developed using a hybrid of cognitive psychology and microeconomics. The development of the model starts with the mental coding of combinations of gains and losses using the prospect theory value function. Then the evaluation of purchases is modeled using the new concept of “transaction utility.” The household budgeting process is also incorporated to complete the characterization of mental accounting. Several implications to marketing, particularly in the area of pricing, are developed.
Book
A special publication of The Forum on Education Abroad in partnership with Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad (www.frontiersjournal.org) journal, this work examines the evolution of the field of education abroad in the United States, bringing greater meaning to the field through its documentation of its past.
Article
This article presents a study to help bolster existing study abroad research by comparing the global-mindedness of student participants at three private universities’ study abroad programs. It seeks to examine the differences between students who have participated in a short-term program, consisting of eight weeks or less and students who have participated in a semester-long program in one particular study abroad model known as an “island program.” The study also establishes the baseline levels of global- mindedness of students who have applied and been accepted into a future study abroad program, but as yet have no study abroad experience.
Article
This study examines the role of financial aid variables, namely, student loan and grant amounts, expected family contribution, and financial need, on the decision to study abroad among students in the University System of Georgia. Findings indicate that, generally, student loans negatively influence the likelihood of a student studying abroad whereas grant aid increases the likelihood. Students with higher levels of expected family contribution are less likely to participate in study abroad, as are those with more financial need. This study adds to our knowledge of factors that predict student study abroad participation in that it accounts for financial factors that have not yet been examined in the study abroad literature. Findings have important implications for students, study abroad practitioners, and institutions alike in terms of student access to international experiences, and also point to several directions for future research on the influence of students’ finances on their international educational experiences.
Article
Using research designs patterned after randomized experiments, many recent economic studies examine outcome measures for treatment groups and comparison groups that are not randomly assigned. By using variation in explanatory variables generated by changes in state laws, government draft mechanisms, or other means, these studies obtain variation that is readily examined and is plausibly exogenous. This article describes the advantages of these studies and suggests how they can be improved. It also provides aids in judging the validity of inferences that they draw. Design complications such as multiple treatment and comparison groups and multiple preintervention or postintervention observations are advocated.
Article
This study examines the impact of merit-aid programs on secondary course taking patterns. Specifically, this study uses difference-in-differences to analyze state-level Advanced Placement (AP) participation and examination data pre and post merit-aid adoption. Results indicate increases in AP participation and number of total examinations after the adoption for merit-aid program who initial eligibility requirements are solely high school performance rather than a combined initial eligibility of high school GPA and standardized test performance. Findings illustrate the potential rationality of student decisions as they take high school courses that not only maximize their admittance into college, but also increase probability of achieving the necessary GPA to receive the merit-aid scholarship.
Article
As an extension to a previous study that investigated 26 surveyed employers and ten directors of “campus international affairs offices” about their respective attitudes toward the value of study abroad, this article presents a study that focuses on the various types of employers who hire US undergraduates for entry-level positions. The purpose of this study was to examine what could be done to convince employers to respond in sufficient numbers to support the validity of the data.
Article
This study aims to clarify the influencing factors for Asian American students when making the decision to study abroad. By understanding the influencing factors, efforts could be made to help increase the overall participation of students in study abroad and, more specifically, increase the rate of participation of Asian Americans.
Article
Creating effective learning experiences in higher education requires understanding students’ epistemologies, or their ways of knowing. This article reports students’ perceptions of their academic experiences during college from three different epistemologies. These epistemologies and gender-related patterns within them were identified through annual interviews with students from the freshman to the senior year. Epistemologies range from unquestioned acceptance of knowledge to self-authored knowledge. Using students’ experiences from each of these perspectives, this article suggests forms of pedagogy that connect with students’ epistemologies. Abstract
Article
This chapter examines how merit aid affects schooling decisions, using household survey data to measure the impact of new state programs. It begins with a case study of the Georgia Helping Outstanding Pupils Educationally (HOPE) Scholarship, the namesake and inspiration of many of the new state programs. It then extends the analysis to other states that now have broad-based programs similar to the HOPE Scholarship. In the empirical analysis, the chapter pays particular attention to how the effect of merit aid has varied by race and ethnicity. Merit aid might affect the decisions not only of students but also of institutions. Finally, the chapter briefly discusses the political economy of merit aid. It poses questions such as why it has arisen where it has and when it has, prospects for its continuation and growth, given the current, poor fiscal prospects of the states.
Article
We study the effect of state-level merit aid programs (such as Georgia's HOPE scholarship) on alcohol consumption among college students. Such programs have the potential to affect drinking through a combination of channels - such as raising students' disposable income and increasing the incentive to maintain a high GPA - that could theoretically raise or lower alcohol use. We find that the presence of a merit-aid program in one's state generally leads to an overall increase in (heavy) drinking. This effect is concentrated among men, students with lower parental education, older students, and students with high college GPA's. Our findings are robust to several alternative empirical specifications including event-study analyses by year of program adoption. Furthermore, no difference in high-school drinking is observed for students attending college in states with merit-aid programs.
Article
The test-optional movement in the United States emerged largely in response to criticism of standardized admissions tests as inadequate and potentially biased measures of postsecondary promise. Although anecdotal reports suggest that test-optional policies have improved campus diversity, empirical research has not yet confirmed this claim. Consequently, this study employs quasi-experimental techniques to assess the relationship between test-optional policy implementation and subsequent growth in the proportion of low-income and minority students enrolling at adopting liberal arts colleges. It also examines whether test-optional policies increase institutional standing through greater application numbers and higher reported Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores. Results show that, on average, test-optional policies enhance the perceived selectivity, rather than the diversity, of participating institutions.
Article
This article examines debt burden among college graduates and contributes to previous research by incorporating institutional and state characteristics. Utilizing a combination of national datasets and zero-one inflated beta regression, we find several major themes. First, family income and college experiences are strongly associated with the probability of zero debt burden as well as the level of debt burden. Second, graduates from private institutions have a higher level of debt burden than graduates from a public institution. Lastly, state funding of merit-based aid programs play a role in reducing students’ debt burden, but the effect disappears when accounting for the “Georgia effect.” Conclusions and suggestions are made about the roles institutions and government can play in reducing debt burden among college graduates.
Article
In 2004, Colorado introduced the nation’s first voucher model for financing public higher education. With state appropriations now allocated to students, rather than institutions, state officials expect this model to create cost efficiencies while also expanding college access. Using difference-in-difference regression analysis, we find limited evidence that these outcomes occurred within the 4-year sector; however, the policy increased cost efficiencies among community college and reduced college access for some underrepresented groups. The paper discusses the challenges of applying market-based reforms to public higher education.
Article
The aim of this research is to explore whether participation in study abroad by community college students impacts levels of engagement and if there is a connection between studying abroad and academic achievement. While university-level studies have a history in exploring these questions, the same is not true for community colleges. The California Community College Student Outcomes Abroad Research project (CCC SOAR) uses a mixed methods design to examine data that evidences how participation in study abroad programs not only has implications for personal development and global learning, but also has a range of indicators of academic success variables. Data show that there is a range of positive outcomes that occur as a result of studying abroad for all students across an array of early, midstream, and terminal outcomes due to engagement-enhancing components such as shared common experiences, nurturing behavior from faculty, and increased student interaction in collaborative activities.
Article
In this study, we investigate the impact of the Bright Futures Scholarship Program on college enrollment and degree production in Florida by using IPEDS enrollment, migration, and completion data. Results suggest large and significant enrollment effects at Florida’s public 4- and 2-year institutions, for both full-time and part-time enrollment. This large growth is at least in part due to reduced out-migration of Florida’s resident students attending out-of-state institutions. Thus the net effect is lower than the enrollment growth in Florida. Finally, our results indicate that the effect of Bright Futures on degree production is lower than that on enrollment. This aggregated-level analysis provides an important baseline for our future research on the effect of Bright Futures on students’ college attendance, choice, financial aid renewal, persistence, and graduation by using detailed individual-level data.
Article
We examine the effects of recently adopted state merit-based financial aid programs on college attendance and degree completion. Our primary analysis uses microdata from the 2000 Census and 2001-2010 American Community Survey to estimate the effects of merit programs on educational outcomes for 25 merit aid adopting states. We also utilize administrative data for the University System of Georgia to look more in depth at the effects of the HOPE Scholarship on degree completion in Georgia. We find strong consistent evidence that state merit aid programs have no meaningfully positive effect on college completion. Coefficient estimates for our preferred specifications are small and statistically insignificant. State merit aid programs do not appear to increase the percentage of young people with a college education.
Article
Many educators and business people are awakening to the growing need to better equip students with an international perspective and understanding. One common method to promote these goals is accomplished via a variety of study abroad programs offered through colleges and universities. The most often cited gains or benefits related to study abroad participation are in the areas of maturity, language proficiency, increased knowledge of a specific culture, and global-mindedness. Existing theories of learning, student development, and human capital suggest that participation in study abroad could theoretically lead to increased psychological and skill growth, thereby leading to positive educational and employment outcomes. Using archival Florida state system databases, this study investigated educational and employment outcome differences between study abroad participants and non participants. The study found common characteristics among gender, race, and high school academic achievement for study abroad participants. Although claims of causality cannot be made between study abroad and various outcomes, several significant associations were found particularly for educational outcomes. For example, 93.2% of study abroad participants received some type of degree compared to only 64% of the non study abroad group. The study abroad group also had a higher mean college GPA of 3.19 compared to the 2.74 for the non study abroad group. The non study abroad group was found employed in Florida at higher rates; however, the data was limited to those found employed only within Florida and did not account for those who might have found employment in other locations. The non study abroad group also had a higher mean wage than the study abroad group. However, when controlled by degree program and study abroad location, this wage difference dissipated suggesting degree program is the stronger indicator of wage outcomes. Implications for policy development and future study include more detailed examination of the study abroad experience as a recruitment tool, as well as a retention/graduation best practice. Institutions should also examine methods to increase minority participation in study abroad.
Article
Some Georgia school systems award more HOPE scholarships than their academic achievement predicts, creating a geographically determined benefit that will be compounded into local real estate values. Using a two-stage regression methodology, we test to see if these scholarship ``over-awards'' are capitalized into local home prices. Our evidence supports the hypothesis. We argue that potential homeowners view HOPE eligibility percentages as an indicator of access to state resources, and this access is capitalized into home prices.
Article
The increasing concentration of wealthy students at highly selective colleges is widely perceived, but few analyses examine the underlying dynamics of higher education stratification over time. To examine these dynamics, the authors build an analysis data set of four cohorts from 1972 to 2004. They find that low-income students have made substantial gains in their academic course achievements since the 1970s. Nonetheless, wealthier students have made even stronger gains in achievement over the same period, in both courses and test scores, ensuring a competitive advantage in the market for selective college admissions. Thus, even if low-income students were “perfectly matched” to institutions consistent with their academic achievements, the stratification order would remain largely unchanged. The authors consider organizational and policy interventions that may reverse these trends.
Article
In this study, the authors use college enrollment and migration data to test the brain drain hypothesis. Their results suggest that state merit scholarship programs do indeed stanch the migration of “best and brightest” students to other states. In the aggregate and on average, the implementation of state merit aid programs increases the total 1st-year student enrollment in merit aid states and boosts resident college enrollment in these states significantly. The gross enrollment increase is a function of increased total student enrollment from these states and, perhaps more important, decreased emigration from these states. In addition to these overall effects, variations across states and across types of institutions exist due to scholarship eligibility criteria and award amount across states.
Article
One concern that merits the attention of the educational research com- munity is the growing trend toward shorter study abroad programs. Study abroad offerings in which students have traditionally enrolled for academic credit were primarily either a semester or a year in length. The recent Open Doors (2005) report reveals that the growth of study abroad can be attributed, in part, to the increase in programs involving sessions of eight weeks or less. Recent growth in participation in short-term study abroad programs warrants research on the effectiveness of these programs and raises important questions about the differences in student outcomes between short-term and semester- long study abroad participants. Stake holders and constituents in higher education must be convinced of the value of study abroad by having objective means to evaluate its' worth. In addition, they must also consider students who study abroad for differ- ent periods of time achieve different outcomes. Careful evaluation of specifi c student outcomes may direct educational leaders in planning more appropri- ate program objectives according to differing program lengths. Moreover, this research will assist educators in maximizing institutional resources. The purpose of this study is to help bolster existing study abroad research by comparing the global-mindedness of student participants at three private universities' study abroad programs. This study seeks to examine the dif- ferences between students who have participated in a short-term program, consisting of eight weeks or less and students who have participated in a semester-long program in one particular study abroad model known as an "island program." The study will also establish the baseline levels of global-
Article
Study abroad participation is increasing. National and institutional resources are being devoted to internationalization. Assessments stress the importance of learning outcomes among study abroad participants. The confluence of these influences led the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, to gather data on graduation rates of study abroad participants and compare them to those of non-participants. We analyzed the data and the patterns that emerge among subsets of the students by college of enrollment and for students of color. The data suggest that study abroad participation may not harm graduation rates and that it is highly correlated with high graduation rates among under-prepared and at-risk undergraduates as well as students of color. We highlight the implications of the study for academic advisors. Relative Emphasis: practice, research, theory
Article
This study identified factors leading to lower participation in study abroad experiences on the part of minority students at Michigan State University (MSU). A survey of MSU undergraduates (n=1,139) is analyzed in terms of percentage traveling abroad, world regions visited, attitudes related to travel experiences, travel experience by race/ethnicity, reasons given for decisions regarding study abroad opportunities, and participation in activities involving international issues. Enrollment data regarding attrition rates across racial/ethnic groups were also analyzed, along with a comparison of majors. Results indicated that there are differential rates of attrition among the racial/ethnic groups, partially accounting for the lower participation rate in study abroad, as students are more likely to travel abroad at the end of the sophomore and during the junior years. African Americans were also less represented among Arts and Letters majors, which yield a disproportionately large number of study abroad students. Some differences in the participation rates between minority and white students concern economic issues, fear of travel to unknown areas, fear of discrimination, and anxieties about language difficulties. Areas of further research are specified, and steps to increase minority participation in study abroad programs are suggested. Appendices present 14 tables and 2 figures displaying data from the study and a copy of the survey form. (JDD)
Article
Since the adoption of Georgia's HOPE (Helping Outstanding Pupils Educationally) scholarship program, seven additional Southeastern states have adopted similar merit-based financial aid programs, most of which are also funded by state lotteries. This study examines why North Carolina after adopting a state lottery in 2005 did not allocate its proceeds for a merit scholarship program. This in-depth case study considers the explanatory power of a revised multiple streams model and the integrated diffusion model by analyzing data collected through elite interviews and archival documents. The study findings suggest that internal determinants, such as North Carolina's educational and economic context, trumped regional diffusion trends and that the multiple stream model's "black box" influences, such as political tactics and gamesmanship, provide the most conceptually compelling explanation for why merit aid became a "nonevent" in North Carolina. Indeed, by considering decisions and nondecisions, researchers may capture a broader array of state-level characteristics that influence policy adoption. (Contains 1 figure and 6 notes.)
Article
This study examined the broader impact that study abroad programs have on students' cross-cultural skills and global understanding and the role that students' goals for participating in study abroad programs play on the development of these outcomes. Two hundred and thirty two (N=232) study-abroad college students were queried regarding their cross-cultural skills prior to and at completion of the program. A factor analysis of the Study Abroad Goals Scale (SAGS) revealed three factors that students report for joining study abroad programs (1) to enhance their cross-cultural skills, (2) to become more proficient in the subject matter and (3) to socialize. The results showed that overall students' cross-cultural skills and global understanding improved; but students' goals to study abroad influenced the magnitude of these outcomes. Namely, only the first factor (cross-cultural competence) significantly predicted students' global understanding and cross-cultural skills. Based on these findings, specific recommendations are provided to university officials and policy makers involved in study abroad programs.
Article
The aim of this article is to analyse the transferability of higher education undertaken abroad to a domestic labour market. More specifically, how do Norwegians who have undertaken their education abroad cope on the labour market compared to those who have a corresponding education from Norway? To examine this, we analyse short‐term labour market careers among graduates. Three measures of labour market outcome are investigated: job probability, skill mismatch and wages. Results show that education undertaken abroad has both positive and negative effects on labour market outcome. Graduates with a foreign degree have a lower job probability and a higher risk of over‐education relative to home graduates. But among the employed, ‘abroad’ graduates have higher wages. The latter is explained partly by more abroad graduates than home graduates being employed in the private sector. Highest job probabilities are found among those who have parts of their education from abroad. The main results are significant and robust across models, but the quantitative differences in labour market outcomes between abroad and home graduates are relatively small.
Article
This paper examines the effects of financial aid policies on the behavior of post-secondary institutions. Using the introduction of the Georgia HOPE Scholarship as a natural experiment, it investigates the impact of the policy on college pricing, institution aid, expenditures, and state appropriations. The results suggest that four-year colleges in Georgia, particularly private institutions, did respond by increasing student charges. In the most extreme case, colleges recouped approximately 30 percent of the scholarship award. As a result, the institutional responses reduced the intended benefit of the scholarship and increased the cost of college for nonrecipients.
Article
Despite substantial efforts across postsecondary education to increase minority participation in study abroad, the homogeneity of study abroad participants remains largely unchanged (Dessoff in Int Educ 15(2):20–27, 2006; Shih in http://diverseeducation.com/article/13193/study-abroad-participation-up-except-among-minority-students.html, 2009). This study applies an adaptation of an integrated student choice model (Perna in Higher education: Handbook of theory and research, 2006; Salisbury et al. in Research in Higher Education 50:119–143, 2009) to identify differencesbetween white and minority (African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American) studentsacross measures of human, financial, social, and cultural capital previously shown to influence aspirations to study abroad (Salisbury et al.). Analysis of data from 6,828 students at 53 institutions participating in the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education suggests numerous differences between racial groups with considerable implications for institutions, scholars, and policymakers. KeywordsStudy abroad–Minority students–Student choice construct
Article
This study applies an integrated model of college choice to better describe students who do and do not intend to study abroad. Although internationalization through study abroad is widely touted as a preferred means of developing globally competent college graduates, very little is known about the factors that influence students’ predisposition to study abroad. This research explores the impact of financial, human, social, and cultural capital on students’ intent to study abroad. Analysis of data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNSLAE) demonstrates a complex interplay between SES, accumulated pre-college capital, and capital acquired during the freshman year. Important implications for national policy makers, senior administrators, study abroad professionals and higher education researchers are discussed.