ArticleLiterature Review

The effects of time of day-specific resistance training on adaptations in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and muscle strength: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Abstract

The present paper endeavored to elucidate the topic on the effects of morning vs. evening resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy by conducting a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies that examined time of day-specific resistance training. This systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines with searches conducted through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases. The Downs and Black checklist was used for the assessment of the methodological quality of the included studies. Studies that examined the effects of time of day-specific resistance training (while equating all other training variables, such as training frequency and volume, between the groups) on muscle strength and/or muscle size, were included in the present review. The random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. Meta-analyses explored: (1) the differences in strength expression between morning and evening hours at baseline; (2) the differences in strength within the groups training in the morning and evening by using their post-intervention strength data from the morning and evening strength assessments; (3) the overall differences between the effects of morning and evening resistance training (with subgroup analyses conducted for studies that assessed strength in the morning hours and for the studies that assessed strength in the evening hours). Finally, a meta-analysis was also conducted for studies that assessed muscle hypertrophy. Eleven studies of moderate and good methodological quality were included in the present review. The primary findings of the review are as follows: (1) at baseline, a significant difference in strength between morning and evening is evident, with greater strength observed in the evening hours; (2) resistance training in the morning hours may increase strength assessed in the morning to similar levels as strength assessed in the evening; (3) training in the evening hours, however, maintains the general difference in strength across the day, with greater strength observed in the evening hours; (4) when comparing the effects between the groups training in the morning vs. in the evening hours, increases in strength are similar in both groups, regardless of the time of day at which strength assessment is conducted; and (5) increases in muscle size are similar irrespective of the time of day at which the training is performed.

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... However, due to national team obligations and training/competition schedules being fluctuant in pre-season, some participants were tested outside these frames at one or several time points. This could have impacted the results, as circadian rhythm has been shown to affect performance in strength and power endeavors (Grgic et al., 2019b). Grgic et al. (2019b) reported that expression of strength is greater in the evening, versus the morning. ...
... This could have impacted the results, as circadian rhythm has been shown to affect performance in strength and power endeavors (Grgic et al., 2019b). Grgic et al. (2019b) reported that expression of strength is greater in the evening, versus the morning. On the other hand, the circadian effects on test results also depend on athletes normal training schedule (Grgic et al., 2019b). ...
... Grgic et al. (2019b) reported that expression of strength is greater in the evening, versus the morning. On the other hand, the circadian effects on test results also depend on athletes normal training schedule (Grgic et al., 2019b). Thus, the impact of variation in test procedures on the final results is not fully known. ...
Article
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Purpose The female menstrual cycle (MC) is characterized by hormonal fluctuations throughout its different phases. However, research regarding its effect on athletic performance in high level athletes is sparse. The aim of this study was to (i) investigate the female MCs effect on strength and power performance in highly trained female team athletes throughout the MC and (ii) examine whether eumenorrheic participants with natural hormonal fluctuations displayed enhanced performance in the follicular phase (FP) versus the luteal phase (LP), compared to controls using hormonal contraceptives. Materials and Methods A total of 29 athletes (Age 21.2 ± 3.3 years; weight 65.6 ± 8.7 kg; height 170.2 ± 8.0 cm; and fat free mass 52.7 ± 7.1) completed the study after a 6-week testing period (8 eumenorrheic participants and 21 hormonal contraceptive controls). Participants were recruited from the team sports soccer, handball and volleyball. Testing protocol consisted of maximal voluntary isometric grip strength, 20-m sprint, countermovement jump and pneumatic leg-press. Based on self-reported use of hormonal contraceptives, participants were divided into non-hormonal contraceptive group and hormonal contraceptive group, the latter working as a control group. Differences in performance between the FP and LP were investigated. MC phase was confirmed by serum hormonal levels through venous blood samples in the non-hormonal contraceptive group. Results There were no statistically significant changes for the two different phases of the MC, in terms of physical performance for the whole group. Further, there was no significant difference between groups during the MC for any of the outcome variables, maximal voluntary isometric grip strength F (3.29) = 0.362; 20-m sprint F (3.24) = 0.710; countermovement jump F (3.26) = 2.361; and leg-press F (3.26) = 1.746. Conclusion In high level female team athletes, no difference in performance was observed based on hormonal contraceptive status. This suggests that the MC does not alter acute strength and power performance on a group level in high level team athletes.
... Subsequently, 25 duplicate records were removed, and 13 meta-analyses were excluded based on their titles and/or abstracts. Nineteen metaanalyses were read in more detail (i.e., full-text) and 14 metaanalyses were included in the umbrella review (Roig et al., 2009;Krieger, 2010;Schoenfeld et al., 2015Schoenfeld et al., , 2016aSchoenfeld et al., , 2017aSchoenfeld et al., ,b,c, 2019aSlysz et al., 2016;Grgic et al., 2017Grgic et al., , 2019Lixandrão et al., 2018;Grgic, 2020;Nunes et al., 2020). ...
... These studies were published between 2009 and 2020 and comprised 178 primary studies corresponding to 4,704 participants. The 14 selected meta-analyses were classified attending to the analyzed variable, differentiating between volume (Krieger, 2010;Schoenfeld et al., 2017a), frequency (Schoenfeld et al., 2019a), intensity (Schoenfeld et al., 2016a(Schoenfeld et al., , 2017cGrgic, 2020), contraction type (Roig et al., 2009;Schoenfeld et al., 2017b), repetition duration (Schoenfeld et al., 2015), exercises order (Nunes et al., 2020), time of day (Grgic et al., 2019), periodization followed and blood-flow restriction (Slysz et al., 2016;Lixandrão et al., 2018). ...
... The methodological quality of the 14 included meta-analyses is presented in Table 2. Nine meta-analyses were categorized as high quality, presenting values of 81 and 88% (i.e., 13 items satisfied) (Schoenfeld et al., 2015(Schoenfeld et al., , 2017a(Schoenfeld et al., ,b, 2019aGrgic et al., 2017Grgic et al., , 2019Lixandrão et al., 2018;Nunes et al., 2020). The remaining meta-analyses were rated as moderate quality, with values between 63 and 75% (i.e., from 10 to 12 items satisfied) (Roig et al., 2009;Krieger, 2010;Schoenfeld et al., 2016aSchoenfeld et al., , 2017cSlysz et al., 2016;Grgic, 2020). ...
Article
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This umbrella review aimed to analyze the different variables of resistance training and their effect on hypertrophy, and to provide practical recommendations for the prescription of resistance training programs to maximize hypertrophy responses. A systematic research was conducted through of PubMed/MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement guidelines. A total of 52 meta-analyses were found, of which 14 met the inclusion criteria. These studies were published between 2009 and 2020 and comprised 178 primary studies corresponding to 4784 participants. Following a methodological quality analysis, nine meta-analyses were categorized as high quality, presenting values of 81-88%. The remaining meta-analyses were rated as moderate quality, with values between 63-75%. Based on this umbrella review, we can state that at least 10 sets per week per muscle group is optimal, that eccentric contractions seem important, very slow repetitions (≥10s) should be avoided, and that blood flow restriction might be beneficial for some individuals. In addition, other variables as, exercise order, time of the day and type of periodization appear not to directly influence the magnitude of muscle mass gains. These findings provide valuable information for the design and configuration of the resistance training program with the aim of optimizing muscle hypertrophy.
... There are a number of RET variables that could be manipulated in effort to augment RET-induced muscular strength, but most appear to be inconsequential. For example, performing RET at different times of the day [34], with different times under tension [23], with or without autonomy over training schedules [35], with or without blood flow occlusion [36], or on or avoiding consecutive days [37] has little-to-no effect on RET-induced changes in muscular strength. However, it may be that multi-joint exercises (e.g., squats) are more effective than singlejoint exercises (e.g., knee extensions) [38] and that periodized programs are more efficacious than non-periodized programs [39], but those results are seemingly influenced by training specificity. ...
... The time of day [34], velocity of contraction [23], single-vs. multi-joint resistance exercise [38], days of recovery between training sessions [37], occlusion of blood flow [5,36], and autonomy over RET variables [35] appear to confer little-to-no benefit on RETinduced muscular hypertrophy. ...
Article
Resistance exercise training (RET)-induced increases in voluntary 1RM strength are greater with higher loads and training by replicating (or close) the strength test. In contrast, RET-induced muscular hypertrophy is primarily mediated by intensity of effort, which is achieved by performing RET to volitional fatigue and with an internal focus on contracting a muscle throughout the exercise range of motion. In addition, RET-induced muscular hypertrophy is augmented by increasing training volume, but with diminishing returns. Other training variables such as volume-load, inter-set rest, and time under tension have negligible effects on RET-induced changes in muscle size or strength. We conclude that an uncomplicated, evidence-based approach to optimizing RET-induced changes in muscle size and strength follows the FITT principle: frequency, intensity (effort), type, and time.
... According to a previous study showing increase in the WLTM (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] scan) in a middle-aged population [22], a whole body RET program was performed 2 times/wk for 16 wk (32 sessions in total). A systematic review and meta-analysis reported that there were no further benefits of RET timing on training-induced MH [23]. Participants could attend either the morning or afternoon sessions while the researchers kept a record of the participants' sessions. ...
... Second, we did not designate a specific training time; participants were free to undergo RET sessions either in the morning or the afternoon (participation percentage of morning session: 73%). However, a systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that the RET timing had no effect on training-induced MH [23]. Moreover, we confirmed that there was no significant association between the participation percentage of morning sessions and the increased WLTM in the models (b = 0.025; P = 0.922; adjusted for age, PSQI, and IPAQ). ...
Article
Objective To observe the relationship of the protein intake at each meal and daily total with change in lean tissue mass with progressive resistance exercise training (RET) in healthy middle-aged women. Research Methods & Procedures Twenty-two healthy Japanese women were recruited from Shiga Prefecture, Japan, and a supervised whole-body RET program was conducted twice a week for 16 weeks. The dietary intake was assessed using 3-day dietary records. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the whole-body lean soft tissue mass (WLTM). Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the protein intake and RET-induced changes in the WLTM after adjusting for age, sleep quality, physical activity, and energy intake. Results The 16-week RET caused a significant gain in the WLTM (1.46 ± 0.45 %, P = 0.004). Multiple regression analysis showed that the baseline protein intake at breakfast was negatively associated with the % change in the WLTM. (β = -1.598; P = 0.022). In addition, the % change (β = 0.624; P = 0.018) in the protein intake at breakfast was positively associated with the % change in the WLTM. Conclusion Increasing protein intake at breakfast may contribute to RET-induced muscle hypertrophy in middle-aged women, especially among those who habitually consume low protein levels at breakfast. However, future studies with larger sample sizes are still needed to confirm the importance of protein intake at breakfast.
... An obvious animal circadian rhythm is day/night difference in locomotor activity, which is powered by contraction of skeletal muscle. Roles for the circadian biological clock as a contributing factor of muscle growth and/or performance have been revealed (Chtourou and Souissi, 2012;Grgic et al., 2019;Teo et al., 2011). However, a long-standing question, particularly in physiotherapy and sports medicine, is whether time-of-day affects muscle growth either intrinsically, or in response to exercise. ...
... In such studies it has been difficult to dissociate the intrinsic clock from other circadian oscillations, such as locomotor activity or food intake. One confounder is that human subjects can exert higher muscle force in the evening than in the morning (Chtourou and Souissi, 2012;Grgic et al., 2019;Teo et al., 2011). Thus, the question of what role the circadian clock per se has in the regulation of muscle mass and physiology remains open. ...
Preprint
Muscle tissue shows circadian variation, but whether and how the intracellular circadian clock per se regulates muscle growth remains unclear. By measuring muscle growth over 12 h periods, here we show that muscle grows more during the day than at night. Inhibition of muscle contraction reduces growth to a similar extent in day and night, but does not ablate the circadian variation in growth. Muscle protein synthesis is higher during the day compared to night, whereas markers of protein degradation are higher at night. Mechanistically, the TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin inhibits the extra daytime growth, but no effect on muscle growth at night was detected. Conversely, the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 increases muscle growth at night, but has no effect during the day, irrespective of activity. Ablation of contractile activity rapidly reduces muscle protein synthesis both during the day and at night and leads to a gradual increase in Murf gene expression without ablating circadian variation in growth. Removal of circadian input by exposure to either permanent light or permanent darkness reduces muscle growth. We conclude that circadian variation in muscle growth is independent of the presence of, or changes in, physical activity and affects both protein synthesis and degradation in distinct circadian phases.
... There are a number of RET variables that could be manipulated in effort to augment RET-induced muscular strength, but most appear to be inconsequential. For example, performing RET at different times of the day [34], with different times under tension [23], with or without autonomy over training schedules [35], with or without blood flow occlusion [36], or on or avoiding consecutive days [37] has little-to-no effect on RET-induced changes in muscular strength. However, it may be that multi-joint exercises (e.g. ...
... The time of day [34], velocity of contraction [23], singlejoint versus multi-joint resistance exercise [38], days of recovery between training sessions [37], occlusion of blood flow [5,36], and autonomy over RET variables [35] appear to confer little-to-no benefit on RET-induced Strength Hypertrophy Resistance exercise training variables alongside evidence-based recommendations to increase RET-induced increases in muscle strength and size. muscular hypertrophy. ...
... Mean propulsive velocity during backsquat exercise at loads ≤ 75% 1-RM is also lower during the morning compared to evening (Mora-Rodríguez et al., 2015). A recent comprehensive meta-analysis of how time of day influences resistance-training adaptations suggested that while evening times lead to better acute performance, the differences in long-term training benefits between morning and evening regimens is trivial (Grgic, Lazinica et al., 2019). From this, it was concluded that individuals training for strength and hypertrophy should exercise at preferred times of day during which long-term exercise adherence may be more likely. ...
... Effort during exercise is typically higher during PREF conditions and higher effort is associated with increased motor unit recruitment (Belanger & McComas, 1981). However, diurnal variations in strength may decrease with habituation and chronically lead to similar adaptations regardless of training time (Grgic, Lazinica, et al., 2019). Thus, more investigation into differences of quality of reps (i.e., maintenance of velocity, motor unit recruitment, amount of muscle activation) versus quantity (i.e., total repetitions, volume-load) is needed regarding time-of-day preference and resistance-exercise performance to identify more implications for chronic adaptations with training. ...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how time-of-day training preference influences resistance-exercise performance. Methods: Resistance trained males (n = 12) were recruited for this study. In a crossover, counterbalanced design, participants completed two separate bench-press exercise trials at different times of day: (a) morning (AM; 8:00 hr) and (b) evening (PM; 16:00 hr). Participants answered a questionnaire on time-of-day training preference and completed a preferred (PREF) and nonpreferred (NON-PREF) time-of-day trial. For each trial, motivation was measured using a visual analog scale prior to exercise. Participants completed 2 sets × 2 repetitions at 75% 1-RM with maximum explosiveness separated by 5 min of rest. Mean barbell velocity was measured using a linear position transducer. Participants then completed 1 set × repetitions to failure (RTF) at 75% 1-RM. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured immediately following exercise. Results: Regardless of preference, velocity (p = .025; effect size (ES) = 0.43) was higher during the PM versus AM trial. However, there were no significant differences in velocity (p = .368; ES = 0.37) between PREF and NON-PREF time of day. There were no significant differences for repetitions between PREF and NON-PREF times (p = .902; ES = 0.03). Motivation was higher in the PREF time versus NON-PREF (p = .015; ES = 0.68). Furthermore, RPE was significantly lower during the PREF time of day (p = .048; 0.55). Conclusions: Despite higher barbell velocity collectively at PM times, time-of-training preference did not largely influence resistance-exercise performance, while motivation is higher and RPE is lower during preferred times.
... There has been a recent surge of interest in how the time of day that exercise is performed within the 24-h clock ("exercise timing") affects a variety of outcomes. For example, numerous studies and recent reviews have examined how exercise timing relates to athletic performance, circadian rhythms, and various aspects of health like metabolic functioning (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11). Several reviews have also discussed how exercise timing, relative to meal timing, affects energy intake behaviors and physiological responses to eating (e.g., glycemic control) (12)(13)(14). ...
Article
This review explores the hypothesis that a consistent exercise time, especially consistent morning exercise, improves exercise adherence and weight management for individuals with overweight or obesity. We discuss data supporting this premise, identify limitations of current research, and outline directions for future research on exercise timing to more robustly evaluate our thesis.
... Ten included studies [4,5,8,[14][15][16][18][19][20][21] noted that they advised the participants to maintain their usual nutritional habits during the study with three [4,14,18] specifically restricting any caffeine intake. Additionally, exercise performance varies according to the time of day at which the testing is conducted [32] and therefore may also impact performance in the Yo-Yo test. In one study [33] that explored the effect of the time of day on performance, the total distance covered was higher at 1700 h, as compared to 0700 h. ...
Article
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Background The Yo-Yo test is widely used both in the practical and research contexts; however, its true test-retest reliability remains unclear. Objective The present systematic review aims to identify studies that have examined the test-retest reliability of the Yo-Yo test and summarize their results. Methods A search of ten databases was performed to find studies that have investigated test-retest reliability of any variant of the Yo-Yo test. The COSMIN checklist was employed to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results Nineteen studies of excellent or moderate methodological quality were included. When considering all variants of the Yo-Yo test, the included studies reported intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability ranging from 0.78 to 0.98 where 62% of all ICCs were higher than 0.90, while 97% of ICCs were higher than 0.80. The coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged from 3.7% to 19.0%. Regardless of the variant of the test, the participants’ familiarization with the test, and previous sport experience, the ICCs generally seem high (≥ 0.90) and CVs low (<10%). Conclusion The results of this review indicate that the Yo-Yo test (in all its variants) generally has good to excellent test-retest reliability. The evidence concerning reliability arises from 19 included studies that were of moderate or high methodological quality. Considering that most of the included studies examined the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test while including Association Football players, more reliability studies examining Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 1 and level 2 tests, and in the context of sports other than Association Football as well as in nonathletic populations, are required. Finally, future studies should explicitly state the type of ICC used for the reliability data analysis to allow for better between-study comparisons.
... The assessment and analysis of moderators may help provide a better understanding of the observed inter-individual variability regarding the effect of physical exercise (e.g., resistance training) on the brain and on cognitive functions and help to foster the optimization of physical exercise interventions [125]. Furthermore, chronobiological factors (such as circadian variability) should be considered since they affect muscular adaptions in response to resistance exercises [229][230][231][232] and affect cognitive performance [233][234][235]. However, hemodynamic responses are reported to be relatively unaffected by, for instance, circadian variability [236]. ...
Article
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Background: During the aging process, physical capabilities (e.g., muscular strength) and cognitive functions (e.g., memory) gradually decrease. Regarding cognitive functions, substantial functional (e.g., compensatory brain activity) and structural changes (e.g., shrinking of the hippocampus) in the brain cause this decline. Notably, growing evidence points towards a relationship between cognition and measures of muscular strength and muscle mass. Based on this emerging evidence, resistance exercises and/or resistance training, which contributes to the preservation and augmentation of muscular strength and muscle mass, may trigger beneficial neurobiological processes and could be crucial for healthy aging that includes preservation of the brain and cognition. Compared with the multitude of studies that have investigated the influence of endurance exercises and/or endurance training on cognitive performance and brain structure, considerably less work has focused on the effects of resistance exercises and/or resistance training. While the available evidence regarding resistance exercise-induced changes in cognitive functions is pooled, the underlying neurobiological processes, such as functional and structural brain changes, have yet to be summarized. Hence, the purpose of this systematic review is to provide an overview of resistance exercise-induced functional and/or structural brain changes that are related to cognitive functions. Methods and results: A systematic literature search was conducted by two independent researchers across six electronic databases; 5957 records were returned, of which 18 were considered relevant and were analyzed. Short conclusion: Based on our analyses, resistance exercises and resistance training evoked substantial functional brain changes, especially in the frontal lobe, which were accompanied by improvements in executive functions. Furthermore, resistance training led to lower white matter atrophy and smaller white matter lesion volumes. However, based on the relatively small number of studies available, the findings should be interpreted cautiously. Hence, future studies are required to investigate the underlying neurobiological mechanisms and to verify whether the positive findings can be confirmed and transferred to other needy cohorts, such as older adults with dementia, sarcopenia and/or dynapenia. Keywords: Cognition, Neuroplasticity, Strength exercises, Strength training, Physical activity
... Resistance exercise performed in the morning, afternoon, or evening improves force generation (i.e., muscle strength) (82,83). However, there is no clear consensus regarding the merits of performing either morning or evening exercise with regard to superior improvements in aerobic capacity (84) or resistance training/strength adaptations (85). Although it has recently been proposed that time of day is a major modifier of exercise responses/adaptations and associated metabolic pathways (86) and that there is a daynight rhythm in mRNA expression of molecular clock genes in human skeletal muscle (87), we urge caution with regard to recommendations on the "optimal time of day" to exercise for optimal health benefits: individual health status (i.e., known cardiovascular disease/hypertension), personal exercise goals, and feasibility should all be considered. ...
Article
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This Perspectives for Progress provide a synopsis for the potential of time-restricted eating (TRE) to rescue some of the deleterious effects on circadian biology induced by our modern-day lifestyle. We provide novel insights into the comparative and potential complementary effects of TRE and exercise training on metabolic health.
... All participants attended four laboratory sessions. All trials were performed in the morning hours (between 7 am and noon), and at the same time of the day across the sessions for each participant, to ensure that the results were not affected by circadian variation [14]. The trials took place 4 to 7 days apart. ...
Article
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Background: It has been suggested that polymorphisms within CYP1A2 impact inter-individual variation in the response to caffeine. The purpose of this study was to explore the acute effects of caffeine on resistance exercise, jumping, and sprinting performance in a sample of resistance-trained men, and to examine the influence of genetic variation of CYP1A2 (rs762551) on the individual variation in responses to caffeine ingestion. Methods: Twenty-two men were included as participants (AA homozygotes n = 13; C-allele carriers n = 9) and were tested after the ingestion of caffeine (3 mg/kg of body mass) and a placebo. Exercise performance was assessed with the following outcomes: (a) movement velocity and power output in the bench press exercise with loads of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM); (b) quality and quantity of performed repetitions in the bench press exercise performed to muscular failure with 85% 1RM; (c) vertical jump height in a countermovement jump test; and (d) power output in a Wingate test. Results: Compared to placebo, caffeine ingestion enhanced: (a) movement velocity and power output across all loads (effect size [ES]: 0.20–0.61; p < 0.05 for all); (b) the quality and quantity of performed repetitions with 85% of 1RM (ES: 0.27–0.85; p < 0.001 for all); (c) vertical jump height (ES: 0.15; p = 0.017); and (d) power output in the Wingate test (ES: 0.33–0.44; p < 0.05 for all). We did not find a significant genotype × caffeine interaction effect (p-values ranged from 0.094 to 0.994) in any of the analyzed performance outcomes. Conclusions: Resistance-trained men may experience acute improvements in resistance exercise, jumping, and sprinting performance following the ingestion of caffeine. The comparisons of the effects of caffeine on exercise performance between individuals with the AA genotype and AC/CC genotypes found no significant differences.
... 18 Research has also established that different components of exercise performance vary according to the time of day, with better performance generally observed in the evening hours. [28][29][30] Additionally, the use of certain supplements such as caffeine and sodium bicarbonate has been found to enhance performance in tests similar to 30-15 IFT. 31,32 Practitioners should attempt to standardize these factors as much as possible when conducting trials. ...
Article
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Background: The objective of this review was to synthesize previous findings on the test-retest reliability of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (IFT). Methods: The literature searches were performed in eight databases. Studies that examined the test-retest reliability of the 30-15 IFT and presented intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and/or coefficient of variation (CV) for maximal velocity and/or peak heart rate were included. The COSMIN checklist was used for the assessment of the methodological quality of included studies. Results: Seven studies, with a total of 10 study groups, explored reliability of maximal velocity assessed by the 30-15 IFT. ICCs ranged from 0.80 to 0.99, where 70% of ICCs were ≥0.90. CVs for maximal velocity ranged from 1.5% to 6.0%. Six studies, with a total of 7 study groups, explored reliability of peak heart rate assessed by the 30-15 IFT. ICCs ranged from 0.90 to 0.97 (i.e., all ICCs were ≥0.90). CVs ranged from 0.6% to 4.8%. All included studies were of excellent methodological quality. Conclusion: From the results of this systematic review, it can be concluded that the 30-15 IFT has excellent test-retest reliability for both maximal velocity and peak heart rate. The test may, therefore, be used as a reliable measure of fitness in research and sports practice.
... In contrast, a recent meta-analysis concluded that the gain in muscle mass upon resistance exercise training does not differ when exercise is performed in the morning versus the evening. It should be noted, though, that the putative interaction between food ingestion and exercise timing was not taken into account in this meta-analysis (77), possibly explaining the difference with the study by Kuusmaa et al. (76), in which the participants were instructed to adhere to the national dietary guidelines These findings suggest an interaction between exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptations and the peripheral clock in humans. ...
Article
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Diurnal oscillations in energy metabolism are linked to the activity of biological clocks and contribute to whole‐body glucose homeostasis. Postprandially, skeletal muscle takes up approximately 80% of circulatory glucose and hence is a key organ in maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Dysregulation of molecular clock components in skeletal muscle disrupts whole‐body glucose homeostasis. Next to light‐dark cycles, nonphotic cues such as nutrient intake and physical activity are also potent cues to (re)set (dys)regulated clocks. Physical exercise is one of the most potent ways to improve myocellular insulin sensitivity. Given the role of the biological clock in glucose homeostasis and the power of exercise to improve insulin sensitivity, one can hypothesize that there might be an optimal time for exercise to maximally improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we aim to summarize the available information related to the interaction of diurnal rhythm, glucose homeostasis, and physical exercise as a nonphotic cue to correct dysregulation of human glucose metabolism.
... Different types of exercise may thus differently affect metabolism and health, possibly determining the ideal exercise timing. Whereas late-afternoon aerobic exercise has been shown to be superior in improving endurance compared with morning aerobic exercise (44), increases in strength and hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise are similar irrespective of time of day (45). Future studies on exercise timing and health should thus take the type of exercise into account, as a combination of resistance and aerobic exercise potentially offers the widest range of benefits. ...
Article
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Objective Exercise has been shown to improve cardiometabolic health, yet neither the molecular connection nor the effects of exercise timing have been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ad libitum or time‐restricted mild exercise reduces atherosclerosis development in atherosclerosis‐prone dyslipidemic APOE*3‐Leiden.CETP mice and whether mild exercise training in men with obesity affects lipoprotein levels. Methods Mice were group‐housed and subjected to ad libitum or time‐restricted (first or last 6 hours of the active phase) voluntary wheel running for 16 weeks while on a cholesterol‐rich diet, after which atherosclerosis development was assessed in the aortic root. Furthermore, nine men with obesity followed a 12‐week mild exercise training program. Lipoprotein levels were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in plasma collected pre and post exercise training. Results Wheel running did not affect plasma lipid levels, uptake of triglyceride‐derived fatty acids by tissues, and aortic atherosclerotic lesion size or severity. Markers of training status were unaltered. Exercise training in men with obesity did not alter lipoprotein levels. Conclusions Mild exercise training does not reduce dyslipidemia or atherosclerosis development in APOE*3‐Leiden.CETP mice or affect lipoprotein levels in humans. Future research on the effects of (time‐restricted) exercise on atherosclerosis or lipid metabolism should consider more vigorous exercise protocols.
... Selecting a specific day within the training schedule (e.g., morning of game day or the day following a game day-off day sequence), and time of day to implement testing will reduce the factors that could contribute to performance variability, and thus, increase confidence in observed results. There are differences in resistance training performances between morning and evening times, but habitually training at the same time of day is likely to mitigate these differences (25, 86). An additional benefit of selecting a consistent day and time for repeated testing is that it allows for athletes and staffs to develop a routine. ...
Article
Preferential limb function must be sustained through repetitious asymmetrical activities for continuous athletic development and ultimately, optimal athletic performance. As such, the prevalence of limb dominance and between-limb differences are common in athletes. Severe between-limb differences have been associated with reductions in athletic performance and increased injury risk in athletes. However, in the current literature, the terms limb preference and limb dominance have been used interchangeably. Together, these terms include a limb which is subjectively preferred and one that is objectively dominant in one or more performance measures from a variety of athletic tasks. In this review, we 1) discuss reported correspondence between task-specific limb preference and limb dominance outcomes in athletes, 2) provide greater context and distinction between the terms limb preference and limb dominance, and 3) to offer pragmatic strategies for practitioners to assess context-specific limb dominance. A limb which is subjectively preferred is not necessarily objectively dominant in one or more athletic qualities or sport-specific tasks. Further to this, a limb which is objectively superior in one task may not exhibit such superiority in a separate task. Thus, limb preference and limb dominance are both task-specific. As such, we propose that practitioners intentionally select tasks for limb dominance assessment which resemble the most relevant demands of sport. Because limb dominance profiles are inconsistent, we suggest that practitioners increase assessment frequency by integrating limb dominance testing into standard training activities. This will allow practitioners to better understand when changes reflect sport-specific adaptation versus potential performance or injury ramifications.
... In the three sessions, the GYM system was used to measure velocity and power and the participants were instructed to lift the loads at maximum intended velocity. All sessions took place between 11 a.m. and 6 p.m., and always at the same time of day (±1 h) for each participant, to avoid the possible confounding effect of circadian variation (Grgic et al., 2019). The testing sessions were performed 4-7 days apart. ...
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We explored the test-retest reliability of velocity and power assessed by the GymAware PowerTool system (GYM) in the deadlift and squat by simulating a context with and without a familiarization session. Sixteen resistance-trained individuals completed three testing sessions. In all sessions, velocity and power were assessed by the GYM system in the deadlift and squat exercises with loads of 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% of one-repetition maximum. The consistency of test results between the first session and the second session was considered to represent the reliability with no familiarization session. The consistency of test results between the second session and the third session was considered to represent the reliability with one familiarization session because the first session simulates a familiarization session. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged 0.63-0.99 in the deadlift, and 0.78-0.99 in the squat. ICCs were higher than 0.75 for 93 and 100% of all deadlift and squat tests, respectively. For velocity and power, standard error of measurement ranged 0.03-0.08 m/s and 20-176 W, respectively. The coefficient of variation ranged 2.2-10.6% for the deadlift and 2.6-6.9% for the squat tests. Except for peak and mean velocity at 30% of 1RM in the squat, we found no significant improvements in reliability with a familiarization session. The test-retest reliability of velocity and power assessed by the GYM system was moderate-to-excellent for the deadlift and good-to-excellent for the squat. Reliability of velocity and power did not seem to improve with a familiarization session.
... The intensity of light was maintained at around 100 µW/cm 2 (1). A temperature change of 2ºC or more can entrain the circadian clock under otherwise constant conditions (2,3). Incubator temperature was monitored with a thermocouple probe every 10 s for 24 h for an entire light/dark cycle, revealing a maximum temperature variation of 0.37ºC. ...
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Muscle tissue shows diurnal variations in function, physiology, and metabolism. Whether such variations are dependent on the circadian clock per se or are secondary to circadian differences in physical activity and feeding pattern is unclear. By measuring muscle growth over 12-h periods in live prefeeding larval zebrafish, we show that muscle grows more during day than night. Expression of dominant negative CLOCK (ΔCLK), which inhibits molecular clock function, ablates circadian differences and reduces muscle growth. Inhibition of muscle contraction reduces growth in both day and night, but does not ablate the day/night difference. The circadian clock and physical activity are both required to promote higher muscle protein synthesis during the day compared to night, whereas markers of protein degradation, murf messenger RNAs, are higher at night. Proteasomal inhibitors increase muscle growth at night, irrespective of physical activity, but have no effect during the day. Although physical activity enhances TORC1 activity, and the TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin inhibits clock-driven daytime growth, no effect on muscle growth at night was detected. Importantly, day/night differences in 1) muscle growth, 2) protein synthesis, and 3) murf expression all persist in entrained larvae under free-running constant conditions, indicating circadian drive. Removal of circadian input by exposure to either permanent darkness or light leads to suboptimal muscle growth. We conclude that diurnal variations in muscle growth and metabolism are a circadian property that is independent of, but augmented by, physical activity, at least during development.
... It is well established that several aspects of human functioning, such as physical performance, are time of day (TOD) dependent [1,2]. ...
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This study examined the effect of time of day (TOD) on physical performance, and physiological and perceptual responses to a 10-km cycling time trial (TT10km). Twelve physically trained subjects (20.3 ± 1.2 years, 74.3 ± 7.4 kg, 179.7 ± 5.5 cm) completed, in a randomized order, a TT10km in the morning and in the evening. Intra-aural temperature (IAT) was measured at rest and following the TT10km. Completion time, power output (PO), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (V̇E), oxygen uptake (V̇O2), carbon dioxide production (V̇CO2) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were assessed every km during the TT10km. Blood lactate concentration [La] and blood glucose concentration [Glu] were assessed before, during and immediately after the TT10km. Faster completion time (Δ = 15.0s, p = 0.03) and higher IAT (Δ = 0.33°C, p = 0.02 for pre-TT10km) were obtained in the evening compared to the morning with a significant correlation between Δ completion time and Δ IAT at post-TT10 km (r = -0.83, p = 0.04). V̇O2, [La] and [Glu] increased significantly during both test sessions (p < 0.001) with higher values in the evening compared to the morning (p = 0.015, p = 0.04, p = 0.01, respectively). However, the remaining parameters were found to be only affected by the TT10km (p < 0.001). The TT10km generates a higher V̇O2 and higher [La] and [Glu] responses, contributing to a better cycling performance in the evening compared to the morning. The similar magnitude of the TOD effect on completion time and IAT at post-TT10km confirms that core temperature is one of the underlying factors contributing to the diurnal variation in physical performance.
... muscular strength, various methods of exercise are applied and the fundamental principle of these exercises is the application of resistance [4]. Resistance training is the most effective exercise among a variety method of training [5]. ...
... Fitness and health benefits from performing resistance training (RT) have been well established (Cavarretta et al., 2019;Gordon et al., 2017;Grgic et al., 2019), with 2-3 sessions per week recommended (Garber et al., 2011). Therefore, it is imperative to examine factors that may influence adults' adherence to RT. ...
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Affective responses and enjoyment of exercise mediate exercise adherence, but previous research findings have failed to examine nuances that may moderate this relationship. We examined the effects of exercise on affective and enjoyment responses during and post exercise through a systematic literature review and meta-regression analysis. We searched major databases up to July 9, 2020 for studies evaluating healthy adults' acute and chronic responses to exercise, using either of The Feeling Scale or Physical Activity Enjoyment Scales. We calculated effect size (ES) values of 20 unique studies (397 participants; 40% females) as standardized/home/pms differences in the means and expressed them as Hedges' g, together with the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Among acute studies examining affective responses, we found a greater positive effect post exercise for continuous training (CT) compared to high intensity interval training (HIIT) (g ¼ À0.61; 95%CI ¼ À1.11, À0.10; p < .018), but there was no significant difference between these modes for effects during exercise. Subgroup analyses revealed that moderate, and not high intensity, CT, compared to HIIT, resulted in significantly greater positive affective responses (g ¼ À1.09; 95% CI ¼ À1.88, À0.30; p < .006). In contrast, enjoyment was greater for HIIT, compared to CT (g ¼ 0.75; 95%CI ¼ 0.17, À1.13; p ¼ .010), but CT intensity did not influence this result. Among chronic studies, there was greater enjoyment following HIIT compared to CT, but these studies were too few to permit meta-analysis. We concluded that an acute bout of moderate intensity CT is more pleasurable, when measured post exercise than HIIT, but enjoyment is greater following HIIT, perhaps due to an interaction between effort, discomfort, time efficiency and constantly changing stimuli.
... Therefore, another factor should explain the increase in DJ heights in our study. As suggested earlier, improved physical performance in the afternoon compared to the morning could be a reflection of circadian rhythms (Grgic et al., 2019). ...
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The aim of the study was to test whether ascending to a moderate real altitude affects motoneuron pool excitability at rest, as expressed by a change in the H-reflex amplitude, and also to elucidate whether a possible alteration in the motoneuron pool excitability could be reflected in the execution of lower-body concentric explosive (squat jump; SJ) and fast eccentric-concentric (drop jump; DJ) muscle actions. Fifteen participants performed four experimental sessions that consisted of the combination of two real altitude conditions [low altitude (low altitude, 690 m), high altitude (higher altitude, 2,320 m)] and two testing procedures (H-reflex and vertical jumps). Participants were tested on each testing day at 8, 11, 14 and 17 h. The only significant difference (p < 0.05) detected for the H-reflex was the higher H-reflex response (25.6%) obtained 15 min after arrival at altitude compared to baseline measurement. In terms of motor behavior, DJ height was the only variable that showed a significant interaction between altitude conditions (LA and HA) and time of measurement (8, 11, 14 and 17 h) as DJ height increased more during successive measurements at HA compared to LA. The only significant difference between the LA and HA conditions was observed for DJ height at 17 h which was higher for the HA condition (p = 0.04, ES = 0.41). Although an increased H-reflex response was detected after a brief (15–20 min) exposure to real altitude, the effect on motorneuron pool excitability could not be confirmed since no significant changes in the H-reflex were detected when comparing LA and HA. On the other hand, the positive effect of altitude on DJ performance was accentuated after 6 h of exposure.
... In humans, resistance and short-duration maximal exercise performance are influenced by diurnal fluctuations in metabolism, observing peak of performance at the evening (i.e., 16:00-20:00 h) compared to morning schedules (i.e., 6:00-10:00 h) (Grgic et al. 2019;Mirizio et al. 2020;Pallares et al. 2014;Zarrouk et al. 2012) and effect that seem to occur locally in skeletal muscle nor affecting neural structures (Sedliak et al. 2008). Nonetheless, active warm-ups with or without music, exposures to warm and humid environments, fasting conditions or prolonged training periods at morning hours seem to minimize these time-of-day differences in muscle force and power production (Mirizio et al. 2020). ...
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This study aimed to determine if time-of-day could influence physical volleyball performance in females and to explore the relationship between chronotype and volleyball-specific performance. Fifteen young female athletes participated in a randomized counterbalanced trial, performing a neuromuscular test battery in the morning (9:00 h) and the evening (19:00 h) that consisted of volleyball standing spike, straight leg raise, dynamic balance, vertical jump, modified agility T-test and isometric handgrip tests. Chronotype was determined by the morningness-eveningness questionnaire. Compared to the morning, an increased performance was found in the standing spike (4.5%, p = .002, ES = 0.59), straight leg raise test (dominant-limb) (6.5%, p = .012, ES = 0.40), dynamic balance (non-dominant-limb) (5.0%, p = .010, ES = 0.57) and modified T-test (2.1%, p = .049, ES = 0.45) performance in the evening; while no statistical differences were reported in vertical jump tests or isometric handgrip strength. Moreover, no associations were found between chronotype and neuromuscular performance (r = −0.368–0.435, p = .052–0.439). Time-of-day affected spike ball velocity, flexibility in the dominant-limb, dynamic balance in the non-dominant-limb and agility tests. However, no association was reported among these improvements and the chronotype. Therefore, although the chronotype may not play critical role in volleyball-specific performance, evening training/matches schedules could benefit performance in semi-professional female volleyball players
... There is a potential effect of circadian rhythm on performance, with some studies demonstrating that performance in a given task is better in the afternoon compared to the early morning [74][75][76]. Specifically, muscular abilities, such as strength, appear to peak in the evening hours [77]. For example, Guette et al. [78] reported significantly lower maximal torque production at 06:00 and 10:00 h (~ 90% of maximum values) compared to strength performance at 18:00 h (~ 99% of maximal values). ...
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Caffeine is a widely utilized performance-enhancing supplement used by athletes and non-athletes alike. In recent years, a number of meta-analyses have demonstrated that caffeine’s ergogenic effects on exercise performance are well-established and well-replicated, appearing consistent across a broad range of exercise modalities. As such, it is clear that caffeine is an ergogenic aid—but can we further explore the context of this ergogenic aid in order to better inform practice? We propose that future research should aim to better understand the nuances of caffeine use within sport and exercise. Here, we propose a number of areas for exploration within future caffeine research. These include an understanding of the effects of training status, habitual caffeine use, time of day, age, and sex on caffeine ergogenicity, as well as further insight into the modifying effects of genotype. We also propose that a better understanding of the wider, non-direct effects of caffeine on exercise, such as how it modifies sleep, anxiety, and post-exercise recovery, will ensure athletes can maximize the performance benefits of caffeine supplementation during both training and competition. Whilst not exhaustive, we hope that the questions provided within this manuscript will prompt researchers to explore areas with the potential to have a large impact on caffeine use in the future.
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The ideal exercise time of day (ETOD) remains elusive regarding simultaneous effects on health and performance outcomes, especially in women. Purpose: Given known sex differences in response to exercise training, this study quantified health and performance outcomes in separate cohorts of women and men adhering to different ETOD. Methods: Thirty exercise-trained women (BMI = 24 ± 3 kg/m ² ; 42 ± 8 years) and twenty-six men (BMI = 25.5 ± 3 kg/m ² ; 45 ± 8 years) were randomized to multimodal ETOD in the morning (0600–0800 h, AM) or evening (1830–2030 h, PM) for 12 weeks and analyzed as separate cohorts. Baseline (week 0) and post (week 12) muscular strength (1-RM bench/leg press), endurance (sit-ups/push-ups) and power (squat jumps, SJ; bench throws, BT), body composition (iDXA; fat mass, FM; abdominal fat, Abfat), systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), profile of mood states (POMS), and dietary intake were assessed. Results: Twenty-seven women and twenty men completed the 12-week intervention. No differences at baseline existed between groups (AM vs PM) for both women and men cohorts. In women, significant interactions ( p < 0.05) existed for 1RM bench (8 ± 2 vs 12 ± 2, ∆kg), pushups (9 ± 1 vs 13 ± 2, ∆reps), BT (10 ± 6 vs 45 ± 28, ∆watts), SJ (135 ± 6 vs 39 ± 8, ∆watts), fat mass (−1.0 ± 0.2 vs −0.3 ± 0.2, ∆kg), Abfat (−2.6 ± 0.3 vs −0.9 ± 0.5, ∆kg), diastolic (−10 ± 1 vs−5 ± 5, ∆mmHg) and systolic (−12.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.3 ± 3, mmHg) BP, AM vs PM, respectively. In men, significant interactions ( p < 0.05) existed for systolic BP (−3.5 ± 2.6 vs −14.9 ± 5.1, ∆mmHg), RER (−0.01 ± 0.01 vs −0.06 ± 0.01, ∆VCO 2 /VO 2 ), and fatigue (−0.8 ± 2 vs −5.9 ± 2, ∆mm), AM vs PM, respectively. Macronutrient intake was similar among AM and PM groups. Conclusion: Morning exercise (AM) reduced abdominal fat and blood pressure and evening exercise (PM) enhanced muscular performance in the women cohort. In the men cohort, PM increased fat oxidation and reduced systolic BP and fatigue. Thus, ETOD may be important to optimize individual exercise-induced health and performance outcomes in physically active individuals and may be independent of macronutrient intake.
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Introduction: The development of strength has shown to be beneficial to sports performance and health. However, during strength training, they also produce alterations in muscle fatigue indicators, leading to a decrease in the ability to generate strength. Despite this, there is still not enough knowledge about the levels of muscle fatigue generated by different methods of strength training and how this information can be integrated into sports planning. Review and analyze the studies existing between January 2009 and January 2019 that have used indicators of muscle fatigue established in the search terms during and after strength training as measurement variables. Evidence acquisition: The study corresponds to a systematic review of previously published studies, following the PRISMA model. Articles published between 2009 and 2019 that measured muscle fatigue indicators during and after strength training were evaluated. The electronic search was conducted through Web of Science, Scopus, Sport Discus, PubMed, and Medline. We included all articles that used a strength protocol and also measured indicators of muscle fatigue and its possible effect on physical performance. Evidence synthesis: A total of 39 articles were found, which were stratified according to the protocol used: (i) plyometric training, (ii) Bodypump® training, (iii) occlusion training, (iv) variable resistance training, (v) conventional strength training, (vi) eccentric strength training, (vii) rest times in strength training and (viii) concurrent training. Conclusion: At the end of the systematic review, it was shown that the different training methodologies for strength development generate increases in muscle fatigue indicators, and the increase generated in the different muscle fatigue indicators depends both on the methodology used and on the type of population, sex, level of training and type of sport. The most-reported indicators are [La], HR and RPE, DOM, MR variation, and ammonium.
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Introduction: The development of strength has shown to be beneficial to sports performance and health. However, during strength training, they also produce alterations in muscle fatigue indicators, leading to a decrease in the ability to generate strength. Despite this, there is still not enough knowledge about the levels of muscle fatigue generated by different methods of strength training and how this information can be integrated into sports planning. Review and analyze the studies existing between January 2009 and January 2019 that have used indicators of muscle fatigue established in the search terms during and after strength training as measurement variables. Evidence acquisition: The study corresponds to a systematic review of previously published studies, following the PRISMA model. Articles published between 2009 and 2019 that measured muscle fatigue indicators during and after strength training were evaluated. The electronic search was conducted through Web of Science, Scopus, Sport Discus, PubMed, and Medline. We included all articles that used a strength protocol and also measured indicators of muscle fatigue and its possible effect on physical performance. Evidence synthesis: A total of 39 articles were found, which were stratified according to the protocol used: (i) plyometric training, (ii) Bodypump® training, (iii) occlusion training, (iv) variable resistance training, (v) conventional strength training, (vi) eccentric strength training, (vii) rest times in strength training and (viii) concurrent training. Conclusion: At the end of the systematic review, it was shown that the different training methodologies for strength development generate increases in muscle fatigue indicators, and the increase generated in the different muscle fatigue indicators depends both on the methodology used and on the type of population, sex, level of training and type of sport. The most-reported indicators are [La], HR and RPE, DOM, MR variation, and ammonium.
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Background: Although daily protein intake (PI) has been reported to be essential for regulating muscle mass, the distribution of daily PI in individuals is typically the lowest at breakfast and skewed toward dinner. Skewed protein intake patterns and inadequate PI at breakfast were reported to be negative factors for muscle maintenance. Objectives: This study examined whether a protein-enriched meal at breakfast is more effective for muscle accretion compared with the typical skewed PI pattern. Methods: This 12-wk, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial included 26 men (means ± SEs; age: 20.8 ± 0.4 y; BMI: 21.8 ± 0.4 kg/m2). The "high breakfast" (HBR) group (n = 12) consumed a protein-enriched meal at breakfast providing a PI of 0.33 g/kg body weight (BW); their PI at lunch (0.46 g/kg BW) and dinner (0.48 g/kg BW) provided an adequate overall daily PI (1.30 g/kg BW/d). The "low breakfast" (LBR) group (n = 14) consumed 0.12 g protein/kg BW at breakfast; intakes at lunch (0.45 g/kg BW) and dinner (0.83 g/kg BW) yielded the same daily PI as in the HBR group. The participants performed supervised resistance training (RT) 3 times per week (75-80% 1-repetition maximum; 3 sets × 10 repetitions). DXA was used to measure the primary outcome variable, that is, total lean soft tissue mass (LTM). Results: The total LTM at baseline did not differ between the HBR (52.4 ± 1.3 kg) and LBR (53.4 ± 1.2 kg) groups. After the intervention, increases in total LTM were significant in both groups, with that in the HBR group (2.5 ± 0.3 kg) tending to be greater than that in the LBR group (1.8 ± 0.3 kg) (P = 0.06), with a large effect size (Cohen d = 0.795). Conclusions: For RT-induced muscle hypertrophy in healthy young men, consuming a protein-enriched meal at breakfast and less protein at dinner while achieving an adequate overall PI is more effective than consuming more protein at dinner.This study was registered at University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000037583 (https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000042763).
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Background: The present study investigated the mid-term effects of training muscle groups once- versus twice-daily on morphofunctional adaptations in trained men. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: 1 daily session per muscle group (1S, n = 11), where every muscle group was trained once a day or 2 daily sessions per muscle group (2S, n = 12), where every muscle group was trained twice. Testing was conducted before intervention and after 8 weeks for maximal strength (1RM) and muscular endurance (60%1RM) for bench press and parallel back squat exercises, and muscle thickness (MT) of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, anterior quadriceps and pectoralis major. Results: The major findings were as follows: (a) the increase in 1RM back squat was significantly greater in 2S (Δ=16.1%) compared to 1S (Δ=7.8%) (p<0.05) and (b) both groups significantly increased bench press 1RM (1S: Δ=4.6%; 2S: Δ=6.8%), back squat 60% 1RM (1S: Δ= 19.0%; 2S: Δ= 24.3%), bench press 60% 1RM (1S: Δ= 15.4%; 2S: Δ= 24.0%) and all MT outcomes (p< 0.05 for all), with no differences between experimental groups (1S and 2S). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a twice-daily resistance training augments lower-body muscular strength; however, the daily frequency does not seem to have any additive effect on upper-body muscular strength, muscular endurance, and muscle hypertrophy in trained men.
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The long-standing caffeine habituation paradigm was never investigated in strength endurance and jumping exercise performance through a straightforward methodology. The authors examined if habitual caffeine consumption would influence the caffeine ergogenic effects on strength endurance and jumping performance as well as perceptual responses. Thirty-six strength-trained individuals were mathematically allocated into tertiles according to their habitual caffeine consumption: low (20 ± 11 mg/day), moderate (88 ± 33 mg/day), and high consumers (281 ± 167 mg/day). Then, in a double-blind, crossover, counterbalanced fashion, they performed a countermovement vertical jump test and a strength endurance test either after caffeine (6 mg/kg) and placebo supplementation or after no supplementation (control). Perceptual responses such as ratings of perceived exertion and pain were measured at the termination of the exercises. Acute caffeine supplementation improved countermovement vertical jump performance ( p = .001) and total repetitions ( p = .004), regardless of caffeine habituation. Accordingly, analysis of absolute change from the control session showed that caffeine promoted a significantly greater improvement in both countermovement vertical jump performance ( p = .004) and total repetitions ( p = .0001) compared with placebo. Caffeine did not affect the rating of perceived exertion and pain in any exercise tests, irrespective of tertiles (for all comparisons, p > .05 for both measures). Caffeine side effects were similar in low, moderate, and high caffeine consumers. These results show that habitual caffeine consumption does not influence the potential of caffeine as an ergogenic aid in strength endurance and jumping exercise performance, thus challenging recommendations to withdraw from the habitual caffeine consumption before supplementing with caffeine.
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In this paper, we review the effects of caffeine on muscle strength and provide suggestions for caffeine supplementation in powerlifting competitions. The currently available studies indicate that caffeine ingestion may enhance strength in two powerlifting competition events, the squat and the bench press. For the deadlift, the same might be expected even though studies directly using this event are lacking. Optimal doses of caffeine are likely in the range from 2 to 6 mg·kg−1, and are highly individual. When using caffeine-containing capsules, 60 minutes pre-exercise seems to be a good timing of caffeine consumption. For other sources such as caffeinated chewing gum, a shorter period (5 to 10 min) from consumption to the start of the exercise seems to be effective. For shorter duration powerlifting competitions (e.g., 2 hours), one pre-competition dose of caffeine could be sufficient for acute performance-enhancing effects that might be maintained across all three events. For longer duration competitions (with longer rest periods between one repetition maximum attempts), there might be a benefit to repeated dosing with caffeine; for example, ingesting smaller doses of caffeine before each attempt or event. During training, powerlifters may consider ingesting caffeine only before the training sessions with the highest intensity. This approach might eliminate the attenuation of caffeine’s effects associated with chronic caffeine ingestion and would help in maximizing performance benefits from acute caffeine ingestion at the competition. Nonetheless, withdrawal from caffeine (e.g., no caffeine intake seven days before competition) does not seem necessary and may have some indirect negative effects.
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate objective and subjective sleep quality, daytime tiredness and sleepiness in response to a late-evening high intensity interval training (HIIT) session in neither-type soccer players that habitually trained late in the day. This is the first study that considered both athletes’ chronotype and habitual training time as crucial factors when assessing sleep quality in relation to an evening physical task. Methods: In this longitudinal, prospective, observational study, 14 Italian soccer players were recruited (mean age: 26.1 ± 4.5 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.06 m; weight: 78.9 ± 6.1 kg) and performed an extra-routine 4 × 4-min HIIT session at 09:00 p.m. Players used to train always between 09:00 and 11:00 p.m during the competitive season. All subjects wore an actigraph to evaluate their objective sleep parameters and a sleep diary was used to record subjective values of sleep quality, daytime tiredness, and daytime sleepiness. All data were analyzed as: the mean of the two nights before (PRE), the night after (POST 1), and the mean of the two nights after (POST 2) the extra-routine HIIT session. The subjects’ chronotype was assessed by the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ). Results: All players were classified as N-types (mean MEQ score: 49.4 ± 3.7). None of the actigraph parameters nor the subjective values of sleep quality, tiredness, and sleepiness showed significant changes in PRE, POST 1, and POST 2. Conclusion: The results of our study added more information regarding sleep quality outcomes in response to a late-evening HIIT session. Athletic trainers and medical staff should always control for chronotype and habitual training time when assessing variations to sleep quality in athletes.
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Previous findings suggest that performing strength training (ST) in the evening may provide greater benefit for young individuals. However, this may not be optimal for the older population. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 12-week ST program performed in the morning vs. evening on strength, functional capacity, metabolic biomarker and basal hormone concentrations in older women. Thirty-one healthy older women (66 ± 4 years, 162 ± 4 cm, 75 ± 13 kg) completed the study. Participants trained in the morning (M) (07:30, n = 10), in the evening (E) (18:00, n = 10), or acted as a non-training control group (C) (n = 11). Both intervention groups performed whole-body strength training with 3 sets of 10–12 repetitions with 2–3 minutes rest between sets. All groups were measured before and after the 12-week period with; dynamic leg press and seated-row 6-repetition maximum (6-RM) and functional capacity tests (30-second chair stands and arm curl test, Timed Up and Go), as well as whole-body skeletal muscle mass (SMM) (kg) and fat mass (FM-kg, FM%) assessed by bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Basal blood samples (in the intervention groups only) taken before and after the intervention assessed low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), blood glucose (GLU), triglycerides (TG), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations and total antioxidant status (TAS) after a 12 h fast. Hormone analysis included prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P) estradiol (ESTR), testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). While C showed no changes in any variable, both M and E significantly improved leg press (+ 46 ± 22% and + 21 ± 12%, respectively; p < 0.001) and seated-row (+ 48 ± 21% and + 42 ± 18%, respectively; p < 0.001) 6-RM, as well as all functional capacity outcomes (p < 0.01) due to training. M were the only group to increase muscle mass (+ 3 ± 2%, p < 0.01). Both M and E group significantly (p < 0.05) decreased GLU (–4 ± 6% and –8 ± 10%, respectively), whereas significantly greater decrease was observed in the E compared to the M group (p < 0.05). Only E group significantly decreased TG (–17 ± 25%, p < 0.01), whereas M group increased (+ 15%, p < 0.01). The difference in TG between the groups favored E compared to M group (p < 0.01). These results suggest that short-term “hypertrophic” ST alone mainly improves strength and functional capacity performance, but it influences metabolic and hormonal profile of healthy older women to a lesser extent. In this group of previously untrained older women, time-of-day did not have a major effect on outcome variables, but some evidence suggests that training in the morning may be more beneficial for muscle hypertrophy (i.e. only M significantly increased muscle mass and had larger effect size (M: g = 2 vs. E: g = 0.5).
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It has been clearly established that maximal force and power is lower in the morning compared to noon or afternoon hours. This morning neuromuscular deficit can be diminished by regularly training in the morning hours. However, there is limited and contradictory information upon hypertrophic adaptations to time-of-day-specific resistance training. Moreover, no cellular or molecular mechanisms related to muscle hypertrophy adaptation have been studied with this respect. Therefore, the present study examined effects of the time-of-day-specific resistance training on muscle hypertrophy, phosphorylation of selected proteins, hormonal concentrations and neuromuscular performance. Twenty five previously untrained males were randomly divided into a morning group (n = 11, age 23 ± 2 yrs), afternoon group (n = 7, 24 ± 4 yrs) and control group (n = 7, 24 ± 3 yrs). Both the morning and afternoon group underwent hypertrophy-type of resistance training with 22 training sessions over an 11-week period performed between 07:30–08:30 h and 16:00–17:00 h, respectively. Isometric MVC was tested before and immediately after an acute loading exclusively during their training times before and after the training period. Before acute loadings, resting blood samples were drawn and analysed for plasma testosterone and cortisol. At each testing occasion, muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were obtained before and 60 min after the acute loading. Muscle specimens were analysed for muscle fibre cross-sectional areas (CSA) and for phosphorylated p70S6K, rpS6, p38MAPK, Erk1/2, and eEF2. In addition, the right quadriceps femoris was scanned with MRI before and after the training period. The control group underwent the same testing, except for MRI, between 11:00 h and 13:00 h but did not train. Voluntary muscle strength increased significantly in both the morning and afternoon training group by 16.9% and 15.2 %, respectively. Also muscle hypertrophy occurred by 8.8% and 11.9% (MRI, p < 0.001) and at muscle fibre CSA level by 21% and 18% (p < 0.01) in the morning and afternoon group, respectively. No significant changes were found in controls within these parameters. Both pre- and post-training acute loadings induced a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in muscle strength in all groups, not affected by time of day or training. The post-loading phosphorylation of p70S6Thr421/Ser424 increased independent of the time of day in the pre-training condition, whereas it was significantly increased in the morning group only after the training period (p < 0.05). Phosphorylation of rpS6 and p38MAPK increased acutely both before and after training in a time-of-day independent manner (p < 0.05 at all occasions). Phosphorylation of p70S6Thr389, eEF2 and Erk1/2 did not change at any time point. No statistically significant correlations were found between changes in muscle fibre CSA, MRI and cell signalling data. Resting testosterone was not statistically different among groups at any time point. Resting cortisol declined significantly from pre- to post-training in all three groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, similar levels of muscle strength and hypertrophy could be achieved regardless of time of the day in previously untrained men. However, at the level of skeletal muscle signalling, the extent of adaptation in some parameters may be time of day dependent.
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Background Rest interval (RI) duration is an important resistance-training variable underlying gain in muscular strength. Recommendations for optimal RI duration for gains in muscular strength are largely inferred from studies examining the acute resistance training effects, and the generalizability of such findings to chronic adaptations is uncertain. Objective The goals of this systematic literature review are: (i) to aggregate findings and interpret the studies that assessed chronic muscular strength adaptations to resistance training interventions involving different RI durations, and (ii) to provide evidence-based recommendations for exercise practitioners and athletes. Methods The review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines with a literature search encompassing five databases. Methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist. Results Twenty-three studies comprising a total of 491 participants (413 males and 78 females) were found to meet the inclusion criteria. All studies were classified as being of good to moderate methodological quality; none of the studies were of poor methodological quality. Conclusion The current literature shows that robust gains in muscular strength can be achieved even with short RIs (< 60 s). However, it seems that longer duration RIs (> 2 min) are required to maximize strength gains in resistance-trained individuals. With regard to untrained individuals, it seems that short to moderate RIs (60–120 s) are sufficient for maximizing muscular strength gains.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronotype on mood state and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) before and in response to acute high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness–eveningness questionnaire, 12 morning-types (M-types; N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg) and 11 evening-types (E-types; N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg) were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of Profile of Mood States (POMS), before (PRE), after 12 (POST12) and 24 h (POST24) the completion of both morning (08.00 am) and evening (08.00 p.m.) training. Additionally, Global Mood Disturbance and Energy Index (EI) were calculated. RPE was obtained PRE and 30 min POST HIIE. Two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test of POMS parameters during morning training showed significant differences in fatigue, vigor and EI at PRE and POST24 between M-types and E-types. In addition, significant chronotype differences were found only in POST12 after the evening HIIE for fatigue, vigor and EI. For what concerns Borg perceived exertion, comparing morning versus evening values in PRE condition, a higher RPE was observed in relation to evening training for M-types (P = 0.0107) while E-types showed higher RPE values in the morning (P = 0.008). Finally, intragroup differences showed that E-types had a higher RPE respect to M-types before (P = 0.002) and after 30 min (P = 0.042) the morning session of HIIE. No significant changes during the evening training session were found. In conclusion, chronotype seems to significantly influence fatigue values, perceived exertions and vigor in relation to HIIE performed at different times of the day. Specifically, E-types will meet more of a burden when undertaking a physical task early in the day. Practical results suggest that performing a HIIE at those times of day that do not correspond to subjects’ circadian preference can lead to increased mood disturbances and perceived exertion. Therefore, an athlete’s chronotype should be taken into account when scheduling HIIE. Trial registration: ACTRN12617000432314, registered 24 March 2017, “retrospectively registered”. Web address of trial: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=371862&showOriginal=true&isReview=true
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the time of the day (8.00 a.m. vs 8.00 p.m.) and chronotype could influence autonomic cardiac control in soccer players in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval training. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire was administered to recruit Morning-type and Evening-type collegiate male soccer players. Therefore, 24 players (12 Morning-types and 12 Evening-types) were randomly assigned, to either morning (n = 12; age 23 ± 3 years; height 1.75 ± 0.07 m; body mass 73 ± 10 kg; weekly training volume 8±2 hours), or evening (n = 12; age 21 ± 3 years; height 1.76 ± 0.05 m; body mass 75 ± 11 kg; weekly training volume 8 ± 3 hours) training. Heart Rate Variability vagal and sympa-tho/vagal indices were calculated in time, frequency and complexity domains at rest, before, after 12 and 24 hours of high-intensity interval training. Before evening training session, a higher resting heart rate was observed which was determined by a marked parasympathetic withdrawal with a sympathetic predominance. Moreover, Evening-type subjects during morning training session, present a significant higher heart rate that corresponded to significant higher vagal indices with a significant lower parasympathetic tone that returned to the rest values after 24 hours of the cessation of high-intensity interval training exercise. On the contrary, Morning-type subjects did not reveal any significant differences with Evening-Type subjects during evening high-intensity interval training session. Stress response of high-intensity interval training is influenced by both the time of the day and by the chronotype. Understanding the Heart Rate Variability response to high-intensity interval training can be an additional important procedure for evaluating of cardiovascular recovery in soccer players. Moreover, these results suggest that an athlete’s chronotype should be taken into account when scheduling a high-intensity interval training exercise.
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Background Many variables related to sport have been shown to have circadian rhythms. Chronotype is the expression of circadian rhythmicity in an individual, and three categories of chronotype are defined: morning types (M-types), evening types (E-types), and neither types (N-types). M-types show earlier peaks of several psychophysiological variables during the day than E-types. The effect of chronotype on athletic performance has not been extensively investigated. Objective The objective of the present review was to study the effect of chronotype on athletic performance and the psychophysiological responses to physical activity. Methods The present review adheres to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) reporting guidelines. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for scientific papers using the keywords “chronotype”, “circadian typology”, “morningness”, and “eveningness” in combination with each of the words “sport”, “performance”, and “athletic.” Relevant reference lists were inspected. We limited the search results to peer-reviewed papers published in English from 1985 to 2015. ResultsTen papers met our inclusion criteria. Rating of perceived exertion and fatigue scores in relation to athletic performances are influenced by chronotype: M-types perceived less effort when performing a submaximal physical task in the morning than did N- and E-types. In addition, M-types generally showed better athletic performances, as measured by race times, in the morning than did N- and E-types. Other results concerning chronotype effect on physiological responses to physical activity were not always consistent: heterogeneous samples and different kinds of physical activity could partially explain these discrepancies. Conclusions Sports trainers and coaches should take into account the influence of both the time of day and chronotype effect when scheduling training sessions into specific time periods.
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Due to personal and working necessities, the time for exercise is often short, and scheduled early in the morning or late in the afternoon. Cortisol plays a central role in the physiological and behavioral response to a physical challenge and can be considered as an index of exercise stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the circadian phenotype classification on salivary cortisol concentration in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness–eveningness questionnaire, 12 M-types (N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg, weekly training volume 8 ± 1 hours) and 11 E-types (N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg, weekly training volume 7 ± 2 hours) were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of salivary cortisol secretion before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 15 min (+15 min), 30 min (+30 min), 45 min (+45 min) and 60 min (+60 min) after the completion of both morning (08.00 am) and evening (08.00 p.m.) high-intensity interval exercise. Two-way analysis of variance with Tuckey's multiple comparisons test showed significant increments over PRE-cortisol concentrations in POSTcondition both in the morning (4.88 ± 1.19 ng · mL −1 vs 6.60 ± 1.86 ng · mL −1 , +26.1%, P < 0.0001, d > 0.8) and in the evening (1.56 ± 0.48 ng · mL −1 vs 2.34 ± 0.37, +33.4%, P = 0.034, d > 0.6) exercise in all the 23 subject that performed the morning and the evening HIIE. In addition, during morning exercise, significant differences in cortisol concentration between M-types and E-types at POST (5.49 ± 0.98 ng · mL −1 versus 8.44 ± 1.08 ng · mL −1 , +35%, P < 0.0001, d > 0.8), +15 min (4.52 ± 0.42 ng · mL −1 versus 6.61 ± 0.62 ng · mL −1 , +31.6%, P < 0.0001, d > 0.8), +30 min (4.10 ± 1.44 ng · mL −1 versus 6.21 ± 1.60 ng · mL −1 , +34.0%, P < 0.0001, d = 0.7), + 45 min (3.78 ± 0.55 ng · mL −1 versus 5.80 ± 0.72 ng · mL −1 , +34.9%, P < 0.0001, d = 0.7), and + 60 min condition(3.53 ± 0.45 ng · mL −1 versus 5.78 ± 1.13 ng · mL −1 , 38.9%, P = 0.0008, d = 0.7) were noted. No statistical significant differences between M-types and E-types during evening HIIE on post-exercise cortisol concentration were detected. E-types showed a higher morning peak of salivary cortisol respect to M-types when performing a HIIE early in the morning and produced higher salivary cortisol concentrations after the cessation of the exercise. Practical applications suggest that it is increasingly important for the exercise professionals to identify the compatibility between time of day for exercising and chronotype to find the individual's favorable circadian time to perform a HIIE.
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The purpose of this study was to compare strength gains in the lower limbs, assessed by one maximum repetition (1RM) and isokinetic peak torque (PT), in young men undergoing a resistance training (RT) program. Twenty-seven young men performed resistance training twice a week for 11 weeks. Training involved two exercises for the lower body, two for the upper body and one for the midsection performed with three sets of 8-12 repetitions to momentary muscle failure. Before and after the training period, participants performed the 1RM test in the 45° leg press and knee extension PT in isokinetic dynamometry. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between the changes in 1RM and PT, and the Bland-Altman test was performed to check for agreement between the strength changes of both tests. There were significant changes in 1RM and PT of 23.98% and 15.96%, respectively (p < 0.05). The changes in leg press 1RM were significantly higher than the ones in PT. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the tests were not equivalent. In conclusion, professionals and researchers involved in strength assessment should be aware that the results obtained by PT and 1RM are not equivalent when evaluating individual responsiveness and/or the efficacy of an intervention on muscle strength, as the results obtained show large variations and can be even conflicting.
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-It was hypothesized that an individual's chronotype might influence the response to physical activity at a given time of day. This study aimed to analyze the psychophysiological responses during a walking task at different times of day in individuals with different chronotypes. Fourty-six students (M age = 24.8 yr., SD = 7.2) filled in the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire to determine chronotypes. Heart rate, walking time, and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during two self-paced walking sessions: one in the morning (08:30) and one in the afternoon (15:30). A multivariate analysis of variance found a significant interaction between chronotype and time of day. The post hoc analysis showed a significant difference for RPE in the morning session, with evening types reporing a higher RPE compared with the morning types. The chronotype and the time of day when a physical task is undertaken can influence the RPE response, although it might not influence physiological or performance parameters. This has to be taken into account, because it can affect test reliability as well as possibly have a negative influence on the affective responses to a given task.
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Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have become increasingly important in health care. Clinicians read them to keep up to date with their field [1],[2], and they are often used as a starting point for developing clinical practice guidelines. Granting agencies may require a systematic review to ensure there is justification for further research [3], and some health care journals are moving in this direction [4]. As with all research, the value of a systematic review depends on what was done, what was found, and the clarity of reporting. As with other publications, the reporting quality of systematic reviews varies, limiting readers' ability to assess the strengths and weaknesses of those reviews. Several early studies evaluated the quality of review reports. In 1987, Mulrow examined 50 review articles published in four leading medical journals in 1985 and 1986 and found that none met all eight explicit scientific criteria, such as a quality assessment of included studies [5]. In 1987, Sacks and colleagues [6] evaluated the adequacy of reporting of 83 meta-analyses on 23 characteristics in six domains. Reporting was generally poor; between one and 14 characteristics were adequately reported (mean = 7.7; standard deviation = 2.7). A 1996 update of this study found little improvement [7]. In 1996, to address the suboptimal reporting of meta-analyses, an international group developed a guidance called the QUOROM Statement (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analyses), which focused on the reporting of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials [8]. In this article, we summarize a revision of these guidelines, renamed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses), which have been updated to address several conceptual and practical advances in the science of systematic reviews (Box 1). Box 1: Conceptual Issues in the Evolution from QUOROM to PRISMA Completing a Systematic Review Is an Iterative Process The conduct of a systematic review depends heavily on the scope and quality of included studies: thus systematic reviewers may need to modify their original review protocol during its conduct. Any systematic review reporting guideline should recommend that such changes can be reported and explained without suggesting that they are inappropriate. The PRISMA Statement (Items 5, 11, 16, and 23) acknowledges this iterative process. Aside from Cochrane reviews, all of which should have a protocol, only about 10% of systematic reviewers report working from a protocol [22]. Without a protocol that is publicly accessible, it is difficult to judge between appropriate and inappropriate modifications.
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The study investigated the effect of the time-of-day at which maximal isometric voluntary co-contraction (MIVCC) training is conducted on the adaptation and diurnal variation of maximal and explosive force production. Twenty active men underwent 6-week (3 times/week) MIVCC training of the right elbow joint. Participants were randomly assigned to a morning (MTG, 07:00–08:00 h) and evening (ETG, 17:00–18:00 h) training group. Maximal voluntary force (MVF) and maximal rate of force development (MRFD) during isometric elbow flexion (MVFF and MRFDF) and extension (MVFE and MRFDE) were recorded before (T0) and after (T1) training in the morning and in the evening. At T0, MVF and MRFD were higher in the evening compared to the morning for MTG and ETG (p<0.05). At T1, MVFF and MVFE increased at the morning and evening for both groups (p<0.001). MRFDF and MRFDE increased only if training and testing session were scheduled at the same time. The relative increases of MVF was greater at the specific time of training for MTG (12% and 17.6% in MVFF and MVFE, respectively) and ETG (9.8% and 13.4% in MVFF and MVFE, respectively). The diurnal variations in MVF and MRFD during flexion and extension disappeard in MTG and persisted in ETG. MIVCC training enhanced muscle strength whatever the time-of-day at which training was scheduled without alteration of explosive force. In contrast, to optimize the muscle strength our results suggested that morning training may be accompanied by the greatest muscle strength gain and blunted muscle strength variation observed between morning and evening.
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This study examined the effect of morning versus afternoon exercise on acute responses in phosphorylation of proteins regulating muscle size and metabolism. Twenty-two untrained men, divided into the morning (n = 11) or afternoon (n = 11) group, performed maximal isometric leg extensions before and after resistance loading at 07:30–08:30 h and 16:00–17:00 h, respectively. Muscle pre- and postloading biopsies were analyzed for phosphorylated Akt, p70S6K, rpS6, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Erk1/2, and eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF) 2. Muscle force declined after exercise in both groups (p < 0.001). p70S6K Thr389 (p < 0.05) and Thr421/Ser424 and rpS6 (all p < 0.001) increased after exercise in both groups. The afternoon but not morning group showed postloading decrease (p < 0.05) and increase (p < 0.01) in eEF2 and p38MAPK, respectively. Akt and Erk1/2 were statistically unchanged. In conclusion, the time of day did not have an overall effect on protein synthesis signaling, but morning phosphorylated eEF2 and p38MAPK showed significantly larger between-subject variability in the exercise response compared to the afternoon.
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Almost all physiological and biochemical processes within the human body follow a circadian rhythm (CR). In humans, the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates sleep- wake cycle and other daily biorhythms in line with solar time. Due to such daily physiological fluctuations, several investigations on neuromuscular performance have reported a distinct CR during exercise. Generally, peak performances have been found to occur in the early evening, at approximately the peak of core body temperature. The increase in core body temperature has been found to increase energy metabolism, improve muscle compliance and facilitate actin-myosin crossbridging. In addition, steroidal hormones such as testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) also display a clear CR. The role of T within the body is to maintain anabolism through the process of protein synthesis. By contrast, C plays a catabolic function and is involved in the response of stress. Due to the anabolic and catabolic nature of both T and C, it has been postulated that a causal relationship may exist between the CR of T and C and muscular performance. This review will therefore discuss the effects of CR on physical performance and its implications for training. Furthermore, this review will examine the impact of muscular performance on CR in hormonal responses and whether could variations in T and C be potentially beneficial for muscular adaptation. Key pointsA distinct CR can be observed in physical performance.CR of exercise performance is highly associated with CR in core body temperatureBoth T and C display a clear CR, however, the current evidence does not show a clear relationship with neuromuscular adaptations.TST is able to induce changes in physical performance variables at the particular time point, but not for the circadian profile of T and C.
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Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40 % of total body mass and, as such, contributes to maintenance of human health. In this review we will discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the role of molecular clocks in skeletal muscle. In addition we discuss a new function for exercise as a time setting cue for muscle and other peripheral tissues. This review discusses the relationship between the molecular clock, skeletal muscle, and exercise.
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The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time-of-day-specific training on the diurnal variations of short-term performances in boys. Twenty-four boys were randomized into a morning-training-group (07:00-08:00h; MTG), an evening-training-group (17:00-18:00h; ETG) and a control-group (CG). They performed four tests of strength and power (unilateral isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the knee extensor muscles, Squat-Jump, Counter-Movement-Jump and Wingate tests) at 07:00 and 17:00h just before (T0) and after 6 weeks of resistance training (T1). In T0, the results revealed that short-term performances improved and oral temperature increased significantly from morning to afternoon (amplitudes between 2.36 and 17.5% for both oral temperature and performances) for all subjects. In T1, the diurnal variations of performances were blunted in the MTG and persisted in the ETG and CG. Moreover, the training program increase muscle strength and power especially after training in the morning hours and the magnitude of gains was greater at the time-of-day-specific training than at other times. In conclusion, these results suggest that time-of-day-specific training increases the child's anaerobic performances specifically at this time-of-day. Moreover, the improvement of these performances was greater after morning than evening training.
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The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of training and tapering at the same time of the day on the diurnal variations of short exercise performances. Thirty-one physically active men underwent 12 weeks of lower-extremity resistance training and 2 weeks of tapering. These subjects were matched and randomly assigned to a morning training group (MTG, training times 0700-0800 hours, n = 10), an evening training group (ETG, training times 1700-1800 hours, n = 11), and a control group (CG, completed all tests but did not train, n = 10). Muscular strength and power testing was conducted before (T0) and after 12 weeks of training (T1) and after 2 weeks of tapering (T2) in the morning (0700-0800 hours) and in the evening (1700-1800 hours). All morning and evening tests were performed in separate sessions (minimum interval = 36 hours) in a randomized design. In T0, the oral temperature and performances during the Wingate, vertical jump (squat jump and countermovement jump), and maximal voluntary contraction tests were higher in the evening than in the morning for all the groups. In T1, these diurnal variations were blunted in the MTG and persisted in the ETG and CG. In T2, the 2 weeks of tapering resulted in further time of day-specific adaptations and increases in short-term maximal performances. However, there was no significant difference in the relative increase between the MTG and the ETG after both training and tapering. From a practical point of view, if the time of competition is known, training and tapering sessions before a major competition must be conducted at the same time of the day at which one's critical performance is programmed. Moreover, if the time of the competition is not known, a tapering phase after resistance training program could be performed at any time of the day with the same benefit.
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A questionnaire was developed to distinguish between people who differed in the degree to which their circadian rhythms adjusted to night work. This was administered to 48 ‘ permanent ’ night nurses taking part in a large shift work study. Factor analyses indicated that there were three main factors. These were (I) rigidity/flexibility of sleeping habits, (ii) ability/inability to overcome drowsiness, and (iii) morningness/eveningness. Correlations were computed between the nurses'scores on each of these factors and a range of measures of adjustment of circadian rhythm. A number of significant correlations were found with both psychological and physiological measures, thus indicating that the factors had at least concurrent validity. It is concluded that it may prove feasible to develop a questionnaire that would predict the degree to which people's rhythms would adjust to shift work, and that flexibility of sleeping habits and the ability to overcome drowsiness should be components of such a questionnaire.
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An English language self-assessment Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire is presented and evaluated against individual differences in the circadian vatiation of oral temperature. 48 subjects falling into Morning, Evening and Intermediate type categories regularly took their temperature. Circadian peak time were identified from the smoothed temperature curves of each subject. Results showed that Morning types and a significantly earlier peak time than Evening types and tended to have a higher daytime temperature and lower post peak temperature. The Intermediate type had temperatures between those of the other groups. Although no significant differences in sleep lengths were found between the three types, Morning types retired and arose significantly earlier than Evening types. Whilst these time significatly correlated with peak time, the questionnaire showed a higher peak time correlation. Although sleep habits are an important déterminant of peak time there are other contibutory factors, and these appear to be partly covered by the questionnaire. Although the questionnaire appears to be valid, further evaluation using a wider subject population is required.
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Human behavior shows large interindividual variation in temporal organization. Extreme "larks" wake up when extreme "owls" fall asleep. These chronotypes are attributed to differences in the circadian clock, and in animals, the genetic basis of similar phenotypic differences is well established. To better understand the genetic basis of temporal organization in humans, the authors developed a questionnaire to document individual sleep times, self-reported light exposure, and self-assessed chronotype, considering work and free days separately. This report summarizes the results of 500 questionnaires completed in a pilot study individual sleep times show large differences between work and free days, except for extreme early types. During the workweek, late chronotypes accumulate considerable sleep debt, for which they compensate on free days by lengthening their sleep by several hours. For all chronotypes, the amount of time spent outdoors in broad daylight significantly affects the timing of sleep: Increased self-reported light exposure advances sleep. The timing of self-selected sleep is multifactorial, including genetic disposition, sleep debt accumulated on workdays, and light exposure. Thus, accurate assessment of genetic chronotypes has to incorporate all of these parameters. The dependence of human chronotype on light, that is, on the amplitude of the light:dark signal, follows the known characteristics of circadian systems in all other experimental organisms. Our results predict that the timing of sleep has changed during industrialization and that a majority of humans are sleep deprived during the workweek. The implications are far ranging concerning learning, memory, vigilance, performance, and quality of life.
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We discuss current knowledge on the description, impact, and underlying causes of circadian rhythmicity in sports performance. We argue that there is a wealth of information from both applied and experimental work, which, when considered together, suggests that sports performance is affected by time of day in normal entrained conditions and that the variation has at least some input from endogenous mechanisms. Nevertheless, precise information on the relative importance of endogenous and exogenous factors is lacking. No single study can answer both the applied and basic research questions that are relevant to this topic, but an appropriate mixture of real-world research on rhythm disturbances and tightly controlled experiments involving forced desynchronization protocols is needed. Important issues, which should be considered by any chronobiologist interested in sports and exercise, include how representative the study sample and the selected performance tests are, test-retest reliability, as well as overall design of the experiment.
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The study was conducted first, to determine the possibility of a dichotomy between circadian rhythm of maximal torque production of the knee extensors of the dominant and non-dominant legs, and second, to determine whether the possible dichotomy could be linked to a change in the downward drive of the central nervous system and/or to phenomena prevailing at the muscular level. The dominant leg was defined as the one with which subjects spontaneously kick a football. Tests were performed at 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00 h. To distinguish the neural and muscular mechanisms that influence muscle strength, the electromyographic and mechanical muscle responses associated with electrically evoked and/or voluntary contractions of the human quadriceps and semi-tendinosus muscles for each leg were recorded and compared. The main finding was an absence of interaction between time-of-day and dominance effects on the torque associated with maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of both quadriceps. A significant time-of-day effect on MVC torque of the knee extensors was observed for the dominant and non-dominant legs when the data were collapsed, with highest values occurring at 18:00 h (p < 0.01). From cosinor analysis, a circadian rhythm was documented (p < 0.001) with the peak (acrophase) estimated at 18:18 +/- 00:12 h and amplitude (one-half the peak-to-trough variation) of 3.3 +/- 1.1%. Independent of the leg tested, peripheral mechanisms demonstrated a significant time-of-day effect (p < 0.05) on the peak-torque of the single and doublet stimulations, with maximal levels attained at 18:00 h. The central activation of the quadriceps muscle of each leg remained unchanged during the day. The present results confirmed previous observations that muscle torque changes in a predictable manner during the 24 h period, and that the changes are linked to modifications prevailing at the muscular, rather than the neural, level. The similar rhythmicity observed in this study between the dominant and non-dominant legs provides evidence that it is not essential to test both legs when simple motor tasks are investigated as a function of the time of day.
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between a change in Thr(389) phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (p70(S6k)) after a single resistance training session and an increase in skeletal muscle mass following short-term resistance training. Eight male subjects performed an initial resistance training session in leg press, six sets of 6RM with 2 min between sets. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before (T1) and 30 min after the initial training session (T2). Six of these subjects completed a 14-week resistance-training programme, three times per week (nine exercises, six sets, 6RM). A third muscle biopsy was obtained at the end of the 14-week training period (T3). One repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press and leg press strength as well as fat-free mass (FFM, with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) were determined at T1 and T3. The results show that the increase in Thr(389) phosphorylation of p70(S6k) after the initial training session was closely correlated with the percentage increase in whole body FFM (r = 0.89, P < 0.01), FFM(leg) (r = 0.81, P < 0.05), 1RM squat (r = 0.84, P < 0.05), and type IIA muscle fibre cross sectional area (r = 0.82, P < 0.05) after 14 weeks of resistance training. These results may suggest that p70(S6k) phosphorylation is involved in the signalling events leading to an increase in protein accretion in human skeletal muscle following resistance training, at least during the initial training period.
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The present study examined the effects of 24 weeks of morning vs. evening same-session combined strength (S) and endurance (E) training on neuromuscular and endurance performance. Fifty-one men were assigned to the morning (m) or evening (e) training group where S preceded E or vice versa (SEm, ESm, SEe and ESe) or to the control group. Isometric force, voluntary activation, EMG and peak wattage during the maximal cycling test were measured. Training time did not significantly affect the adaptations. Therefore, data are presented for SEm+e (SEm+SEe) and ESm+e (ESm+ESe). In the morning no order specific gains were observed in neuromuscular performance. In the evening, the changes in isometric force (SEm+e 15.9±16.7%, p=0.001; ESm+e 4.1±12.2%, p=0.615) and EMG (SEm+e 38.3±31.7%, p=0.001; ESm+e 14.67±36.44%, p=0.486) were larger ( p=0.014) in SEm+e than in ESm+e and in voluntary activation larger ( p=0.026) in SEm+e compared to controls. Peak wattage increased in the morning (SEm+e 15.9±9.2%, ESm+e 22.0±7.0%; p<0.001) and evening (SEm+e 16.3±7.2%, ESm+e 21.0±9.0%; p<0.001) but were larger (p<0.05) in ESm+e. The current training program led to greater neuromuscular adaptations when SE-training was performed in the evening, whereas the ES-training provided more optimal conditions for endurance performance adaptations both in the morning and evening. Keywords: diurnal rhythms; EMG; voluntary activation; concurrent training; muscle force
Article
This study investigated the effects of 24 weeks of morning versus evening same-session combined strength (S) and endurance (E) training on physical performance, muscle hypertrophy, and resting serum testosterone and cortisol diurnal concentrations. Forty-two young men were matched and assigned to a morning (m) or evening (e) E + S or S + E group (mE + S, n = 9; mS + E, n = 9; eE + S, n = 12; and eS + E, n = 12). Participants were tested for dynamic leg press 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and time to exhaustion (Texh) during an incremental cycle ergometer test both in the morning and evening, cross-sectional area (CSA) of vastus lateralis and diurnal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations (0730 h; 0930 h; 1630 h; 1830 h). All groups similarly increased 1RM in the morning (14%-19%; p < 0.001) and evening (18%-24%; p < 0.001). CSA increased in all groups by week 24 (12%-20%, p < 0.01); however, during the training weeks 13-24 the evening groups gained more muscle mass (time-of-day main effect; p < 0.05). Texh increased in all groups in the morning (16%-28%; p < 0.01) and evening (18%-27%; p < 0.001), however, a main effect for the exercise order, in favor of E + S, was observed on both testing times (p < 0.051). Diurnal rhythms in testosterone and cortisol remained statistically unaltered by the training order or time. The present results indicate that combined strength and endurance training in the evening may lead to larger gains in muscle mass, while the E + S training order might be more beneficial for endurance performance development. However, training order and time seem to influence the magnitude of adaptations only when the training period exceeded 12 weeks.
Article
Circadian rhythms, among other factors, have been shown to regulate key physiological processes involved in athletic performance [1-7]. Personal best performance of athletes in the evening was confirmed across different sports [8-12]. Contrary to this view, we identified peak performance times in athletes to be different between human "larks" and "owls" (also called "morningness/eveningness types" [13] or "chronotypes" [14] and referred to as circadian phenotypes in this paper), i.e., individuals with well-documented genetic [15-20] and physiological [21-24] differences that result in disparities between their biological clocks and how they entrain to exogenous cues, such as the environmental light/dark cycle and social factors. We found time since entrained awakening to be the major predictor of peak performance times, rather than time of day, as well as significant individual performance variations as large as 26% in the course of a day. Our novel approach combining the use of an athlete-specific chronometric test, longitudinal circadian analysis, and physical performance tests to characterize relevant sleep/wake and performance parameters in athletes allows a comprehensive analysis of the link between the circadian system and diurnal performance variation. We establish that the evaluation of an athlete's personal best performance requires consideration of circadian phenotype, performance evaluation at different times of day, and analysis of performance as a function of time since entrained awakening. VIDEO ABSTRACT: Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
SUMMARY In order to stimulate further adaptation toward specific training goals, progressive resistance training (RT) protocols are necessary. The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of concentric (CON), eccentric (ECC), and isometric muscle actions and the performance of bilateral and unilateral single- and multiple-joint exercises. In addition, it is recommended that strength programs sequence exercises to optimize the preservation of exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher-intensity before lower-intensity exercises). For novice (untrained individuals with no RT experience or who have not trained for several years) training, it is recommended that loads correspond to a repetition range of an 8-12 repetition maximum (RM). For intermediate (individuals with approximately 6 months of consistent RT experience) to advanced (individuals with years of RT experience) training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range from 1 to 12 RM in a periodized fashion with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using 3- to 5-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s CON; 1-2 s ECC). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 dIwkj1 for novice training, 3-4 dIwkj1 for intermediate training, and 4-5 dIwkj1 for advanced training. Similar program designs are recom- mended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training and 2) use of light loads (0-60% of 1 RM for lower body exercises; 30-60% of 1 RM for upper body exercises) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 3-5 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise (three to five sets). It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (915) using short rest periods (G90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand as with prior ones, recommendations should be applied in context and should be contingent upon an individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training
Article
The effect of time of day on the neural activation and contractile properties of the human adductor pollicis muscle was investigated in 13 healthy subjects. Two different times of day were chosen, corresponding to the minimum (7 h) and maximum (18 h) levels of strength. The force produced was compared with the associated electromyographic (EMG) activity during voluntary and electrically induced contractions in order to determine whether peripheral or central mechanisms play a dominant role in diurnal force fluctuation. The results indicated that the force produced during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was significantly higher (+8.9%) in the evening than the morning. Since the increase in force of the MVC and the tetanic contraction (100 Hz) were similar, it is suggested that peripheral mechanisms are responsible for diurnal fluctuations in force. This conclusion is supported by the observation that central activation, tested by the interpolated twitch method during an MVC, did not change, and that the EMG was less per unit force in the evening. In addition to the increase in maximum twitch and tetanus force, significant changes in muscle contractile kinetics were also observed. The maximum rate of tension development and the relaxation of the twitch and tetanus increased in the evening, and the twitch contraction time (CT) and the time to half-relaxation (TR1/2) were reduced. Because the mean range of variation in skin temperature (2.6°C) observed over the course of the day was very low, this change cannot entirely explain those observed in muscle contractile properties. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Muscle Nerve 22: 1380–1387, 1999
Article
This article focuses on physical performances after training at a specific time of day. To date, although the effect of time of day on aerobic performances appears to be equivocal, during anaerobic exercises, the effect of time of day has been well established with early morning nadirs and peak performances in the late afternoon. These diurnal rhythms can be influenced by several factors such as the regular training at a specific time of day. Indeed, regular training in the morning hours may increase the lower morning performances to the same or even higher level as their normal diurnal peak typically observed in the late afternoon by a greater increase of performance in the evening. However, regular training in the evening hours may increase the morning-evening (i.e., amplitude of the rhythm) difference by a greater increase of performance in the late afternoon. Therefore, adaptations to training are greater at the time of day at which training is regularly performed than at other times. Nevertheless, although modifications in resting hormones concentrations could explain this time-of-day specific adaptations, precise information on the underlying mechanisms is lacking.
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify signalling components known to control mRNA translation initiation in skeletal muscle that are responsive to mechanical load and may be partly responsible for myofibre hypertrophy. To accomplish this, we first utilized a human cluster model in which skeletalmuscle samples fromsubjects with widely divergent hypertrophic responses to resistance training were used for the identification of signalling proteins associated with the degree myofibre hypertrophy. We found that of 11 translational signalling molecules examined, the response of p(T421/S424)-p70S6K phosphorylation and total eukaryotic initiation factor 2Bε (eIF2Bε) protein abundance after a single bout of unaccustomed resistance exercise was associated with myofibre hypertrophy following 16 weeks of training. Follow up studies revealed that overexpression of eIF2Bε alone was sufficient to induce an 87% increase in cap-dependent translation in L6 myoblasts in vitro and 21% hypertrophy of myofibres in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo (P<0.05).However, genetically altering p70S6K activity had no impact on eIF2Bε protein abundance in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo or multiple cell lines in vitro (P >0.05), suggesting that the two phenomena were not directly related. These are the first data that mechanistically link eIF2Bε abundance to skeletal myofibre hypertrophy, and indicate that eIF2Bε abundance may at least partially underlie the widely divergent hypertrophic phenotypes in human skeletal muscle exposed to mechanical stimuli.
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine effects of time-of-day-specific strength training on muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength in men. A training group underwent a 10-week preparatory training (wk 0-wk 10) scheduled between 17:00 and 19:00 hours. Thereafter, the subjects were randomized either to a morning or afternoon training group. They continued with a 10-week time-of-day-specific training (wk 11-wk 20) with training times between 07:00 and 09:00 hours and 17:00 and 19:00 hours in the morning group and afternoon groups, respectively. A control group did not train but was tested at all occasions. Quadriceps femoris (QF) cross-sectional areas (CSA) and volume were obtained by magnetic resonance imaging scan at week 10 and 20. Maximum voluntary isometric strength during unilateral knee extensions and half-squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) were tested at week 0, 10, and 20 at a randomly given time of day between 09:00 and 16:00 hours. The QF average CSA and volume increased significantly (p < 0.001) in both the morning and afternoon training groups by 2.7% and 3.5%, respectively. The 0.8% difference between the training groups was not significant. The entire 20-week training period resulted in significant increases in maximum voluntary contraction and 1RM of similar magnitude in both training groups (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively) as compared with the control group. In conclusion, 10 weeks of strength training performed either in the morning or in the afternoon resulted in significant increases in QF muscle size. The magnitude of muscular hypertrophy did not statistically differ between the morning and afternoon training times. From a practical point of view, strength training in the morning and afternoon hours can be similarly efficient when aiming for muscle hypertrophy over a shorter period of time (<3 mo).
Article
The purpose of the present study was to compare the changes in muscle strength in nontrained young males performing resistance training under different supervision ratios. One hundred twenty-four young men were randomly assigned to groups trained under a high (HS, 1:5 coach to athlete ratio) or low (LS, 1:25) supervision ratio. Both groups performed identical resistance training programs. Subjects were tested for maximum bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and knee extensor torque before and after 11 weeks of training. According to the results, only HS lead to a significant increase (11.8%) in knee extensor torque. Both groups significantly increased bench press 1RM load; the increases were 10.22% for LS and 15.9% for HS. The results revealed significant differences between groups for changes in knee extensor torque and 1RM bench press, with higher values for the HS group. There were no differences between groups for the increases in bench press and leg press work volume or training attendance. The proportion of subjects training with maximum intensity was higher in HS for both bench press and leg press exercises. In addition, the distribution of subjects training with maximal intensity was higher for the bench press than for the leg press exercise in both groups. The primary findings of the present study are that the strength gains for both lower- and upper-body muscles are greater in subjects training under higher supervision ratios, and this is probably because of higher exercise intensity. These results confirm the importance of direct supervision during resistance training.
Article
We interpret the currently available scientific evidence to indicate that strength training should be as specific as possible. The coach or athlete, in designing a strength training programme, should attempt to have the training exercises similate the sport movement as closely as possible, in relation to movement pattern, velocity of movement, muscular contraction type, and contraction force. In the case of sport movements that are performed at high velocity, supplementary training at low velocity may be necessary to induce maximal adaptation within the muscles. Supplementary training with maximal or near maximal eccentric contractions may be beneficial in training for many sports because the large forces generated during this kind of training will stimulate maximal adaptation within the muscles. However, consideration should be given to the greater risk of injury that is associated with eccentric training. Failure to be specific in strength training may result in more than a poor return on the training investment; it may even be counter-productive. For example, the development of increased mass in irrelevant muscle groups may be detrimental in sports which demand a high strength to body mass ratio.
Article
To test the feasibility of creating a valid and reliable checklist with the following features: appropriate for assessing both randomised and non-randomised studies; provision of both an overall score for study quality and a profile of scores not only for the quality of reporting, internal validity (bias and confounding) and power, but also for external validity. A pilot version was first developed, based on epidemiological principles, reviews, and existing checklists for randomised studies. Face and content validity were assessed by three experienced reviewers and reliability was determined using two raters assessing 10 randomised and 10 non-randomised studies. Using different raters, the checklist was revised and tested for internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson 20), test-retest and inter-rater reliability (Spearman correlation coefficient and sign rank test; kappa statistics), criterion validity, and respondent burden. The performance of the checklist improved considerably after revision of a pilot version. The Quality Index had high internal consistency (KR-20: 0.89) as did the subscales apart from external validity (KR-20: 0.54). Test-retest (r 0.88) and inter-rater (r 0.75) reliability of the Quality Index were good. Reliability of the subscales varied from good (bias) to poor (external validity). The Quality Index correlated highly with an existing, established instrument for assessing randomised studies (r 0.90). There was little difference between its performance with non-randomised and with randomised studies. Raters took about 20 minutes to assess each paper (range 10 to 45 minutes). This study has shown that it is feasible to develop a checklist that can be used to assess the methodological quality not only of randomised controlled trials but also non-randomised studies. It has also shown that it is possible to produce a checklist that provides a profile of the paper, alerting reviewers to its particular methodological strengths and weaknesses. Further work is required to improve the checklist and the training of raters in the assessment of external validity.
Article
The effect of time of day on the neural activation and contractile properties of the human adductor pollicis muscle was investigated in 13 healthy subjects. Two different times of day were chosen, corresponding to the minimum (7 h) and maximum (18 h) levels of strength. The force produced was compared with the associated electromyographic (EMG) activity during voluntary and electrically induced contractions in order to determine whether peripheral or central mechanisms play a dominant role in diurnal force fluctuation. The results indicated that the force produced during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was significantly higher (+8.9%) in the evening than the morning. Since the increase in force of the MVC and the tetanic contraction (100 Hz) were similar, it is suggested that peripheral mechanisms are responsible for diurnal fluctuations in force. This conclusion is supported by the observation that central activation, tested by the interpolated twitch method during an MVC, did not change, and that the EMG was less per unit force in the evening. In addition to the increase in maximum twitch and tetanus force, significant changes in muscle contractile kinetics were also observed. The maximum rate of tension development and the relaxation of the twitch and tetanus increased in the evening, and the twitch contraction time (CT) and the time to half-relaxation (TR(1/2)) were reduced. Because the mean range of variation in skin temperature (2. 6 degrees C) observed over the course of the day was very low, this change cannot entirely explain those observed in muscle contractile properties.
Article
To determine possible age differences in muscle damage response to strength training, ultrastructural muscle damage was assessed in seven 20- to 30-yr-old and six 65- to 75-yr-old previously sedentary women after heavy-resistance strength training (HRST). Subjects performed unilateral knee-extension exercise 3 days/wk for 9 wk. Bilateral muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were assessed for muscle damage via electron microscopy. HRST resulted in a 38 and 25% increase in strength in the young and older women, respectively (P < 0.05), but there were no between-group differences. In the young women, 2-4% of muscle fibers exhibited damage before and after training in both the trained and untrained legs (P = not significant). In contrast, muscle damage increased significantly after HRST, from 5 to 17% of fibers damaged (P < 0.01), in the older women in the trained leg compared with only 2 and 5% of fibers damaged in the untrained leg before and after training, respectively. The present results indicate that older women exhibit higher levels of muscle damage after chronic HRST than do young women.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an effect of time of day on the adaptation to strength training at maximal effort. Fourteen participants took part in this experiment. Their peak anaerobic power (Wingate anaerobic test) and peak knee extension torque at six angular velocities (1.05, 2.10, 3.14, 4.19, 5.24 and 6.29 rad x s(-1)) were recorded in the morning (between 07:00 and 08:00 h) and in the evening (between 17:00 and 18:00 h) just before and 2 weeks after a 6 week course of regular training. Seven of them trained only in the morning and seven only in the evening. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant group x pre-/post-training x time of day interaction effect for peak torque and peak anaerobic power. Before training, in both groups, peak torque and peak anaerobic power were significantly higher in the evening than in the morning. After training, there was no significant difference in peak torque and peak anaerobic power between the morning and the evening for the morning training group. In contrast, in the evening training group, peak torque and peak anaerobic power were higher in the evening than in the morning. As a result of training, both peak torque and peak anaerobic power increased from their initial values as expected. The morning training group improved their peak anaerobic power significantly in the morning and in the evening, the absolute increase being larger in the morning than in the evening. The evening training group did not improve their peak anaerobic power in the morning, whereas it improved significantly in the evening. Although peak torque was significantly improved by training in the morning and evening in both groups, the absolute increase was greater in the morning than in the evening in the morning training group, whereas the opposite was the case for the evening training group. These results suggest that training twice a week at a specific hour increases the peak torque and the peak anaerobic power specifically at this hour and demonstrates that there is a temporal specificity to strength training.
Article
We examined the effects of time of day on a cycling time trial with and without a prolonged warm-up, among cyclists who tended towards being high in "morningness". Eight male cyclists (mean +/- s: age = 24.9 +/- 3.5 years, peak power output = 319 +/- 34 W, chronotype = 39 +/- 6 units) completed a 16.1-km time trial without a substantial warm-up at both 07:30 and 17:30 h. The time trial was also completed at both times of day after a 25-min warm-up at 60% of peak power. Power output, heart rate, intra-aural temperature and category ratings of perceived exertion (CR-10) were measured throughout the time trial. Post-test blood lactate concentration was also recorded. Warm-up generally improved time trial performance at both times of day (95% CI for improvement = 0 to 30 s), but mean cycling time was still significantly slower at 07:30 h than at 17:30 h after the warm-up (95% CI for difference = 33 to 66 s). Intra-aural temperature increased as the time trial progressed (P < 0.0005) and was significantly higher throughout the time trials at 17:30 h (P = 0.001), irrespective of whether the cyclists performed a warm-up or not. Blood lactate concentration after the time trial was lowest at 07:30 h without a warm-up (P = 0.02). No effects of time of day or warm-up were found for CR-10 or heart rate responses during the time trial. These results suggest that 16.1-km cycling performance is worse in the morning than in the afternoon, even with athletes who tend towards 'morningness', and who perform a vigorous 25-min warm-up. Diurnal variation in cycling performance is, therefore, relatively robust to some external and behavioural factors.
Article
A time-of-day influence on the neuromuscular response to strength training has been previously reported. However, no scientific study has examined the influence of the time of day when strength training is performed on hormonal adaptations. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of time-of-day-specific strength training on resting serum concentrations and diurnal patterns of testosterone (T) and cortisol (CORT) as well as maximum isometric strength of knee extensors. Thirty eight diurnally active healthy, previously untrained men (age 20-45 yrs) underwent a ten-week preparatory strength training period when sessions were conducted between 17:00-19:00 h. Thereafter, these subjects were randomized into either a morning (n=20, training times 07:00-09:00 h) or afternoon (n=18, 7:00-19:00 h) training group for another ten-week period of time-of-day-specific training (TST). Isometric unilateral knee extension peak torque (MVC) was measured at 07:00, 12:00, 17:00, and 20:30 h over two consecutive days (Day 1 & Day 2) before and after TST. Blood samples were obtained before each clock-time measurement to assess resting serum T and CORT concentrations. A matched control group (n=11) did not train but participated in the tests. Serum T and CORT concentrations significantly declined from 07:00 to 20:30 h on all test days (Time effect, p<.001). Serum CORT at 07:00 h was significantly higher on Day 1 than Day 2 in the control and afternoon group, both in Pre and Post conditions (Day x Time interaction, p<.01). In the morning group, a similar day-to-day difference was present in the Pre but not Post conditions (Time x Group interaction, p<.05). MVC significantly increased after TST in both the morning and afternoon groups (Pre to Post effect, p<.001). In both groups, a typical diurnal variation in MVC (Time effect, p<.001) was found, especially on Day 2 in the Pre condition, and this feature persisted from Pre to Post in the afternoon group. In the morning group, however, diurnal variation was reduced after TST on both Day 1 and Day 2 (Pre to PostxDay x TimexGroup interaction, p<.05). In conclusion, 10 weeks of morning time-of-day-specific strength training resulted in reduced morning resting CORT concentrations, presumably as a result of decreased masking effects of anticipatory psychological stress prior to the morning testing. The typical diurnal pattern of maximum isometric strength was blunted by the TST period in the morning but not the afternoon group. However, the TST period had no significant effect on the resting total T concentration and its diurnal pattern and on the absolute increase in maximum strength.
Article
In this study, we examined the effects of time-of-day-specific strength training on maximum strength and electromyography (EMG) of the knee extensors in men. After a 10-week preparatory training period (training times 17:00-19:00 h), 27 participants were randomized into a morning (07:00-09:00 h, n = 14) and an evening group (17:00-19.00 h, n = 13). Both groups then underwent 10 weeks of time-of-day-specific training. A matched control group (n = 7) completed all testing but did not train. Unilateral isometric knee extension peak torque (MVC) and one-repetition maximum half-squat were assessed before and after the preparatory training and after the time-of-day-specific training at times that were not training-specific (between 09:00 and 16:00 h). During training-specific hours, peak torque and EMG during MVC and submaximum isometric contraction at 40% MVC were assessed before and after the time-of-day-specific training. The main finding was that a significant diurnal difference (P < 0.01) in peak torque between the 07:00 and 17:00 h tests decreased after time-of-day-specific training in the morning group but not in the evening or control groups. However, the extent of this time-of-day-specific adaptation varied between individuals. Electromyography during MVC did not show any time-of-day-specific adaptation, suggesting that peripheral rather than neural adaptations are the main source of temporal specificity in strength training.
American college of sports medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults
American College of Sports Medicine. 2009. American college of sports medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 41(3):687-708.