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Pose detection estimate human activity in images or video frames using computer vision technique. Pose detection has many applications , such as body to augmented reality, fitness, animation etc. ExNET represents a way to detect human pose from 2D human exercises image using Convolutional Neural Network. In recent time Deep Learning based systems are making it possible to detect human exercise poses from images. We refer to the model we have built for this task as ExNET: Deep Neural Network for Exercise Pose Detection. We have evaluated our proposed model on our own dataset that contains a total of 2000 images. And those images are distributed into 5 classes as well as images are divided into training and test dataset, and obtained improved performance. We have conducted various experiments with our model on the test dataset, and finally got the best accuracy of 82.68%.

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We present an integrated framework for using Convolutional Networks for classification, localization and detection. We show how a multiscale and sliding window approach can be efficiently implemented within a ConvNet. We also introduce a novel deep learning approach to localization by learning to predict object boundaries. Bounding boxes are then accumulated rather than suppressed in order to increase detection confidence. We show that different tasks can be learnt simultaneously using a single shared network. This integrated framework is the winner of the localization task of the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2013 (ILSVRC2013), and produced near state of the art results for the detection and classifications tasks. Finally, we release a feature extractor from our best model called OverFeat.
Deep neural networks are currently among the most commonly used classifiers. Despite easily achieving very good performance, one of the best selling points of these models is their modular design - one can conveniently adapt their architecture to specific needs, change connectivity patterns, attach specialised layers, experiment with a large amount of activation functions, normalisation schemes and many others. While one can find impressively wide spread of various configurations of almost every aspect of the deep nets, one element is, in authors' opinion, underrepresented - while solving classification problems, vast majority of papers and applications simply use log loss. In this paper we try to investigate how particular choices of loss functions affect deep models and their learning dynamics, as well as resulting classifiers robustness to various effects. We perform experiments on classical datasets, as well as provide some additional, theoretical insights into the problem. In particular we show that L1 and L2 losses are, quite surprisingly, justified classification objectives for deep nets, by providing probabilistic interpretation in terms of expected misclassification. We also introduce two losses which are not typically used as deep nets objectives and show that they are viable alternatives to the existing ones.
Conference Paper
In this work we propose a structured prediction technique that combines the virtues of Gaussian Conditional Random Fields (G-CRF) with Deep Learning: (a) our structured prediction task has a unique global optimum that is obtained exactly from the solution of a linear system (b) the gradients of our model parameters are analytically computed using closed form expressions, in contrast to the memory-demanding contemporary deep structured prediction approaches [1, 2] that rely on back-propagation-through-time, (c) our pairwise terms do not have to be simple hand-crafted expressions, as in the line of works building on the DenseCRF [1, 3], but can rather be ‘discovered’ from data through deep architectures, and (d) out system can trained in an end-to-end manner. Building on standard tools from numerical analysis we develop very efficient algorithms for inference and learning, as well as a customized technique adapted to the semantic segmentation task. This efficiency allows us to explore more sophisticated architectures for structured prediction in deep learning: we introduce multi-resolution architectures to couple information across scales in a joint optimization framework, yielding systematic improvements. We demonstrate the utility of our approach on the challenging VOC PASCAL 2012 image segmentation benchmark, showing substantial improvements over strong baselines. We make all of our code and experiments available at https:// github. com/ siddharthachandr a/ gcrf.
Deep neural nets with a large number of parameters are very powerful machine learning systems. However, overfitting is a serious problem in such networks. Large networks are also slow to use, making it difficult to deal with overfitting by combining the predictions of many different large neural nets at test time. Dropout is a technique for addressing this problem. The key idea is to randomly drop units (along with their connections) from the neural network during training. This prevents units from co-adapting too much. During training, dropout samples from an exponential number of different "thinned" networks. At test time, it is easy to approximate the effect of averaging the predictions of all these thinned networks by simply using a single unthinned network that has smaller weights. This significantly reduces overfitting and gives major improvements over other regularization methods. We show that dropout improves the performance of neural networks on supervised learning tasks in vision, speech recognition, document classification and computational biology, obtaining state-of-the-art results on many benchmark data sets. © 2014 Nitish Srivastava, Geoffrey Hinton, Alex Krizhevsky, Ilya Sutskever and Ruslan Salakhutdinov.
Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) have recently shown state of the art performance in high level vision tasks, such as image classification and object detection. This work brings together methods from DCNNs and probabilistic graphical models for addressing the task of pixel-level classification (also called "semantic image segmentation"). We show that responses at the final layer of DCNNs are not sufficiently localized for accurate object segmentation. This is due to the very invariance properties that make DCNNs good for high level tasks. We overcome this poor localization property of deep networks by combining the responses at the final DCNN layer with a fully connected Conditional Random Field (CRF). Qualitatively, our "DeepLab" system is able to localize segment boundaries at a level of accuracy which is beyond previous methods. Quantitatively, our method sets the new state-of-art at the PASCAL VOC-2012 semantic image segmentation task, reaching 66.4% IOU accuracy in the test set. We show how these results can be obtained efficiently: Careful network re-purposing and a novel application of the 'hole' algorithm from the wavelet community allow dense computation of neural net responses at 8 frames per second on a modern GPU.
In this paper we consider the challenging problem of articulated human pose estimation in still images. We observe that despite high variability of the body articulations, human motions and activities often simultaneously constrain the positions of multiple body parts. Modelling such higher order part dependencies seemingly comes at a cost of more expensive inference, which resulted in their limited use in state-of-the-art methods. In this paper we propose a model that incorporates higher order part dependencies while remaining efficient. We achieve this by defining a conditional model in which all body parts are connected a-priori, but which becomes a tractable tree-structured pictorial structures model once the image observations are available. In order to derive a set of conditioning variables we rely on the poselet-based features that have been shown to be effective for people detection but have so far found limited application for articulated human pose estimation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on three publicly available pose estimation benchmarks improving or being on-par with state of the art in each case.
We propose a method for human pose estimation based on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). The pose estimation is formulated as a DNN-based regression problem towards body joints. We present a cascade of such DNN regressors which results in high precision pose estimates. The approach has the advantage of reasoning about pose in a holistic fashion and has a simple but yet powerful formulation which capitalizes on recent advances in Deep Learning. We present a detailed empirical analysis with state-of-art or better performance on four academic benchmarks of diverse real-world images.
Parameter learning and convergent inference for dense random fields
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