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The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3

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THE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION TOWARDS ACHIEVING GOOD
GOVERNANCE FOR POSITIVE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT BY USING SMARTPLS 3
Abdul-Kahar Adam1
1University of Technology Malaysia (UTM), Azman Hashim International
Business School, Skudai, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia; University of
Education, Winneba, Business School, Winneba, Central Region, Ghana
ABSTRACT
Article History
Received: 27 September 2018
Revised: 19 October 2018
Accepted: 22 November 2018
Published: 31 December 2018
Keywords
Public administration
Good governance
New public management
New public administration
Governance
Ghana
SmartPLS, PLS-SEM
JEL Classification:
M10, M19, M20.
This research is an applied research using both quantitative and qualitative techniques
instrument developed (questionnaire) and it‟s been conducted in a broader spectrum of
constructs to give a bigger picture of the Public Administration problems and
challenges faced by Ghana which gives an indication as to why Ghana is not achieving
Good Governance status. A total of 65 questionnaires were distributed but only 55
respondents where gather from the target group of Ghana National Association of
Teachers (GNAT) within the Tamale Metropolis. A scientific tool used to run this
analysis is SmartPLS 3. This research measures the relationship of two variables with
Partial Least Squares and Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). The main
purpose of this research is to make contributions to the underpinning Public
Administration as the main driver in the discourse of achieving Good Governance for a
country. The hypothesis is that Public Administration has positive relationship
towards Good Governance of the country. The findings confirmed the hypothesis that
Public Administration is significant to Good Governance positively based on both
reflective and formative models. In this study many of the Good Governance constructs
are positively reflective but the Public Administration constructs which consists of
behavioural ethics and institutional performance status had conflicting results in terms
of significance and some are very low in the outer loadings. Institutional failures under
the Public Administration need to be looked at seriously by all stakeholders and adopt a
way forward model. This research drew inspiration from a theory of Matei et al. (2016).
Contribution/Originality: The paper contributes the first logical analysis of the importance of public
administration towards achieving positive good governance since the study uses new scientific methodology to
define relationships and their applicability. It is to inform stakeholders of the missing links for proper development
decision-making of the poorer nations in Africa.
1. INTRODUCTION
According to Butler (2008) wrote, Adams Smith said in 1976 that, no society can be seen as flourishing and
progressing if actually the greater parts of its citizens are poor and miserable. It is an obvious known fact that all
over the world, African countries are third world countries which simply referred to as developing nations. Hence,
it is of this view point that this research is geared towards finding out how Public Administration are followed and
practiced in government institutions as well as how administration is run alongside management/the executive arm
of government. In Ghana for instance, a lot of poor governance is always reported such as corruption and
International Journal of Public Policy and Administration
Research
2018 Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 68-97
ISSN(e): 2312-6515
ISSN(p): 2313-0423
DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2018.52.68.97
© 2018 Conscientia Beam. All Rights Reserved.
International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, 2018, 5(2): 68-97
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© 2018 Conscientia Beam. All Rights Reserved.
irresponsible decisions which is not in the interest of nation building. It seems almost every government
organization in Ghana is not functioning properly; structures are poorly drafted and implemented. The country
Ghana looks like a Treadmill Economy (Adam, 2013). It doesn‟t move well, hence, only stands at one direction or
one point. The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana, Article 36, clause 1 requires the State to among other
things, to “take all necessary action to ensure that the national economy is managed in such a manner as to
maximize the rate of economic development and to secure the maximum welfare, freedom and happiness of every
person in Ghana and to provide adequate means of livelihood and suitable employment and public assistance to the
needy.” Also, Article 36, clause 5 of the Constitution enjoins that among other things that, “within two years after
assuming office, the President shall present to Parliament a co-ordinated programme of economic and social
development policies, including agricultural and industrial programmes at all levels and in all the regions of
Ghana.” The Constitution requires the President to prepare his/her Coordinated Programme of Economic and
Social Development Policies (CPESDP), to outline medium-term vision for the development of the country and the
broad policy measures to be implemented to achieve this medium-term development objectives and goals.
Hence, to operationalize the broad policy proposals outlined in the CPESDP by the President, the Ghana
Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA) II, 2014-2017 was prepared in line with these objectives to see
to the implementation of all programs satisfactorily. The GSGDA II, is the 5th in the series of medium-term
national development policy frameworks prepared under the 4th Republic of Ghana whereas a successor to the
GSGDA I, 2010-2013, contains the specific strategies to be implemented systematically to position the country
towards the attainment of the President‟s Vision and Goals under the CPESDP. In this regard, the GSGDA II
informs the sectors and districts medium-term development plans which is prepared by the Metropolitan, Municipal
District Assemblies (MMDAs), with budget supports. More so, the GSGDA II also, forms the basis for Donor
Coordination within the framework of the Paris Declaration which requires all Donors to coordinate their support
towards approved national agenda. And by these, the welfare and growth of citizenry is guaranteed. The
Constitution also provides a long-term national development vision for the country through the Directive
Principles of State Policy which requires that every Government must pursue policies that would ultimately lead
to the “establishment of a just and free society”, where every Ghanaian would have the opportunity to live long,
productive, and meaningful life.”
The Vision of the President, to a large extent reflects the aspirations and hopes of most Ghanaians, as
entrenched in the Constitution as “is to transform the Ghanaian economy and society towards a stable, united,
inclusive and prosperous country with opportunities for all.” For instance, some of the President Visions will entail,
increasing access to quality education and health services at all levels; to improve science and technology to drive
national education and development; to apply technological knowhow into agriculture and manufacturing sectors;
improve export earnings from not only on primary products but from other means; streamline importation of goods
and services to tune to the society; and formalization of the informal sectors for greater opportunities of work. The
Presidents vision also anticipates purposefully the cultivation of core national values as an integral part of Ghanaian
cultures, which creates positive attitudes in general towards national development. Some of these values are selfless
and dedicated leadership, honesty, discipline, excellence, self-reliance and tolerance. These values if well cultivated
and built on citizens would help address various social ills or problems, such as, corruption, chronic disregard for
punctuality in public and private lives, poor quality of goods and services undermines global competitiveness,
indiscipline on the roads, insanitary conditions in the communities etc. And above all these it will improve good
governance situation for the country.
1.1. Background of the Study
The basis of this study is to add value to theoretical research concepts and findings to make it clear for leaders
to adopt for better growth and development of nations. According to General News of Monday, 20 October 2014
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that the president admitted in an interview with BBC radio that Ghana's weak systems are to blamed for the rising
epidemic of corruption and that efforts are been laid by his government to tackle the corruption as curse that has
become pervasive in almost every sector of the country where it is been impeded by human discretion and
interference from anywhere. This is a clear indication of poor Public Administration which cannot achieve Good
Governance in practice. The President said, using the Ghana Integrated Financial Management Information
System (GIFMIS), which is an accounting tool or system to check public financial management, and he however,
deluded that as a case in point some public officials have been deliberately working to derail its full implementation
which is also a sign of poor Public Administration base on ethics and regulation of institutions. The President said
there are accountants who are employees who just don't want to hear about GIFMIS system and in as much as you
train them they behave like they still don't understand the system and these are some of the human resource
challenges affecting Good Governance success within the public sector. That is, because GIFMIS will bring
transparency into public financial management, as the president addressed the press men in London.
The President continued that in the last couple of months ago, corruption scandals and an alleged
misappropriation of public funds have hit key government institutions and just recently, the Bureau of National
Investigations (BNI) uncovered 22,000 ghost names in the National Service Scheme payroll (a cost to the nation of
over 7 million Ghana cedis is saved). Notwithstanding, there are still even direct allegations that the BNI
investigators have been bribed by top guns of the government at the National Service Secretariat to bury scalding
revelations and evidence. It added that investigations are also ongoing into allegations that the Commissioner of
CHRAJ herself misappropriated more than $148,500 of public funds for her own accommodation. She was removed
from her post. More so, the President shared his frustration and anguish over the Ghana Youth Employment and
Entrepreneurial Development Agency (GYEEDA) a rot and revelations of corruption at the World Cup
Commission of Enquiry into Ghana's poor showing at the World Cup fiesta in Brazil, this were all on top of recent
reports and agenda on corruption in the country. All these reveals the state to which the Public Administration of
Ghana are so porous that it cannot achieve Good Governance under such poor display of deliberate incompetence,
greed, and selfishness of some individuals in the public sector governance.
However, the President said that these corruption scandals have come about because of weakness of supervision
of government agencies in general and that his government has been working towards using technology to limit
the incidence of weak supervision and enforcement of laws at government agencies. He added, that "the major
opportunity to fight and win against corruption is to eliminate the opportunity for people to be corrupt. These
assertions by the president were made in 2014 but the country gained its independence (1957) for nearly 56 years
now. That, those measures are to prevent the public officers and government from being corrupt and that while we
look for people (who have been corrupt) and sanctioning them, we must also look at ways of strengthening the
system." Source: myjoyonline.com
http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=331156
1.2. Ghana Governments Public Administration and Democratic or Military Rules
The below table shows the current data on Ghana developmental and management history of performances of
the Public Administrations towards achieving Good Governance. It depicts that for many years there was no single
record on unemployment rate and several shortfalls and gaps. This means that there is a challenge in the
governance systems which this research is set out to find out in their management of the Public/State in terms of
Public Administration practices. The below table 3 also shows that under the rule of law, government integrity is
35.5% meaning that there is more room for improvement in governance. Herigate.org peg unemployment to 6.3%,
a figure which needs to be investigated since focus-economics.com has no single data on unemployment for more
than 5 years consecutively.
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Table-1. Governments of Ghana since independence
No.
Name of President
Year(s)
Status
1
Dr. Kwame Nkrumah
1957-1960
Prime Minister and then also first President. With
Convention People‟s Party –CPP.
2
Lt. General Joseph Ankrah
1966 -1969
Head of State, Military Coup d‟état. With National
Liberation Council
3
Lt. General A.A. Afrifa
1969
Head of State, Military Coup d‟état. With National
Liberation Council
4
Dr. Kofi Busia
1969-1972
Prime Minister. With Progress Party
5
General I.K. Acheampong
1972-1975
Head of State. Removed from office in a bloodless
palace coup d‟état. With National Redemption
Council, Supreme Military Council
6
Lt. General Fred W.K. Akuffo
1978-1979
Head of State. Supreme Military Council.
7
Flt. Lt. Jerry John Rawlings
4th June, 1979
Head of State. Coup d‟état. After military revolt by
junior ranks of the Ghana Armed Forces, when
Rawlings failed attempt on 15th May 1979.
8
Dr. Hilla Limann
1979-1981
President. With Peoples National Party
9
Flt. Lt. Jerry John Rawlings
1981-2000
Head of State. Second Coup d‟état. Also, elected
President, with National Democratic Congress
NDC, 4th Republic
10
John Agyekum Kufuor
2001-2008
President. With New Patriotic Party - NPP
11
Prof. John Atta Mills
2009-2011
President and died in 2011. With National
Democratic Congress NDC. His Vice John
Dramani Mahama was sworn and continued for the
first term.
12
John Dramani Mahama
2011-2016
President. Supreme Court Ruled. With National
Democratic Congress - NDC
13
Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo
2017
President. With New Patriotic Party NPP. First
term will end in 2020.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Ghana_governments accessed 1/4/17
Table-2. Data on Ghana Economy per its administration
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Population in millions
24.3
24.9
25.6
26.2
26.9
GDP per capita in USD ($)
1,591
1,631
1,767
1,418
1,195
GDP in USD billions
38.7
40.7
45.2
37.2
32.1
Economic Growth (annual variation %)
14.0
9.3
7.3
4.0
4.1
Consumption (annual variation %)
19.8
-7.1
7.4
5.3
-
Investment (annual variation %)
1.6
50.3
7.5
2.8
-
Industrial Production (ann. Variation %)
41.6
11.0
6.6
0.8
-
Unemployment Rate
-
-
-
-
-
Fiscal Balance GDP in %
-7.3
-11.3
-12.5
-12.4
-
Public Debt GDP in %
42.6
49.1
56.2
69.0
-
Money (annual variation in %)
30.2
22.9
18.2
33.1
-
Inflation Rate (CPI, ann. Variation in %, eop)
8.6
8.8
13.5
17.0
17.7
Inflation Rate (CPI, ann. Variation in %)
8.7
9.2
11.7
15.5
17.2
Policy Interest Rate %
12.50
15.00
16.00
21.00
26.00
Exchange Rates vs USD
1.64
1.90
2.37
3.19
3.81
Exchange Rates vs USD, aop
1.55
1.85
2.07
3.05
3.78
Current Account in GDP %
-9.2
-12.1
-12.6
-9.5
-7.8
Current Account Balance in USD billions
-3.5
-4.9
-5.7
-3.5
-2.5
Trade Balance in USD billions
-3.2
-4.4
-3.8
-1.3
-3.9
Exports in USD billions
12.8
13.5
13.8
13.2
10.2
Exports (ann. Variation in %)
59.1
5.3
2.1
-4.3
-22.6
Imports in USD billions
16.0
17.8
17.6
14.5
14.0
Imports (ann. Variation in %)
48.3
11.6
-1.2
-17.7
-3.1
International Reserves in USD
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.5
-
External Debt in GDP %
29.2
30.9
35.0
47.4
-
Source: http://www.focus-economics.com/countries/ghana accessed 1/4/17
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Table-3. Quick Facts
Rule of Law
Property Rights 51.6%
Government Integrity 35.5%
Judicial Effectiveness 40.9%
Government Size
Government Spending76.3%
Tax Burden 84.5%
Fiscal Health 9.2%
Regulatory Efficiency
Business Freedom 59.6%
Labor Freedom 57.4%
Monetary Freedom 64.5%
Open Markets
Trade Freedom65.1%
Investment Freedom70.0%
Financial Freedom60.0%
Population:
26.9 million
GDP (PPP):
$114.7 billion
3.5% growth
7.6% (5-year compound annual
growth)
$4,266 per capita
Unemployment: 6.3%
Inflation (CPI): 17.2%
FDI Inflow: $3.2 billion
Source: http://www.heritage.org/index/country/ghana accessed 1/4/17
1.3. Aim of the Research
The main aim of this research is to be able to gather facts on matters of the Public Administration as a tool
needed in the public sector work for the achievement of Good Governance in Ghana likewise the developing
countries.
1.4. Purpose
The major purpose of this research topic is to make contributions to the underpinning Public Administration as
the main driver in the discourse of Good Governance for a country if well practiced.
1.5. Objectives
To ascertain how Public Administration correlate significantly with positive relationship to Good Governance.
1.6. Research Questions
To what extend is Public Administration associated with Good Governance significantly?
1.7. Hypothesis
H1: Public Administration has positive relationship towards Good Governance of the country.
1.8. Problem Statement
The main problem of this proposed thesis are based on both practical and theoretical challenges that are found
as critical areas of concern and therefore, need to be researched and investigated for proper conclusion and
recommendation to be made at the end of it all. In this view, former a President in 2014, said that systems are weak
in Ghana and other reports showed Ghana‟s economy slips to 14th in Africa, Business & Financial Times (2015).
More reports showed that delays in court cases are affecting businesses, and that Ghana is losing its economy as
reported in the BFT (2015). Some reports that Teshie residents invade Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) office
over „vanishing‟ credits/tariffs, Citifmonline (2016) and that some also observed that ECG prepaid meters are as
sick as political parties, BFT (2015). This is one way that the problems of governance are being challenged by the
governments and in the eyes of the people. According to Uwizeyimana and Maphunye (2014) that the over
dominance of the Western public administration systems of New Public Management (NPM) and governance
models inherited through colonialism undermines Africans success in the practice of democracy. These points to the
facts that Ghana for that matter Africa may not need to practice the same Public Administrative systems like the
western world but to create their own way of Public Administration in accordance to their culture and traditions.
It can be argued that when it comes to developing countries such as Ghana, we don‟t manufacture technology;
we don‟t have good economic management standing and very porous socio-cultural lives as compared to other
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advanced countries. There is slow introduction of technologies to increase competition and deregulation of policies
and programmes (Kaboolian, 1998). Moreover, Ghana is not capable to stand on its own policies and developmental
initiatives as its being directed and controlled by international donor communities and the developed countries
(European Union, 2006; OECD, 2007; World Bank, 2008; United Nations, 2009; Doeveren, 2011; Haruna and
Kannae, 2013).
The fundamental values of public service organizations such as New Public Management (NPM), competition
with limited resources, and conflicts between individual demands and public interest, accountability and
responsibility are all current problems in governance (Lawton, 1998; Minogue, 2000). Capacity-building,
controlling corruption, and political decentralisation or devolution are been battled with African governments
because Public Service Reform in developing countries are entirely unrelated to the New Public Management
(CLAD, 1998). There is disconnect of civil servants and citizens as they lack the values and practices, like efficiency,
justice, legality, trust in laws and institutions, management of human resources and crisis management (Ladi, 2008).
Public Sector Reforms produces unexpected negative results as it rarely satisfies the prior intention of those who
initiate it and the initiators are the advanced countries, since they are always the market leaders in foreign trades
and technology (March and Olsen, 1989; Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development (OECD),
2003).
The governance problems also has to do with every issue/problem that is happening negatively through
injustice and when you enquire why, the public sector employees or government appointees will always respond it
is order from above, meaning they cannot take any positive action as their duty demands. Security services will say
the same, public workers and staff will say the same reference and therefore all policies and work is directed to one
central office which is the presidency doing everything. This means the governance structures are well followed to
manage the Public Administration. This is a big cabal in the operation of administration of duties without paying
attention to the office laid down procedures but rather order from above or this is political matter and so one cannot
do much until order comes from the above. This means that the ruling party in government have more to say and
determine its rules and regulations in governance decisions as far as policy directives are concern in Ghana without
any public discourse or participation in decision making.
Even in this democratic dispensation, family members, friends and associates of any citizen who is voted into
government position or is being appointed by the government of the day, all of these people expect that elected
member or appointed person known by them to become rich automatically. They will even want favouritism in
terms of getting jobs or support from this public service officer. Hence, it is ironic in this part of the world called
Ghana and for that matter Africa, which is, their cultural norms is being advanced into the work of governance
(extended family life) and so therefore, porous society they all become with greed and deceptions. There is also no
proper succession planning in the national discourse and the constitution doesn‟t defined strategic plans of the
country. This is why Antwi-Boasiako (2015) indicated that there is constant lack of political will and social ethics
in delivering good governance in the public administrative offices but only practice character deceptive.
If a member of their family in government is to be interdicted of wrong doing such as bribery and corruption
matters, it‟s the same people who will be backing up and defending the public service officer who is a culprit of
crime and asking government not to take any action. They will use all sort of means to fight the system just to
celebrate their member of family member and friend of wrong doing at the expense of the entire nation progress for
justice. The fundamental values of public service organizations such as NPM, competition with limited resources,
and conflicts between individual demands and public interest, accountability and responsibility are all current
problems in governance within Africa (Lawton, 1998; Minogue, 2000). Haruna (2003) stated that there are many
challenges within the country due to improper education and training of public administrators on managerial
principles and this does not grow the human capital development that the country needs. This leads to wrongful or
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misleading or misguided thoughts of citizens about public administration work and good governance, and the lack
of trust due to poor administration systems and governance (Sindane, 2004; Antwi-Boasiako, 2015).
Again, unethical practice causes devastating effects of accountability, transparency and integrity, leading to
corruption and misconduct of public officers (Armstrong, 2005). It is furthered that lack of public trust endangers
any political stability, just as corruption is a constant challenge in achieving any objectives of a state (Armstrong,
2005). Capacity-building, controlling corruption, and political decentralisation or devolution are been battled with
African governments because Public Service Reform in developing countries are entirely unrelated to the New
Public Management systems introduced by the advanced countries (CLAD, 1998).
If leadership and top management as a government do not have authority it affects the smooth operation of
administrative systems and policies (Feldman and Khademian, 2001). This stress the fact that people in authority
are part of a problem of a state because of their posture and difficult bureaucratic nature makes it difficult to achieve
developmental needs (Haruna and Kannae, 2013). The fact of this point is that it really makes it difficult for African
countries to be governed in their weak or poor nature of not being capable to decide on their own policies and
developmental initiatives as they are being directed and controlled by international donor communities and the
developed countries, World Bank (2008); Doeveren (2011); European Union (2006); OECD (2007); United Nations
(2009); Haruna and Kannae (2013). This assertion means that, developmental agencies and the advanced countries
or call it super powers are for some reasons influencing the national budgets of the African countries, may be with
stringent clauses that the governments of Africa face due to their poor and weak economic situations, they always
had to take those conditions whether it is good or bad. But African countries at most have many more natural
resources than some of these advanced countries and so how can its administration turn it into good development?
1.9. Limitations
The primary study of this research dwell much on the publication and reports available online and also in the
library. The researcher concentrated on the critical analysis that is contrary to what the report findings are from
the literature reviewed and the primary surveyed data presentation and analysis. That is, in order to be able to find
the problem of Ghana in terms of Public Administration practices and suggesting solutions of solving them. This
research is limited to one of Ghana‟s institutions workforce, which is Ghana National Association of Teachers
(GNAT). The GNAT is association of workers under Ghana Education Service (GES) that exists to ensure better
conditions of service for its members in the pre-tertiary sectors of the educational system. That is, from public and
private primary, junior and secondary schools, teacher training colleges, and technical institutes such as
polytechnic. GNAT is deemed fit for this study because their services encompasses or embodies government
operations.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
According to Ibrahim (2012) investigated the relevance of New Public Management model to developing
countries and its noted that NPM has actually helped developed countries through effective model by which they
overcome the problems generated in those countries but it does not necessarily mean that this NPM will help
developing countries in the same manner. Between the 1950s and 1960s, Public Administration in the US went
through changes based on the past doctrines and interests, since the first two general textbooks of Public
Administration in the United States, was written by White and Willoughby, and were published in 1926 and 1927
respectively, which shows the beginning of Public Administration as a discipline (Waldo, 2008).
In terms of the origin of Public Administration, some of the framers of the U.S. Constitution and some early
U.S. political leaders, for example, Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson gave attention to problems of public
administration and wrote on them in ways that predicted later developments to that effect. Although, there is no
sharp point in history to tell the story of the beginning of Public Administration, but due to the essay by the then
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young (Wilson, 1887) is that, which, is often taken as the symbolic beginning. And certainly it was a remarkable
essay in its perceptiveness, persuasiveness, and influence of all times in the history of Public Administration
(Waldo, 2008).
It is stated that “it is getting to be harder to run a constitution than to frame one”, through to the 19th century.
The predominant concerns of the study of governmental affairs were a political philosophy, and constitutional
arrangements, and lawmaking. European countries, by then, had already begun taking training of civil servants
together with the scientific study of administration very seriously and he advised that the United States should do
same (Waldo, 2008). The word administration does not occur in the federal constitution in US. So, the general
question is, how does administration or management relates to executive as used in the constitution, particularly, e.g.
what institutions and persons are to direct and control administration is entirely open to dispute and public debate.
Research has showed that the preface of the first Public Administration textbook explicitly states in the texts that
“the study of administration should start from the base of management rather than the foundation of law” (White,
1926; Waldo, 2008).
The public services must always respond to important requirements and the needs concerning the higher level
of citizens‟ satisfaction of a nation (Matei et al., 2016). According to Ladi (2008) the current situation in the region
of Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is that all what these existing and previous literature talks about is
New Public Administration (NPA) and New Public Management (NPM) and with these, it is deliberately on the
issues relating to World Bank, IMF, EU and so on, their overall global policy implementations on the third world
countries Africa. The existing literature researched, concentrated more on developmental agencies and donor
partners work for African countries and has few discussions on the history of Public Administration in the
developed world.
New Public Management (NPM) reforms in the advanced countries happens in the era of Structural
Adjustment Programmes (SAP), a process which was driven by a combination of economic, social, political and
technological factors of service delivery in responds only to satisfy external players like the World Bank, IMF, EU,
USA, OECD etc and not from the total will of people per se (Doe, 2005). According to Doe (2005) stated that Ghana
has not been matured through any recognisable technocratic, systematic, or policy-making approach in the past decades or since
independence, except that it had, but just a mimicked kind of public service administration and management practices through
coercion/force/pressure from the developed countries and the world bodies.
Ghana will have to live in the era of globalisation which is (pluralism) against the background of its taken time
to evolve by itself, but due to weak political undertakings in the new millennium, which is against Ghana‟s will, and
aggressive though with a welcoming situation from media exploitations and a sophistication in the emerging
leadership of the Non-profit Sector Organisations (NPO) or Civil Society Institutions NGOs/CSOs (Doe, 2005).
This theory further stated that the dilemma, which is currently facing any attempt at the Public Sector Reform
(PSR) or third-generation of PSR in Ghana is enormous, the causes of past failures in other jurisdictions alone
cannot be seemed to have hope for the reform process since Ghana in itself as it has been reported "did not keep its
promise. It however, necessary to note that by this, Ghana in itself have not sufficiently identified the essence of the
causes and failures or its not satisfactory results of its numerous attempts at past public sector reforms such as new
public management, public/financial administration in the countries service delivery (Doe, 2005). In situations such
as these how can the Right to Information Bill (RTI) be all that important and concern to which group of people in
the society and what will be its objective to the country?
Notwithstanding, the same existing literature talks about the challenges involve in the delivery of good
governance in the public sector of economies. According to Aucoin (2012) this second objective of NPM has
transformed into a form of politicization that explicitly contradicts the public service tradition of impartiality in the
administration of public services and the nonpartisan management of the public service. And the problem is that,
does the citizens have a say in the governance process, or when it comes to establishing policies and programmes,
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how often have they been consulted and in what manner and channel? Are the people happy with the way
government establishes and delivers its programmes? All these point to the weak Public Administration form of
practices. Moreover, this paradox is resolved by the theory that managers need greater management authority for
management to secure desired outcomes that follow from more explicit policy and program direction from
ministers, who in turn hold them to account for not meeting their expectations if that is the outcome (Aucoin and
Heintzman, 2000; Aucoin, 2012). It is important to point out that this research is set out to define the history of
Public Administration how these public offices are managed with the human resources development towards
achieving a sustainable human capital development through the mixed governance systems we have had (democracy
and military rules).
It is unclear how Public Administration policies are been transferred from on regime to the other in Ghana.
More importantly, this research will dwell more on some existing theories such as Armstrong (2005) and,
Uwizeyimana and Maphunye (2014) and to throw more light on the guidelines by the UN, World Bank, IMF etc.
Moreover, empirical studies and findings have shown, that many people don‟t see the bigger picture in the
definition of Public Administration (King and Bradley, 2009; Antwi-Boasiako, 2015) therefore the educational
training of Ghanaian administrators on managerial principles is important towards achieving public administrations
theory and practice for good governance, which currently, in most cases do not seem to address the needs of
domestic issues (Haruna, 2003). The main gap here is that there is a lot of political interference in the discourse of
public policies, programmes and appointments into Public Administration office.
The role of the public administrators in Ghana is so confusing that most citizens, puts their hopes on the
central government, which is the executive arm of government to provide them with basic necessities through
policy and programmes. But at times some institutions of government are been ignored without consultations
because there is lack of trust due to poor administration systems and governance. Due to its socio-cultural context,
it‟s always evolving its intellectual contents, which are tacit values and does not express by a single set of concepts
or principles (Sindane, 2004; Antwi-Boasiako, 2015). Winner takes all and divide and rule are the major systems
defined in our constitution in running the countries administrations. It is noted also that effective government and
governance are both concerned with Public Administration and Management but however, they are distinct
theories and practices with different theoretical foundations and therefore define efficiency and effectiveness
differently (Antwi-Boasiako, 2015).
According to Armstrong (2005) the lack of integrity, transparency and accountability has devastating effects,
as it leads to misconduct like corruption of public officers because it is unethical practice since fraud, bribery and
corruption have real cost and that is, if it is about the lives and health of the people which are endangered at the
expense of quality of healthcare like medicines. This means that lack of trust in the public servants and officers
undermines development which is destroying the political stability of a nation. And corruption is still the most
significant obstacle towards the inability to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Even though,
achievement rates vary from country to country, hence, South East Asia leads the achievement chart and Africa
trails. The reasons for this poor performance in achieving these MDG goals by African governments is due to the
weaknesses in governance, and poverty traps e.g. false diagnoses, uneven development, and unrealistic expectations,
i.e. improper access and distribution of resources, and policy gaps are the main root causes of poor public
administration and management to achieving good governance in Africa. These in turn are the major problems
confronting the developing countries - third world country like Ghana.
According to Feldman and Khademian (2001) stated that in 1887, Professor, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson
argued that in exercising strong leadership would be seen as accountable leadership, which means no danger in the
power exercised. That is, if it is centred on the heads and branches of the organisation where punishment can be
given to any culprit. This is what is lacking in Ghana and in some parts of Africa punishing top executives with
crimes and impunity is not well practiced as a serious method to deter and correct bad behaviours in Public
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Administration. Also, in 1976, Wilson stated, authority given by leaders and top managers are essential for the
operation of administrative systems effectively and the implementation of administrative procedures easily
(Feldman and Khademian, 2001). Principles start from the new public management literature, which shows the
importance of structure managers to manage according to the priorities of political principles and the people they
represent.
Therefore, by far, performance of public services is complex and multidimensional because it presents different
interests of various stakeholder groups, which influence the conceptualization and measurement of performance of
public services administration (Matei et al., 2016) and an example is that 63 administrative territorial units are been
investigated in Romania in relation to six dimensions as below:
human resources for the functional structures of the administrative-territorial units
weight and capacity of community services of public utilities
mechanisms of adjustment for the activity of every community service
performance of the administrative-territorial units based on the administrative acts
flow of the administrative acts and documents
concrete expression of decisional transparency
However, long time ago, one of the objectives of NPM has been transformed into a form of politicization that
concurrently runs counter to the public service tradition of impartiality in the administration of public services in
addition to the nonpartisan management of the public service. Aucoin (2012) termed this politicization as New
Political Governance (NPG) and this was because he tried to distinguish NPG from the initial NPM efforts of
political executives with the purpose of controlling their public service bureaucracies and not to be undermined or
obstructed by the Executives as in the “Yes, Minister” script. In contrast to legitimate democratic control of the
public service by ministers, NPG constitutes a corrupt form of politicization to the extent that governments seek to
use and misuse and abuse, the public service in the administration of public resources together with the conduct of
public businesses to better secure their partisan advantage over their competitors that is opposition parties
(Campbell, 2007; Aucoin, 2012). They further argued that, at best, this politicization in NPG only constitutes shady
governance and then at worst, it is a form of political corruption that cannot achieve results but undermine
impartiality and, thereby undermining management performance to the extent that it assumes management based
on nonpartisan criteria and Ghana is not an exception.
Figure-1. Proposed Theoretical Framework (Total Effect)
3. METHODOLOGY
This is both quantitative and qualitative study and therefore a subset population of Ghana National Association
of Teachers (GNAT) is considered for the sampling. Hence, GNAT members within the Tamale Metropolis were
considered with a sample size of 55 member responses out of 66 questionnaires administered. A set of
questionnaires (both quantitative and qualitative technique of instruments) are been developed and administered as
a survey on the selected subset population of GNAT. The questions were closed and open-ended and in this case
this research represents a mixed method data analysis. This mixed menthod adopted can be referred to as
methodological triangulation in order to reduce bias (Denzin, 1978; Niglas, 2000). Methodological triangulation is
the means of using multiple methods to investigate or study a phenomenon or a single problem and this may also
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include using the same method on different situations and occasion. It was conducted using simple random bases,
and of which 55 responses were captured for this data presentation and analysis. We chose Ghana National
Association of Teachers (GNAT) because their organisation/association fit into this study since they are
government employees and also they deal with departments, local government, and ministries. Aside this, they
individually belong to the public, civil and business societies. By and large, a technological scientific tool that is used
and run the data is SmartPLS 3.
4. FINDINGS/PRESENTATION OF DATA/ ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
The researcher used mixed method (in the sense of data analysis tool used) of combining both PLS-SEM
modelling and PLS regression as in Tenenhaus et al. (2004) used both PLS-SEM and regression to gather graphical
presentation of products including their characteristics per each construct. Then the PLS-SEM was then used to
gather further detailed data analysis of each constructs of the consumers and build a causal model with the
constructs per each variable.
4.1. Constructs Defined From the Instrument Developed for Clarity
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The above figure 2 shows that the effects of the reflections of the two variables (Public Administration and
Good Governance). The results show that Public Administration has strong positive effect path to Good
Governance since it is 0.806 it is closed to positive 1 which is the strongest. This also means that 65% of the
variance in Good Governance explained the model since the R-square value is 0.650 as an endogenous variable
which is also serving as a dependent variable. The below figure 3 depicts the path coefficients which confirms this
strong positive effect. Also, figure 4 below confirms the total effect of the model and figure 5 below confirms the R-
Square values as substantial. By this study the researcher considered the multicollinearity assessment of the latent
variables as the purpose of this study depends on each construct to the variables tested. Therefore, no collinearity
problem is considered to delete any variable of a construct which has lower outer loadings, all are been considered.
Figure-2. Algorithm test run Model of PA and GG
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Figure-3. Path Coefficients
Figure-4. Total Effects
Figure-5. R-Square
Figure-6. f-Square
The above figure 6 shows the f-Square which is 1.856 which means that the effect of dropping Public
Administration is high since it has a larger effect on Good Governance.
Figure-7. Composite Reliability and Validity (Reflective Mode)
The figure 7 above shows the values of construct reliability and validity and in this result it shows that the
Cronbach Alpha for Good Governance is acceptable with the value of 0.766 and Public Administration is a very
strong and good scale with a value of 0.928 which all means that the model is valid and strongly reliable. Cronbach
Alpha by convention is used to measure internal consistency but several recommendations have been made of late to
consider the Composite Reliability test over the Cronbach Alpha as replacement since the Composite Reliability
produces consistency values more than Cronbach Alpha (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988; Hair et al., 2012). But for the
purpose of this study it is important to consider both as comparison for concrete affirmation of values. As one can
see in the above figure 7, Public Aministration CA=0.928 and CR=0.910 which indicates that its not all the case
that CR will always produce greater value consistency than CA. It may be the case of any dataset that is been tested
and the results is what researchers must comment on against previous theories.
Composite Reliability is an alternative to Cronbach Alpha. It may lead to higher estimates and true reliability
which varies from 0 to 1. And 1 is the perfect estimated reliability. For exploratory purpose it must be equal to or
greater than 0.6 (Chin, 1998; Höck and Ringle, 2006). But according to Henseler and Sarstedt (2013) argued that
when Composite Reliability is equal to or greater than 0.7 then it is for adequate model such as for confirmatory
purposes. When it is equal to or greater than 0.8 it is considered good for confirmatory research and according to
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Daskalakis and Mantas (2008) a very high composite reliability is when it is greater than 0.9 (>0.90). Dijkstra‟s
consistent of PLS output also known as PLSc technique which results include reliabilities for each of the variables
studied is also referred to as Dijkstra‟s rho_A which is described in many context as a determinant of better
approximation of true reliabilities even more than both Cronbach Alpha and Composite Reliability coefficients as
the figure 7 above depicted. The rho_A values are also proved to be reliable and even far better for the Public
Administration which is 0.933, which is higher than Cronbach Alpha and Composite Reliability in this case. Hence,
the model is reliable.
4.2. Outer Loadings
Researchers have recommended that a minimum acceptable loaded value of 0.4 and up to 0.7 and above is
considered as the best and higher loadings (Hulland, 1999; Wong, 2013). Since the main purpose of this research is
to make contributions to the underpinning public administration as the main driver in the discourse of good
governance for a state, therefore, the implications of these loadings as showed in the below figure 8 and in figure 2
above are:
a) The following factors show an indication of its effects or affects to Good Governance process. These are:
i. there are gaps in the management of the nation, government, and citizens‟ performance or
delivery;
(affect)
ii. that governments don‟t deliver their promises;
(affect)
iii. that governments are not good managers of the economy;
(affect)
iv. that policies and systems are not working;
(affect)
v. that they have been understanding about what government is doing;
(affect)
vi. that media houses reportage is at times bias;
(affect)
vii. there is political will power in doing things in the country;
(affect)
viii. that there is some good social ethics and behaviours;
(affect)
ix. that there is too much corruption in Ghana;
(affect)
b) Also, the following factors that affect or has effect on the process and performance of Public
Administration work are:
i. that governments can‟t manage the public affairs properly;
(affect)
ii. that Politics in Ghana is different to the developed countries best practices
(affect)
iii. that Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) is good government organisation;
(effect)
iv. Ministry of Communication is good government organisation;
(effect)
v. Commission of Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) is good government
organisation;
(effect)
vi. National Health Service (NHS) is good government organisation;
(effect)
vii. National Labour Commission (NLC) is good government organisation;
(effect)
viii. Single Spine Pay Policy (SSPP) is good government policy;
(effect)
ix. Statistical Service Department is good government organisation;
(effect)
x. Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) is good government organisation;
(effect)
xi. Drivers and Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) is good government organisation;
(effect)
xii. Ghana Water Company (GWC) is good government organisation;
(effect)
xiii. Ministry of Finance is good government organisation;
(effect)
xiv. Ghana Youth Entrepreneurial and Employment Development Agency (GYEEDA/YEA) is good
government organisation, now Youth Employment Authority all under National Youth
Authority;
(effect)
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xv. National Service Scheme (NSS) is good government organisation;
(effect)
xvi. Microfinance and Small Loans Centre (MASLOC) is good government organisation;
(effect)
xvii. that political parties corrupt or bribe media houses;
(affect)
xviii. Parties Manifesto promises are myth;
(affect)
xix. that democratic system to Chiefs in the country is a bane;
(affect)
xx. that there is less application of management functions and principles by governments
administration;
(affect)
xxi. that Public Administration is better practiced in the developed countries;
(affect)
xxii. that PA is over politicised in Ghana;
(affect)
xxiii. that PA is just a description in Ghana meaning no trust in the system of operation and delivery;
(affect)
xxiv. that PA don‟t exist in Ghana structures implies no credibility in its practice;
(affect)
xxv. that Democracy is not good for PA practice in Ghana;
(affect)
xxvi. that PA has no justifiable laid down procedures in Ghana meaning poor practice is observed;
(affect)
xxvii. that bribery and corruption affect Ghana performance to be translated into better growth,
politically and economically.
(affect)
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Figure-8. Outer Loadings
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Figure-9.Bootstrapped Test Run: Model of PA and
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The above figure 9 shows the bootstrapped test run results of the model for Public Administration
(Independent variable) and Good Governance (dependent variable) and the results indicated very strong and
positive effect at reflective value of 20.750 and which is affirmative to the Algorithm test in figure 2 above. The
bootstrap results show the normality of data by approximations. This also checks for the inner path coefficients are
significant or not and this case it.
Figure-10. Path Coefficients
The above figure 10 shows the path coefficient of the t-statistic value of 20.750, which is above 1.96 at 0.05
levels meaning that the paths are significant. It also shows a p-value of 0.000 as probability level which means that
the paths are actually significant since it is better than 0.001 at probability level.
Figure-11.Total Effects
Looking at the figure 11 above you notice that it is exactly the same as the path coefficient in figure 10 above
which is representing the direct effect. Since this model only have one independent variable and one dependent
variable, it means that there is no any mediator or moderator and therefore cannot calculate the values of any
indirect effect. Hence, the model is only representing a total effect and both t-statistic and p-value are proven to be
significant.
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Figure-12. R-Square
The above figure 12 shows that R-Square of Good Governance as dependent variable which is significant since
the t-statistics is equal to 10.041 and p-value is 0.000 of the tested model.
Figure-13. R-Square Adjusted
Again the above R-Square Adjusted in figure 13 shows that Good Governance is still significant upon the
adjustment of the tested model.
Figure-14. f-Square
The figure 14 above shows f-Square of the Public Administration indicating that t-statistics is significant but
with p-value=0.028 which is still scientifically a strong evidence since it is less than 0.05. The f-Square is an
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expression of an equation that indicates how bigger a proportion of the unexplained variance is attributed to the R2
(Hair et al., 2014).
Figure 15. Average Variance Extracted (AVE)
The above figure 15 depicts AVE which test for both convergent and divergent validity. It shows Average
Communality for each latent factor in a reflective model. AVE should be greater than 0.5 (Chin, 1998; Höck and
Ringle, 2006) and it should be greater than the cross loadings. If AVE is below 0.5 it means that error variance
exceeds explained variance. In this bootstrapped results it indicated in the above figure 15 that both Good
Governance and Public Administration are significant since their t-values are more than 1.96 at 0.05 level with p-
values=0.000.
Figure 16. Composite Reliability
The boostrapped test results showed in the above figure 16 indicates that both Good Governance and Public
Administration are significant since the t-values are 17.903 and 8.937 and the p-values are 0.000. This means the
model is reliably for the two constructs.
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Figure 17. rho_A Reliability Coefficient
The above figure 17 is the results of rho_A which shows that both Good Governance and Public
Administration are significant with reliability coefficients. Both t-values and p-values are accurately measured with
the results.
Figure 18. Cronbach Alpha Reliability Test results
The bootstrapped results in the above figure 18 are significant for both Good Governance and the Public
Administration. With both having t-values more than 1.96 and p-values=0.000.
4.3. Outer Loadings Significance Test
The significant value must be greater than 1.96 at 0.05 levels of probability from the below figure 19.
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Figure 19. Outer Loadings (Significance Test t-test)
5. CONCLUSION
The overall objective of this research was to broaden the scope of the research to at least assess and examine
majority portions and areas of the government functions and administrative work as collective responsibilities as
the findings shows. The application of the SmartPLS 3 scientific test, a lot of analysis are been gathered for better
insight and understanding of Public Administration and Good Governance. This research reveals how
governments are expected to work and deliver their promises under their administration together with
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stakeholders. They are to use the resources available in the physical structures and soft structures in their
administration towards achieving good governance status, which is lacking across the African continent at present.
The puzzle that this research tried to dissolved is whether government administrative systems and procedures are
been followed in order to achieve maximum and satisfactory level of good governance. Good Governance is about
improving on all the factors, functions and negative tendencies that block the progress of a country economy, such
as, preventing corruption, bribery, and follow rules and regulations as laid down and render services to the people
but not to profit individually.
Since, Ghana has gone through a lot of turmoil through Coup d‟états per the country governments‟ history
since the time of Dr Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah in the late 1950s to date. The country has finally accepted a
democratic rule or practice but with serious challenges that have to do with politics and the use of national
resources to deliver Good Governance through proper administration. This is lacking per the research constructs
displayed in the outer loadings and Algorithm diagram. Even though, it shows that Public Administration effect
Good Governance, which is what it should be originally.
Table 2 of this research shows clearly how poor Ghana is in terms of unavailability of national data to track
proper analysis with figures to determine its growth. For many years up to date there is no proper national data on
the unemployment to determine the level of the rate. The economic growth says it all looking at it from 2011 to
2015 which has been declining. The inflation rate, policy rate, exchange rate and the worse of it are the negatives in
the current accounts in GDP%, Trade Balance and Exports. This shows how previous existing data on Ghana by
most international organisations indicates the terrible conditions of Ghana‟s growth level. That is why this research
tried to point to the poor Public Administrative practices that lead to insignificant growth level of Ghana. If one
juxtaposes table 2 data to table 3, it can be concluded that the government spending, tax burden and fiscal health
(monetary) are all in bad position, very low fiscal health and very high government spending.
By and large, the research showed that the hypothesis confirms Public Administration as positively correlated
in relationship to Good Governance, that is, if only proper care and government delivery of services and
responsibilities are well practiced according to laid down procedures. In this case, both the practical and theoretical
problems envisage are been met in this findings as not too satisfactory.
The New Public Management (NPM), New Public Administration (NPA), and New Public Governance (NPG)
are newly terminologies been introduced by scope to avert the poor delivery of the original Public Administration
been the subject matter of this research. A cue has been taken as to how important it is to apply capacity-building,
controlling corruption, and political decentralisation or devolution which are been battled with African
governments because Public Service Reform in the developing countries are entirely unrelated to the New Public
Management (CLAD, 1998). And that there is a disconnect of civil servants and citizens as they lack the values and
practices like efficiency, justice, legality, trust in laws and institutions, management of human resources and crisis
management (Ladi, 2008). Moreover, that Public Sector Reforms produces unexpected negative results as it rarely
satisfies the prior intention of those who initiate it and the initiators are the advanced countries, since they are
always the market leaders in foreign trades and technology (March and Olsen, 1989; OECD, 2003). According to
Matei et al. (2016) stated that the public services must always respond to important requirements and the needs
concerning the higher level of citizens‟ satisfaction of a nation.
The ironic situation of Public Administration systems and understanding of the Ghanaian populace is that
instead of them to know their value of holding power as a people they rather turn to worship and please those that
they voted into government positions to run the affairs of the state on their behalf. This is fascinating as to the way
the citizens or most of the populace lack understanding of Public Administrative service which made them look too
weak and down upon themselves and are been abused by the people who are suppose to be serving them. Another
confused ideology is that the citizens are divided in political lines and are not united to even hold the Public Officers
accountable to their stewardship of managing the affairs of the country, Ghana. The very institutions that are
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meant to serve the people are rather been used to loot from the state coffers. And by affirmation to this and
according to former President Obama of the United States of America advised Africans that they don‟t need strong
men but that they need strong institutions. This alone tells it all what the international community‟s see wrong
about Ghana and the entire Africa as a whole and that is poor Public Administration running through the public
institutions for lack of efficiency.
From the above empirical studies and considering figure 19 above, presents the following conclusions based on
contrasts and comparisons of the results. The following outer loadings are proven to be significant and some
scientifically proven not to be supported by the scientific test for significance. These are as follows:
a) The following factors are proven to effect or affect Good Governance process significantly, that is, almost
all the factors are proven under GG.
i. there are gaps in the management of the nation, government, and citizens‟ performance or
delivery;
(affect significantly)
ii. that governments don‟t deliver their promises;
(affect significantly)
iii. that governments are not good managers of the economy;
(affect significantly)
iv. that policies and systems are not working;
(affect significantly)
v. that they have been understanding about what government is doing;
(effect significantly)
vi. that media houses reportage is at times bias;
(affect significantly)
vii. there is political will power in doing things in the country;
(effect significantly)
viii. that there is some good social ethics and behaviours;
(effect significantly)
ix. that there is too much corruption in Ghana;
(affect significantly)
b) Also, the following factors that are proven to affect or effect the processes and performance of Public
Administration work significantly are:
i. that governments can‟t manage the public affairs properly;
(affect significantly)
ii. that politics in Ghana is different to the developed countries best practices;
(affect significantly)
iii. that Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) is good government organisation;
(effect significantly)
iv. Ministry of Communication is good government organisation;
(effect significantly)
v. Commission of Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) is good government
organisation;
vi. National Health Service (NHS) is good government organisation;
vii. National Labour Commission (NLC) is good government organisation;
(effect significantly)
viii. Single Spine Pay Policy (SSPP) is good government policy;
(effect significantly)
ix. Statistical Service Department is good government organisation;
(effect significantly)
x. Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) is good government organisation;
(effect significantly)
xi. Drivers and Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) is good government organisation;
(effect
significantly)
xii. Ghana Water Company (GWC) is good government organisation;
(effect significantly)
xiii. Ministry of Finance is good government organisation;
(effect significantly)
xiv. Ghana Youth Entrepreneurial and Employment Development Agency (GYEEDA/YEA) is good
government organisation, now Youth Employment Authority all under National Youth
Authority;
(effect significantly)
xv. National Service Scheme (NSS) is good government organisation;
xvi. Microfinance and Small Loans Centre (MASLOC) is good government organisation
xvii. that political parties corrupt or bribe media houses;
(affect significantly)
xviii. Parties Manifesto promises are myth;
(affect significantly)
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xix. that democratic system to Chiefs in the country is a bane;
(affect significantly)
xx. that there is less application of management functions and principles by governments
administration;
(affect significantly)
xxi. that Public Administration is better practiced in the developed countries;
(affect significantly)
xxii. that PA is over politicised in Ghana;
(affect significantly)
xxiii. that PA is just a description in Ghana meaning no trust in the system of operation and delivery;
(affect significantly)
xxiv. that PA don‟t exist in Ghana structures implies no credibility in its practice;
(affect significantly)
xxv. that Democracy is not good for PA practice in Ghana;
(affect significantly)
xxvi. that PA has no justifiable laid down procedures in Ghana meaning poor practice is observed;
(affect significantly)
xxvii. that bribery and corruption affect Ghana performance to be translated into better growth,
politically and economically;
(affect significantly)
c) Ironically, out of these outer loadings of scientific test for significance, only the following are not proven to
be significant since it could not load more than the t-test value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of certainty. These are:
governments achievements are scored at 70%-100%; Commission of Human Rights and Administrative
Justice (CHRAJ); National Health Service (NHS); National Service Scheme (NSS); and Microfinance and
Small Loans Centre (MASLOC). This shows that in PLS-SEM application for analysis, algorithm with
acceptable outer loadings occurs when after it is bootstrapped then some may not be found to be significant
per the constructs. The research could not tell why the following constructs had very low outer loadings:
probity, accountability, integrity, law and justice, donor support, Ghana Education Service (GES), no trust
in public universities, and no management information systems connections to all departments in
government.
The general question as noted in the literature review is that, how does administration or management relates to the
executive arm of government? Administration and Management are sometimes used interchangeably according to
different schools of thoughts. As it is stated in the constitution, particularly, what institutions and persons are to
direct and control administration is entirely open to dispute and public debate is something that the Ghanaians in
general must look at serious to factor in or streamline the constitution strategically with proper administrative and
management best practice functions rather than a content of pure laws and clauses. In view of this research has
revealed that the preface of the first Public Administration textbook explicitly states in the texts that “the study of
administration should start from the base of management rather than the foundation of law” (White, 1926; Waldo,
2008). To better understand the Public Administration and Management that Ghana went through up to date from
1957 (see table 1 above), we had 13 governments or leaders of the country Administration role. Under which Ghana
had six (6) Coup d‟états – Military Rule or dictatorship (administering and managing and running the Public
Administration of the country. This alone was a distraction of proper progress of Public Administration not to be
able to achieve the ultimate goal of Good Governance in broader sense.
Below are formative algorithms in order to contrast with the reflective algorithms results as above in accordance
with the discussions to draw a supportive conclusion in this manner or otherwise.
Figure-20. Path Coefficient Formative Model
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Figure-21. Total Effect Formative Model
Figure-22. R-Square and R-Square Adjusted Formative Model
Figure-23. Composite Reliability and Validity - Formative Model
Figure-24. Discriminant Validity Formative Model
Figure-25. Collonearity Statistics (VIF) for Inner Values Formative Model
In contrasting the reflecting model to the above formative model findings, all the results shows that this
research model is acceptable as normal with proven positive hypothesis. It means there is no doubt that Public
Administration is reflective and formative to Good Governance of the country.
6. RECOMMENDATION
From the above conclusions it is clear that certain evidences that are lacking be recommended for future
researchers to consider. First of all, this research was conducted as a total effect model which has proven positive
and significant but then several independent variables such as the Civil Society Organisations and the Private
Business Sectors influences on Good Governance can be conducted. Also, there is the need to introduce mediators
and moderators such as Public Servants/Public Office Workers performance as mediator and General Qualification
and Experience as moderators. Establishment of these variables towards achievement of Good Governance will be
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© 2018 Conscientia Beam. All Rights Reserved.
able to point out the factors and variable needed to facilitate best practices. May be because there is lack of the
proposed variables in addition to Public Administration work would have made it properly deliver Good
Governance for Ghanaians. It would also be interesting to investigate the relationship of the Henry Fayol‟s 14
Principles of Management and its enhancement to Public Administration operations through workers.
Funding: This study received no specific financial support.
Competing Interests: The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publica tion
of this paper.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Performance Management Policy Framework for the Public Services of Ghana, 2011
Public Services Commission Act, 1994 (Act 482)
The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana
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