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... Studies that show how AR is used in the learning system. 91,  Studies that investigated the use of AR in the learning system in different countries. , 55, , 92,93,99 Studies related to using AR in different levels of education (pre-school, primary school, secondary school, and University). ...
...  Thesis about AR in Education.  Book chapters that discuss using AR technology in Education. ...
... AR also has great potentials in open and distance learning as discussed by Saykili and Altınpulluk in [22,57]. Researchers have investigated the use of AR in the learning system of different countries such as India , Australia , Bangladesh , USA and Kuwait . ...
With the raise of COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the traditional teaching-learning process became inefficient. Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) research has increasingly focused on emergent technologies such as Augmented Reality (AR). It became one of the technologies that has received great attention and interest in the last decade. In this paper, we conducted a systematic review that describes the current state of using AR as a learning tool. Taking into consideration the needs of all students including those with a disability, in different levels of education. It is done through the analysis of the following factors: AR in learning system, AR in levels of education and categories of educational AR applications. A total of 103 studies between 2011 and 2021 were analyzed through searching in four interdisciplinary databases: Springer, IEEE Xplore, ResearchGate, and Google Scholar. This analysis helped to see in which direction AR systems for education are heading and how it will be designed to fit the students' needs and improve their learning. Further research and development will make AR a more promising learning tool.
... Similarly, the topics were randomly assigned to each group. A list of user expectations of AR experience  in classrooms was also provided, considering it to be a strong reference to spark the discussion. The participants could assume that the students have access to the tablets in the classrooms. ...
... The arguments were then based on selecting appropriate topics and examples. In doing so, the participants were seen to be taking either of the three approaches as discussed below and indicated in Fig. 2.  in classrooms that was provided as part of the design task. In the second method, the participants categorized the textbook examples on the basis of the dimensions of cognitive levels as proposed in Bloom's taxonomy . ...
... As indicated in previous studies [20,62,84], the context of the ARLEs must be set by situating instances from real-life scenarios to guide in visualizing abstract concepts. Thus, the design decisions for the alternate representation in AR are based on (1) the expectations of the users , (2) the designers' prior experience of creating AR applications and/or (3) the affordances of AR. The design solutions also indicated that the AR representation must be kept simple and minimal  to restrict overwhelming visualizations for the students. ...
Augmented Reality Learning Experiences (ARLEs) for classrooms provide student-centered learning. In recent years, there has been an increase in HCI research on various handheld AR learning applications and the authoring tools to design them. However, there is a lack of studies exploring the design decisions required to create ARLEs, specific to the classroom context. To analyze the same, we conducted a design workshop with 32 participants forming 8 groups to investigate approaches for designing classroom-based ARLEs. Each group consisted of an AR developer, an interaction designer, an education researcher, and a middle-grade Math teacher. The groups designed ARLEs based on a given Mathematics topic for a classroom scenario. Though the groups used varied approaches for generating design prototypes, we observed similarities between their techniques. We report the key design approaches and decisions that were adopted by these groups. The findings are articulated through the lenses of content, context and design. Based on the analysis, we discuss the design approaches relevant for the novice designers while conceptualizing the design of a handheld ARLE for classrooms.
... Augmented Reality (AR) technology tends to work as a manipulative in the education sector among various emerging technologies. It could provide an immersive and engaging experience to learners while maintaining the genuineness of the surrounding real environment (Squire and Klopfer 2007;Sarkar and Pillai 2019). Thus, its application in education is valuable for being able to provide the learners with rich contextual learning, where learners build their individual unique discovery path (Bujak et al. 2013). ...
Abstract There are several concepts in 2D Geometry that require understanding their application in the real practical world. However, in classrooms, such concepts are often taught without the analysis of the learners’ realization and interpretation of the existing concepts around them, in their surroundings. For this purpose, an Augmented Reality (AR) based module for the 7th and 8th grade syllabus has been designed to encourage the active participation of the learners in the classroom while learning the concept of Lines and Angles. It comprises three AR learning activities that enable the participants to recall, visualize, and identify the type of angle and then mark it by drawing on the augmented 3D house. Before conducting the main studies, a pilot study was conducted with 6 students of 8th grade. This helped in validating the data instruments, timing, and execution of the research study. The first study was conducted with 21 students of 8th grade where 12 participants performed the AR learning activities in dyads and 9 participants performed individually. Their perspectives, approaches, and motivation in performing the AR learning activities have been reported. Findings from the study showed that the majority i.e. 90.4% participants preferred to perform the AR learning activities in dyads than individually. Though the usability score was higher for the participants who performed the AR learning activities individually (M = 70.28) as compared to dyads (M = 65.23), there was no significant difference in the motivation scores between the participants of the two groups. In the second study, 28 students of 7th grade were divided into dyads and their behavior patterns of performing the AR learning activities have been reported. Using Lag Sequential Analysis, significant sequences were obtained based on the behaviors belonging to three categories of peer involvement, teacher prompts and AR interactions. It was found that the designed AR learning activities encouraged the participants to discuss the concepts with peers, enhanced their immersive experience as they together moved around and inside the house to find and identify the angles.
Document ranking is one of the most studied but challenging problems in information retrieval (IR). More and more studies have begun to address this problem from fine-grained document modeling. However, most of them focus on context-independent passage-level relevance signals and ignore the context information. In this paper, we investigate how information gain accumulates with passages and propose the context-aware Passage Cumulative Gain (PCG). The fine-grained PCG avoids the need to split documents into independent passages. We investigate PCG patterns at the document level (DPCG) and the query level (QPCG). Based on the patterns, we propose a BERT-based sequential model called Passage-level Cumulative Gain Model (PCGM) and show that PCGM can effectively predict PCG sequences. Finally, we apply PCGM to the document ranking task using two approaches. The first one is leveraging DPCG sequences to estimate the gain of an individual document. Experimental results on two public ad hoc retrieval datasets show that PCGM outperforms most existing ranking models. The second one considers the cross-document effects and leverages QPCG sequences to estimate the marginal relevance. Experimental results show that predicted results are highly consistent with users’ preferences. We believe that this work contributes to improving ranking performance and providing more explainability for document ranking.
This research deals with editorial design based on user experience design. The traditional editorial design has had to adapt to the new digital media composition, where multimedia audiovisual elements unthinkable a few years ago need to be integrated. The participation of the reader, as an external observer who only receives information through texts and images, now has new scenarios in which he can actively participate and decide what will come to his hands. In this study, a work methodology based on UxD User Experience Design is presented, in which will generate the editorial design of an educational book on environmental issues, which includes augmented reality for children from 6 to 8 years of age. The aim of this study is to know if an editorial product with augmented reality and developed from the user experience design can improve meaningful learning in a playful and active way. For its development, a composition model based on the Fibonacci sequence and the golden ratio will be used. Additionally, its graphic composition will be guided by the Massimo Vignelli canon and will be complemented by the reticular model of Beth Tondreau. The augmented reality markers position will also be based on the composition model previously mentioned, which will allow keeping the attention of the reader in the printed document and in the augmented reality animations. The user experience design will be applied with teachers, parents and students from 4 schools in Quito and Ambato. Once the production is completed, the impact on teaching-learning process will be evaluated with a control and a test group, and the methodology with which they will work in the classroom with the educational material developed will be defined. At the end of the study, copies of the book will be delivered to the participating schools of this research for its implementation.
Virtual reality captures people’s attention. This technology has been applied in many sectors such as medicine, industry, education, video games, or tourism. Perhaps its biggest area of interest has been leisure and entertainment. Regardless the sector, the introduction of virtual or augmented reality had several constraints: it was expensive, it had poor ergonomics, or implied too much work to create contents. Recent technological innovations, including the rapid adoption of smartphones by society, have facilitated the access to virtual reality and augmented reality of anyone. In addition, several large companies like Apple, Facebook, Samsung, and Magic Leap, among others, have increased their investment to make these technologies to improve their accessibility within the next few years. Educational institutions will benefit from better accessibility to virtual technologies; this will make it possible to teach in virtual environments that are impossible to visualize in physical classrooms, like accessing into virtual laboratories, visualizing machines, industrial plants, or even medical scenarios. The huge possibilities of accessible virtual technologies will make it possible to break the boundaries of formal education.
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in applying Augmented Reality (AR) to create unique educational settings. So far, however, there is a lack of review studies with focus on investigating factors such as: the uses, advantages, limitations, effectiveness, challenges and features of augmented reality in educational settings. Personalization for promoting an inclusive learning using AR is also a growing area of interest. This paper reports a systematic review of literature on augmented reality in educational settings considering the factors mentioned before. In total, 32 studies published between 2003 and 2013 in 6 indexed journals were analyzed. The main findings from this review provide the current state of the art on research in AR in education. Furthermore, the paper discusses trends and the vision towards the future and opportunities for further research in augmented reality for educational settings.
There are many different ways for people to be educated and trained with regard to specific information and skills they need. These methods include classroom lectures with textbooks, computers, handheld devices, and other electronic appliances. The choice of learning innovation is dependent on an individual’s access to various technologies and the infrastructure environment of a person’s surrounding. In a rapidly changing society where there is a great deal of available information and knowledge, adopting and applying information at the right time and right place is needed to main efficiency in both school and business settings. Augmented Reality (AR) is one technology that dramatically shifts the location and timing of education and training. This literature review research describes Augmented Reality (AR), how it applies to education and training, and the potential impact on the future of education.
The technical enablers for mobile augmented reality (MAR) are becoming robust enough to allow the development of MAR services that are truly valuable for consumers. Such services would provide a novel interface to the ubiquitous digital information in the physical world, hence serving in great variety of contexts and everyday human activities. To ensure the acceptance and success of future MAR services, their development should be based on knowledge about potential end users’ expectations and requirements. We conducted 16 semi-structured interview sessions with 28 participants in shopping centres, which can be considered as a fruitful context for MAR services. We aimed to elicit new knowledge about (1) the characteristics of the expected user experience and (2) central user requirements related to MAR in such a context. From a pragmatic viewpoint, the participants expected MAR services to catalyse their sense of efficiency, empower them with novel context-sensitive and proactive functionalities and raise their awareness of the information related to their surroundings with an intuitive interface. Emotionally, MAR services were expected to offer stimulating and pleasant experiences, such as playfulness, inspiration, liveliness, collectivity and surprise. The user experience categories and user requirements that were identified can serve as targets for the design of user experience of future MAR services.
Augmented Reality (AR) is an emerging form of experience in which the Real World (RW) is enhanced by computer-generated content tied to specific locations and/or activities. Over the last several years, AR applications have become portable and widely available on mobile de-vices. AR is becoming visible in our audio-visual media (e.g., news, entertainment, sports) and is beginning to enter other aspects of our lives (e.g., e-commerce, travel, marketing) in tangible and exciting ways. Facilitating ubiquitous learning, AR will give learners instant access to location-specific information compiled and provided by numerous sources (2009). Both the 2010 and 2011 Horizon Reports predict that AR will soon see widespread use on US college campuses. In prepa-ration, this paper offers an overview of AR, examines recent AR developments, explores the impact of AR on society, and evaluates the implications of AR for learning and education.
The effects of SMART Board technology, an interactive electronic whiteboard, and a 3s constant time delay (CTD) procedure was evaluated for teaching sight word reading to students with moderate intellectual disabilties within a small group arrangment. A multiple probe design across three word sets and replicated with three students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of SMART Board technology on: (a) reading target grocery words; (b) matching grocery item photos to target grocery words; (c) reading other students' target grocery words through observational learning; and (d) matching grocery item photos to observational grocery words. Results support use of this tool to teach multiple students at one time and its effects on observational learning of non-target information.
In 1997, Azuma published a survey on augmented reality (AR). Our
goal is to complement, rather than replace, the original survey by
presenting representative examples of the new advances. We refer one to
the original survey for descriptions of potential applications (such as
medical visualization, maintenance and repair of complex equipment,
annotation, and path planning); summaries of AR system characteristics
(such as the advantages and disadvantages of optical and video
approaches to blending virtual and real, problems in display focus and
contrast, and system portability); and an introduction to the crucial
problem of registration, including sources of registration error and
Instructional designers and educators recognize the potential of mobile technologies as a learning tool for students and have incorporated them into the distance learning environment. However, little research has been done to categorize the numerous examples of mobile learning in the context of distance education, and few instructional design guidelines based on a solid theoretical framework for mobile learning exist. In this paper I compare mobile learning (m-learning) with electronic learning (e-learning) and ubiquitous learning (u-learning) and describe the technological attributes and pedagogical affordances of mobile learning presented in previous studies. I modify transactional distance (TD) theory and adopt it as a relevant theoretical framework for mobile learning in distance education. Furthermore, I attempt to position previous studies into four types of mobile learning: 1) high transactional distance socialized m-learning, 2) high transactional distance individualized m-learning, 3) low transactional distance socialized m-learning, and 4) low transactional distance individualized m-learning. As a result, this paper can be used by instructional designers of open and distance learning to learn about the concepts of mobile learning and how mobile technologies can be incorporated into their teaching and learning more effectively.
Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image-based AR and location-based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students’ spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.
This paper reports the results of a study which aimed to investigate how ubiquitous games influence English learning achievement and motivation through a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment. An English curriculum was conducted on a school campus by using a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment called the Handheld English Language Learning Organization (HELLO). HELLO helps students to engage in learning activities based on the ARCS motivation theory, involving various educational strategies, including ubiquitous game-based learning, collaborative learning, and context-aware learning. Two groups of students participated in the learning activities prescribed in a curriculum by separately using ubiquitous game-based learning and non-gaming learning. The curriculum, entitled ‘My Campus’, included three learning activities, namely ‘Campus Environment’, ‘Campus Life’ and ‘Campus Story’. Participants included high school teachers and juniors. During the experiment, tests, a survey, and interviews were conducted for the students. The evaluation results of the learning outcomes and learning motivation demonstrated that incorporating ubiquitous games into the English learning process could achieve a better learning outcomes and motivation than using non-gaming method. They further revealed a positive relationship between learning outcomes and motivation.
Construct3D is a 3D geometric construction tool specifically designed for mathematics and geometry education. It is based on the mobile collaborative augmented reality system “Studierstube”. We describe our efforts in developing a system for the improvement of spatial abilities and maximization of transfer of learning. In order to support various teacher–student interaction scenarios we implemented flexible methods for context and user dependent rendering of parts of the construction. Together with hybrid hardware setups they allow the use of Construct3D in today's classrooms and provide a testbed for future evaluations. Means of application and integration in mathematics and geometry education at high school as well as university level are being discussed. Anecdotal evidence supports our claim that Construct3D is easy to learn, encourages experimentation with geometric constructions and improves spatial skills.
Augmented reality trends in education: A Syst
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