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User Expectations of Augmented Reality Experience in Indian School Education: Proceedings of ICoRD 2019 Volume 2

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... Studies that show how AR is used in the learning system. 91, [96][97][98] Studies that investigated the use of AR in the learning system in different countries. [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32], 55, [58][59][60], 92,93,99 Studies related to using AR in different levels of education (pre-school, primary school, secondary school, and University). ...
... [94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101] Thesis about AR in Education. [89][90][91][92][93] Book chapters that discuss using AR technology in Education. ...
... AR also has great potentials in open and distance learning as discussed by Saykili and Altınpulluk in [22,57]. Researchers have investigated the use of AR in the learning system of different countries such as India [91], Australia [96], Bangladesh [97], USA and Kuwait [98]. ...
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With the raise of COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the traditional teaching-learning process became inefficient. Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) research has increasingly focused on emergent technologies such as Augmented Reality (AR). It became one of the technologies that has received great attention and interest in the last decade. In this paper, we conducted a systematic review that describes the current state of using AR as a learning tool. Taking into consideration the needs of all students including those with a disability, in different levels of education. It is done through the analysis of the following factors: AR in learning system, AR in levels of education and categories of educational AR applications. A total of 103 studies between 2011 and 2021 were analyzed through searching in four interdisciplinary databases: Springer, IEEE Xplore, ResearchGate, and Google Scholar. This analysis helped to see in which direction AR systems for education are heading and how it will be designed to fit the students' needs and improve their learning. Further research and development will make AR a more promising learning tool.
... Similarly, the topics were randomly assigned to each group. A list of user expectations of AR experience [88] in classrooms was also provided, considering it to be a strong reference to spark the discussion. The participants could assume that the students have access to the tablets in the classrooms. ...
... The arguments were then based on selecting appropriate topics and examples. In doing so, the participants were seen to be taking either of the three approaches as discussed below and indicated in Fig. 2. [88] in classrooms that was provided as part of the design task. In the second method, the participants categorized the textbook examples on the basis of the dimensions of cognitive levels as proposed in Bloom's taxonomy [2]. ...
... As indicated in previous studies [20,62,84], the context of the ARLEs must be set by situating instances from real-life scenarios to guide in visualizing abstract concepts. Thus, the design decisions for the alternate representation in AR are based on (1) the expectations of the users [88], (2) the designers' prior experience of creating AR applications and/or (3) the affordances of AR. The design solutions also indicated that the AR representation must be kept simple and minimal [20] to restrict overwhelming visualizations for the students. ...
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Augmented Reality Learning Experiences (ARLEs) for classrooms provide student-centered learning. In recent years, there has been an increase in HCI research on various handheld AR learning applications and the authoring tools to design them. However, there is a lack of studies exploring the design decisions required to create ARLEs, specific to the classroom context. To analyze the same, we conducted a design workshop with 32 participants forming 8 groups to investigate approaches for designing classroom-based ARLEs. Each group consisted of an AR developer, an interaction designer, an education researcher, and a middle-grade Math teacher. The groups designed ARLEs based on a given Mathematics topic for a classroom scenario. Though the groups used varied approaches for generating design prototypes, we observed similarities between their techniques. We report the key design approaches and decisions that were adopted by these groups. The findings are articulated through the lenses of content, context and design. Based on the analysis, we discuss the design approaches relevant for the novice designers while conceptualizing the design of a handheld ARLE for classrooms.
... Augmented Reality (AR) technology tends to work as a manipulative in the education sector among various emerging technologies. It could provide an immersive and engaging experience to learners while maintaining the genuineness of the surrounding real environment (Squire and Klopfer 2007;Sarkar and Pillai 2019). Thus, its application in education is valuable for being able to provide the learners with rich contextual learning, where learners build their individual unique discovery path (Bujak et al. 2013). ...
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Abstract There are several concepts in 2D Geometry that require understanding their application in the real practical world. However, in classrooms, such concepts are often taught without the analysis of the learners’ realization and interpretation of the existing concepts around them, in their surroundings. For this purpose, an Augmented Reality (AR) based module for the 7th and 8th grade syllabus has been designed to encourage the active participation of the learners in the classroom while learning the concept of Lines and Angles. It comprises three AR learning activities that enable the participants to recall, visualize, and identify the type of angle and then mark it by drawing on the augmented 3D house. Before conducting the main studies, a pilot study was conducted with 6 students of 8th grade. This helped in validating the data instruments, timing, and execution of the research study. The first study was conducted with 21 students of 8th grade where 12 participants performed the AR learning activities in dyads and 9 participants performed individually. Their perspectives, approaches, and motivation in performing the AR learning activities have been reported. Findings from the study showed that the majority i.e. 90.4% participants preferred to perform the AR learning activities in dyads than individually. Though the usability score was higher for the participants who performed the AR learning activities individually (M = 70.28) as compared to dyads (M = 65.23), there was no significant difference in the motivation scores between the participants of the two groups. In the second study, 28 students of 7th grade were divided into dyads and their behavior patterns of performing the AR learning activities have been reported. Using Lag Sequential Analysis, significant sequences were obtained based on the behaviors belonging to three categories of peer involvement, teacher prompts and AR interactions. It was found that the designed AR learning activities encouraged the participants to discuss the concepts with peers, enhanced their immersive experience as they together moved around and inside the house to find and identify the angles.
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Chapter
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