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Effective customer journey design: consumers’ conception, measurement, and consequences

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Abstract

Recently, practitioners have begun appraising an effective customer journey design (CJD) as an important source of customer value in increasingly complex and digitalized consumer markets. Research, however, has neither investigated what constitutes the effectiveness of CJD from a consumer perspective nor empirically tested how it affects important variables of consumer behavior. The authors define an effective CJD as the extent to which consumers perceive multiple brand-owned touchpoints as designed in a thematically cohesive, consistent, and context-sensitive way. Analyzing consumer data from studies in two countries (4814 consumers in total), they provide evidence of the positive influence of an effective CJD on customer loyalty through brand attitude—over and above the effects of brand experience. Importantly, an effective CJD more strongly influences utilitarian brand attitudes, while brand experience more strongly affects hedonic brand attitudes. These underlying mechanisms are also prevalent when testing for the contingency factors services versus goods, perceived switching costs, and brand involvement.

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... Therefore, the co-creation of experiences, rather than offers, seeks to involve the active participation of customers and engage them in the development of services that deliver unique values to each customer (Prahalad & Ramaswamy, 2014). Kuehnl, Jozic & Homburg (2019) show that experiences can result in changes in attitude or behavior. ...
... Direct contact, on one hand, usually occurs during the process of purchasing, using and services, and is usually initiated by the customer. Indirect contact, on the other hand, generally includes unplanned meetings with representatives of the organization's products, services or brands, and takes the form of suggestions or criticisms (buzzmarketing), advertising, evaluations, etc. (Kuehnl, Jozic & Homburg, 2019). In addition, the customer experience approach is holistic in nature, and includes the customer's cognitive, affective, emotional, social, and physical attitudes toward the organization. ...
... The customer experience approach focuses on delivering the potential value of a customer-centric business model, as well as recognizing customer needs in order to orchestrate better tools to address this transformation within an organization (Payne, Storbacka & Frow, 2008). Overall, customer experience requires three categories of business changes for a given organization (Kuehnl et al, 2019;Voorhees et al, 2017): ...
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Objective: Introducing and presenting a framework that describes the stages of designing, planning, and implementing projects in order to deliver value and experience to customers and supporting CX professionals as well. Design: This framework was organised to support professionals in managing customer experience projects through integrating marketing, innovation and services based on lean startup principles. Results: The framework encompasses five stages: (i) customer research; (ii) ideas development; (iii) prototyping; (iv) measuring and sharing results; and (v) scaling up following the lean startup principles: building, testing (measuring) and learning is recorded at each interaction and iteration. Originality and Value: The customer experience framework integrates service design, customer journey, and touchpoints (omnichannel) techniques, among other practices, in order to support CX professionals.
... . Então, a cocriação de experiências -não de ofertas -procura envolver a participação ativa de clientes e, ainda, engajá-los na construção de serviços que entreguem valores exclusivos a cada cliente (Prahalad & Ramaswamy, 2014). Kuehnl, Jozic & Homburg (2019) apontam que as experiências podem resultar em transformações de atitude ou de comportamento. ...
... Por um lado, o contato direto geralmente ocorre no processo de compra, uso e serviços, e geralmente é iniciado pelo cliente. Por outro lado, o indireto, na DOI: 10.14210/ALCANCE.V29N2(MAI/AGO).P192-207 EXPERIÊNCIA DO CLIENTE: UM FRAMEWORK... … maioria das vezes, inclui encontros não planejados com representantes de produtos, serviços ou marcas da organização, e toma a forma de sugestões ou críticas (buzzmarketing), publicidade, avaliações etc. (Kuehnl, Jozic & Homburg, 2019). Ademais, a abordagem da experiência do cliente abrange uma natureza holística e inclui as atitudes cognitivas, afetivas, emocionais, sociais e físicas do cliente em relação à organização. ...
... Por tudo isso, a abordagem da experiência do cliente concentra-se na entrega do valor potencial de um modelo de negócios centrado no cliente, bem em como reconhecer suas necessidades a fim de orquestrar melhores ferramentas para abordar essa transformação dentro de uma organização (Payne, Storbacka & Frow, 2008). De modo geral, a experiência do cliente requer três categorias de mudanças nos negócios de uma dada organização (Kuehnl et al., 2019;Voorhees et al., 2017): ...
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Objetivo: Introduzir e apresentar um framework que descreva os estágios de desenho, planejamento e implementação de projetos visando entrega valor e de experiências aos clientes e, também, apoiar profissionais de CX. Design: Para tanto, um framework foi proposta para apoiar os profissionais na gestão de projetos de experiência do cliente integrando marketing, inovação e serviços inspirado nos princípios de lean startup. Resultados: O framework propõe cinco estágios: (i) pesquisa do cliente; (ii) desenvolvimento de ideias; (iii) prototipação; (iv) mensurar e compartilhar resultados; e, por fim, (v) escalonamento. E os princípios de lean startup estão presentes na medida em que os projetos são construídos, testados (e mensurados) e são registrados os aprendizados a cada interação e iteração. Originalidade e Valor: O framework de experiência do cliente integra técnicas de design de serviços, jornada do cliente, pontos de contato (omnichannel), entre outras práticas, com vistas a suportar os profissionais de CX.
... AR has distinctive capability features to interlace the virtual and the material, implying museum visitors can suppress themselves in virtually improved experiences touching historical objects such artifacts, lontars, Subak (Balinese irrigation system) via AR apps. This study contends which AR media content provides creative potentials for assigning the unique features of historical objects, influencing satisfaction experienced and the enjoyment of the tour, like hedonism, and consequently increasing visitor impact [5]. ...
... The data were gathered employing a survey handled through google form between May 2021 and July 2021. All items were calculated using five-point Likert scales, varying from totally disagree (1) to totally agree (5). A pilot study was performed on a group of 30 museum visitors who were not involved in the primary survey to examine the instrument. ...
... On the other hand, customer experience is influenced by the relationship and connection of different touchpoints along the buying process. In this context, Kuehnl, Jozic, and Homburg present, among others, the thematic coherence, consistency, and context sensitivity of the touchpoints as important elements of an effective customer journey design [36]. ...
... When interacting with an organization, numerous touchpoints exist along the customer journey allowing companies to connect with their customer so that a brand experience can be built [36,65]. The touchpoints affect each other and have a direct or indirect impact on buying decisions. ...
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We investigate how the perceived quality influences touchpoint performance to provide a more nuanced understanding for analysing customer journeys. To answer the research questions, a survey in a real life online setting was carried out. The setting contained complex service solutions that were offered in a business-to-business context. The quantitative study shows that the perceived quality of a website has an influence on consumers’ buying intention. This correlation increases as the customer journey progresses. The perceived quality influences the website’s impact on visitors’ buying intention with a medium to strong effect size and the influence of a website’s quality on the impact on visitors’ buying intention varies significantly at different customer journey phases. While extant research focusses either on customer experience at touchpoints or touchpoints’ effects on buying behavior, we combine insights from both streams of research to highlight the role of website quality in determining touchpoint performance along the customer journey. Practitioners can use these insights to allocate resources in marketing and sales more efficiently.
... In omnichannel fashion retailing, in-store technology implementation is still limited but shows that retailers can enhance customer experience by implementing a "technology-enabled customer shopping journey instore" (Alexander and Kent 2021). Within the marketing domain, an effective customer journey design is an important approach in understanding consumer behavior (Kuehnl, Jozic, and Homburg 2019), the impact of digital strategies on consumer decision-making process and individual service experience (Dasgupta and Grover 2019;Halvorsrud, Kvale, and Følstad 2016). Existing studies defined the customer journey by multiple stages of awareness, familiarity, consideration, purchase, and loyalty (Farah, Ramadan, and Harb 2019), or pre-purchase, purchase, and post-purchase experiences and behavior (Lemon and Verhoef 2016;Voorhees et al. 2017), thereby limiting the ability to assess changes in consumer behavior and user experience driven by the use of smartphones for fashion shopping. ...
... The findings of the comparison of the shopping journeys developed based on GA and ET data showed that ET can be used not only to identify potential usability issues, but also to audit existing GA dashboard (Tupikovskaja-Omovie and Tyler 2021a), and this study extends prior research by adding mobile users' feedback to understand what fashion consumers' expectations are when shopping via smartphones. The innovative shopping journey framework proved useful to visually map and identify major gaps in data for further improvement by marketing and digital analytics teams (Kuehnl, Jozic, and Homburg 2019). The findings from RTAs, mapped directly to individual elements of the website within the shopping journey, provide invaluable insights about how certain elements of the website should be redesigned to offer easy to use and satisfactory user experience. ...
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With increased mobile traffic to fashion retailers’ websites, conversion rates are lower than for desktop users. Mobile consumers more readily abandon retailers if not satisfied with their shopping experience. There is a dearth of literature involving Google Analytics to analyze digital consumer shopping behavior and customer journeys. Retailers need to innovate the ways they approach the vast amount of digital analytics data. This research highlights the need for continuous auditing of Google Analytics data to ensure retailers understand the behavior of their mobile consumers and respond to their needs accordingly. A multi-method research design incorporated mobile fashion consumer data from Google Analytics, innovative mobile eye tracking technology and retrospective think aloud. A comparison of consumer shopping journeys showed that a Digital User Journey Mapping Framework based on eye tracking data can be used to audit Google Analytics datasets and to understand what elements of the fashion retailer’s website consumers prefer to interact with. Retrospective think aloud interviews complementing eye tracking experiments define how digital user experience can be improved in fashion m-retail. The shopping journey map framework can be used for mobile fashion consumer behavior analysis, auditing Google Analytics datasets and enhancing digital user experience.
... However, there is evidence on whether such improved innovation performance is an independent one or not. Scholars for the "extrusion effect" believe that government subsidies will have an extrusion effect on the R&D investment activities of enterprises, that is, enterprises may reduce their R&D investment and output of independent R&D activities (Link, 1982;Wallsten, 2000;Cheng et al., 2019;Kuehnl et al., 2019). However, the use of extrernal funding increases with firm's innovation effort (Bartoloni, 2013). ...
... Buchmann and Micha (2019) checked the German biotech industry and found that subsidy increases the number of patents. Interestingly, based on the data from Slovakia, Kuehnl et al. (2019) found that innovation subsidy has significantly positive effects on labor productivity, whereas these effects disappear after 1 year. Zhang and Guan (2018) also identified time-varying phenomena about innovation subsidies. ...
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The previous literature analyzed the widespread imitative innovation of Chinese enterprises from various perspectives, including enterprises' rational choice of cost-gain, property rights system, human capital and policy environment. However, this paper provides a brand-new perspective on government subsidies for the reasons behind the imitative innovation of enterprises. According to the statistics from Chinese enterprise-labor matching, we found that government subsidies stimulated enterprises to make “imitative innovation” through patent purchase rather than independent R&D. Government subsidies were used for low-risk “imitative innovation” because of enterprises' rent-seeking behavior, low R&D ability and the review of government subsidy projects. Based on the above conclusions, this paper suggests that the government should reduce or withdraw its intervention in enterprise innovation and implement the post-subsidy and post-evaluation mechanism for government-subsidized programs.
... Thus, the definitions have gradually become more complex as more terms have been incorporated. Overall, the following terms have been included in the CJ definition: customer, touchpoints, stages, and CX [9,10,12,60]. In general, there is a tendency to incorporate all the terms relating to the CJ in one definition. ...
... Lipowski and Bondos [11] were the first to connect the CJ with marketing channels. This was based on the work of Anderl et al. [60], who argued that the CJ encompasses multiple contacts across a variety of channels. ...
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In the scientific literature, the concept of the “customer journey (CJ)” has only recently been introduced, and, accordingly, it lacks robust empirical evidence. Still, the number of papers concerning the CJ has increased exponentially in recent years. The aim of this paper is to fully represent the available CJ research in services and highlight its importance for service sustainability. Since the current CJ literature mainly includes qualitative data, this paper is a narrative review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis checklist. The systematic literature review conducted by the authors is based on peer-reviewed articles published up until 2019. The main findings mostly concern the conceptualization of the CJ at a theoretical and practical level—CJ definitions and evolution for the former and customer journey mapping for the latter—as well as to present new perspectives of the examined terms in the services peer-reviewed bibliography and verify their contribution to service sustainability. CJ monitoring helps the development of a more sustainable service because it advances service innovation and effective channel management. Furthermore, it leads managers to understand their customer decision-making process and better allocate their resources by establishing a sustainable service design throughout the various service phases.
... Though the CJ has received extensive attention (e.g., Kuehnl et al. 2019), the SJ, which covers any stakeholder's (e.g., employee's, customer 's, manager's, competitor's, etc.) journey with the firm (Lievens and Blažević 2021), remains under-explored in the marketing literature to date, despite its importance for understanding marketing-or service ecosystems (Varnali 2019). We, therefore, review the CJ literature below, which offers an important foundation for our SJ-based analyses. ...
... We argue that greater information availability will typically see partners feel more confident to invest (i.e., engage) in their journey-based interactions, owing to elevated interactional clarity and certainty. That is, the rising availability of high-quality information progressively informs stakeholders' journey-based engagement, as it enables partners to assess the situation and plan their desired course of action (Kuehnl et al. 2019). In turn, a more placid, less volatile stakeholder experience is anticipated to result, as shown in Figure 2: ...
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Though the customer journey (CJ) is gaining traction, its limited customer focus overlooks the dynamics characterizing other stakeholders’ (e.g., employees’/suppliers’) journeys, thus calling for an extension to the stakeholder journey (SJ). Addressing this gap, we advance the SJ, which covers any stakeholder’s journey with the firm. We argue that firms’ consideration of the SJ, defined as a stakeholder’s trajectory of role-related touchpoints and activities, enacted through stakeholder engagement, that collectively shape the stakeholder experience with the firm, enhances their stakeholder relationship management and performance outcomes. We also view the SJ in a network of intersecting journeys that are characterized by interdependence theory’s structural tenets of stakeholder control, covariation of interest, mutuality of dependence, information availability, and temporal journey structure, which we view to impact stakeholders’ journey-based engagement and experience, as formalized in a set of Propositions. We conclude with theoretical (e.g., further research) and practical (e.g., SJ design/management) implications.
... Designer should construct excellent experience at key touchpoint that matter before, during, after, and at the point of service failure in customer journey, which can not only significantly increase customer satisfaction but also evoke value recognition (Sultan, 2018). While designer strives to manage and design all touchpoints, there is still no way to implement design principle into touchpoints of customer journey (Kuehnl, Jozic & Homburg, 2019). Therefore, it is crucial to develop a framework to understand, analyze and evaluate existing contradiction and failure in the process to maintain or improve customer satisfaction (Shahin & Pourhamidi, 2011;Lee, Zhao & Lee, 2019). ...
... In order to design memorable customer experience, it is important to perform well at each touchpoint and at each stage of customer experience because these stages have an interrelated effect (Sultan, 2018). While touchpoints can be meaningful customer journey, customer will spend more time and money on a single touchpoint that provides high sensory stimulation for positive experience (Kuehnl, Jozic & Homburg, 2019). Through in-depth observation of customer and service encounter, different configurations of touchpoint evaluation are identified and how lead to satisfying service experience for customer. ...
... Due to recent technological advancements, the concepts of 'consumer journeys' and 'consumer experiences' have both gained the great attention of scholars and practitioners in the marketing discipline (e.g., Kuehnl et al., 2019). Consumers have access to a number of online and offline touchpoints to interact with providers of products and services and individualise their journey (Barwitz & Maas, 2018) contributing to their overall experience. ...
Article
This interdisciplinary study aims to explore the lived experiences and engagement of young voters from a customer journey perspective. To achieve this, the present study investigates voter engagement journey with various political events (2015 UK General Election, 2016 UK-EU Referendum, 2017 UK General Election and future elections). The authors collected data via phenomenological in-depth interviews with young voters 18–24 years. The results show different engagement journeys and touchpoints. In particular, the findings reveal that (1) young voters were not apathetic of politics as long as they could identify the personal impact of political issues-policies (i.e., sticky customer journey); (2) the ‘voter journey’ is dynamic resulting in stronger engagement yet limited long-term party loyalty; and (3) voters used multiple touchpoints to engage with the political process combining media, voter-led research and interactions with personal networks and political stakeholders (online and off-line). This study puts forward the voter engagement and journey mapping framework which represents a mechanism for researchers and practitioners to gain access into the hidden world of the voter journey and periodically explore levels of engagement across political events. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining customer journeys in a political context and provides insights for political campaign managers to effectively improve voters’ engagement.
... The products must be diversified through the online store. If the customer does not find the product he wants, of course, he will leave the store immediately (Kuehnl et al., 2019;Anurag, 2021). It must also be presented in a smooth manner that is easy for the customer to identify, as the lack of quick access to the products he wants will also lead him to leave the store immediately (Debra, 2020). ...
Article
The current study dealt with the topic of tools to provide a distinct digital customer experience for B2C organizations in the age of uncertainty. The study aimed to identify the tools through which to provide a distinct digital customer experience. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to the study sample for the purpose of collecting data to test the study hypotheses. The current study focused on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The sample size was 550 individuals. Stepwise analysis was used to test the study's hypotheses. The study concluded that the most important tools for providing a distinct digital customer experience for B2C organizations in the age of uncertainty are the outstanding performance of the online store, the product’s value proving, and effective communication with customers. The case study contributes to enriching the knowledge side of the dimensions of the digital customer experience, which have not been adequately addressed by researchers. It will also contribute to informing those responsible for digital marketing in B2C organizations how to enhance the customer's digital experience in a way that they can maintain and increase their loyalty.
... It is worth noting that customers' good brand attitudes are a primary concern for marketers because they significantly influence customer purchasing intentions or preferences [29,30]. A rising corpus of contemporary scholars have begun to analyze customer journeys using the organization for elaborating consumer know-how; for example, research conducted by [31] and [32] are recent contributions to this connection [32], which explored the relationship between perceptions of customers' brand value and brand preferences. In this regard, marketers need to be aware of the crucial touchpoints to engage the consumer in order to induce their buying intent, as well as other behavioral outcomes, such as positive word of mouth and advocacy behavior [33]. ...
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Due to the aggressive competitive climate in practically every sector, modern firms in the digital age confront a variety of hurdles for survival and growth. Technology, mainly digital technology, has altered global business practices. To stay ahead of their competitors, marketers need to develop new strategies that make use of digital technology. Using more conventional forms of competition will not result in spectacular outcomes. In this respect, the rise of social media is a game-changer in marketing since it provides marketers with a strategic touchpoint to engage customers with a brand. Still, it is also important to note the customer’s attitude towards social media. Previous studies have, for the most part, ignored the connection between programs involving corporate social responsibility (CSR) and positive experiences for customers. As a result, the current study intends to evaluate the relationship between customer-related CSR activities on social media, customer attitude towards social media, and consumer behavioral outcomes, such as purchase intentions (PI) and electronic word of mouth (E-WOM). Information was collected from banking customers in a developing economy and evaluated with Smart PLS 4.0. According to the findings, customer-related corporate social responsibility activities carried out on social media have an effect on attitudes toward social media, customer behavioral outcomes, such as electronic word of mouth (E-WOM), and buying intentions. The findings also show that a consumer’s feelings toward a brand can bridge the gap between customer-related CSR, E-WOM, and purchase intentions. The current study’s outcomes can help policymakers comprehend the value of CSR practices from the standpoint of marketing, which is something that most CSR researchers overlook
... A 7-point three item semantic scale was used to measure subjects' brand familiarity for high-and lowinvolvement conditions (Biswas 1992;Hansen et al., 2014). This was in line with the literature (e.g., McClure & Seock, 2020;Kuehnl et al., 2019;Vaidyanathan, 2000). Two independent lists of brands were used for both high-and low-involvement conditions. ...
... Baxendale, Macdonald and Wilson (2015) further underline the need for investigating the entire consuming process, rather than simply the moment of exchange, because it is necessary to screen the customer before, during, and after a purchase (Kuehnl, Jozic and Homburg, 2019). Because of the actual demand in the airline industry, and the changing attitude of customers (Hamilton and Price, 2019), there is a need to examine how they make decisions (Santini et al., 2020). ...
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Background: This study examined the factors influencing willingness-to-repurchase for each class of airline service, and integrate the constructs of service quality, satisfaction, and willingness-to-repurchase which were rooted on Engel-Kollat-Blackwell (EKB) model. The study focuses on the domestic and international arrival of passengers at Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos and Nnamdi Azikwe International Airport in Abuja. Information was gathered from domestic and foreign passengers who had post-purchase experience and had used the airline's services more than once. The survey data were obtained concurrently from arrival passengers at two major international airports in Lagos and Abuja using an electronic questionnaire. The e-questionnaire targeted 606 respondents using purposive sampling and snowball sampling techniques. The data was analysed using the ordinal logit model and structural equatin model. Results: From the 606 respondents, 524 responses were received but 489 responses were valid for data analysis and reporting and were obtained mostly from economy and business class passengers. The study found that the quality of 30-32 inches seat pitch; accessibility to digital TV during flight; allowance of 30kg luggage permission; and availability of online check-in 24 hours before the departing flight are the major service factors influencing willingness-to-repurchase for an economy ticket. Also, the quality of space for legroom between seats is wide (79 to 87 inches seat pitch) and the quality of seats can be converted into a fully flat bed; are the major service factor influencing willingness-to-repurchase economy tickets. Also, it was found that passengers' willingness to repurchase is influenced majorly by service quality, but not necessarily influenced by satisfaction. Conclusions: The study identified the factors influencing willingness-to-repurchase for economy and business class tickets. It was concluded that seat comfort and baggage handling are most crucial in bth economy and business class tickets. From these findings, it was revealed that airlines will be able to have a better understanding of passengers’ willingness-to-repurchase airline services, especially for the economy and business fares concerning satisfaction perspectives, and can also be employed to improve business profitability and airline marketing capabilities.Recommendations were suggested for airline management based on each class.
... Bisher bestehen lediglich erste Ansätze wie beispielsweise zur Messung der Brand Experience (Brakus et al. 2009), der Customer Experience Quality (u. a. Klaus und Maklan 2012) oder der Effektivität des Customer Journey Designs (Kuehnl et al. 2019). Auch in Bezug auf Kenngrößen des Erfolgs eines CEM besteht in der Forschung kein Konsens. ...
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Zusammenfassung Das Customer Experience Management erfährt in jüngster Zeit sowohl in der Konsumgüter- als auch in der Dienstleistungsbranche erhöhte Aufmerksamkeit. Die Relevanz ergibt sich unter anderem aus dem veränderten Konsumverhalten und den gestiegenen Kundenerwartungen in Folge der Digitalisierung. Auch die Forschung beschäftigt sich zunehmend mit dem Managementansatz, wobei dessen Umsetzung durch Versicherungsunternehmen bisher noch nicht untersucht wurde. Diese Studie beleuchtet daher den Status quo des Customer Experience Managements in der Versicherungsbranche in Form einer qualitativen Studie. Als Fallbeispiel dient die NÜRNBERGER Versicherung, die seit 2016 ein konzernübergreifendes Customer Experience Management für ihre Privatkunden aufbaut. Das Unternehmen hat bereits eine Vielzahl an Maßnahmen ergriffen, um die Bedürfnisse sowie Ansprüche seiner Kunden besser zu verstehen und ihnen somit in jeder Phase der Kundenbeziehung ein optimales Kundenerlebnis zu bieten sowie damit zu einer Verbesserung der Kundenzufriedenheit beizutragen.
... Lemon and Verhoef (2016) have pointed to the advantage of a seamless experience, which encompasses several touch points, in the form of delivering a much more nuanced customer experience. Kuehnl, Jozic, and Homburg (2019) have defined 'customer experience' as evolving through the customer journey, during which the consumer lives through a series of touch points of varying effective and cognitive responses, as the stages of the journey progress from pre-purchase situations to their conclusion in the form of post-purchase behavior. Hence, the following hypotheses are framed regarding omnichannel's seamless interaction. ...
... Nonetheless, B2C research offers important theoretical and practical insights for the B2B context. For example, Kuehnl, Jozic, and Homburg (2019) examine how brand experience and effective customer journey design (CJD) impact consumer loyalty, where brand experience encompasses the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to brand-related touchpoints, and CJD is the extent to which consumers perceive multiple, brand-owned touchpoints as designed in a thematically cohesive, consistent, and context-sensitive way. They hypothesize that brand attitude mediates how brand experience and CJD impact customer loyalty. ...
Article
In consumer markets, customer experiences and their associated capabilities are supplanting prior focus on goods and services. The view of experiences has even been expanded to bundling them into a customer journey that is the entirety of a customer's experiences across multiple touchpoints, multiple channels, and over time. Increasingly, industrial firms are also recognizing the importance of customer journeys and moving toward reconfiguring their market approach to align with a focus on customer journey. In this article, we delineate ensuing emerging B2B research challenges and identify key research questions moving forward with respect to new journey development. We also discuss some contextual factors that researchers should pay attention to when conducting research on the topics highlighted. We end with some concluding thoughts regarding the research methods and theories that can be used for impactful research in this research stream.
... To generate an initial pool of items that represents the domain of the construct, we conducted three qualitative studies to assess customers' perceptions of CX, in line with recommendations on scale development (Netemeyer et al. 2003) and recent scale development procedures (e.g., Boettger et al. 2017;Kuehnl et al. 2019). First, we asked 29 business students (55% women; M age = 24.71 ...
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Managing customer experiences has become a key strategic priority for service research and management. Yet researchers and managers lack a customer experience (CX) measure that applies to the different experience partners, touchpoints, and journey stages in the omnichannel environments of today’s service industries. Without such a common measure, empirical research on CX remains fragmented, and service companies continue to struggle to improve customer interactions in customer journeys. To address this shortcoming, this article proposes an omnichannel-capable measurement of CX that applies to different customer interactions in the omnichannel environment. With seven studies, the authors develop and validate a six-dimensional, 18-item CX scale. The proposed CX scale overcomes the fragmentation of existing scales in service research and provides a valid measure that can be used consistently for various customer interactions in omnichannel environments. This article details how the proposed CX scale can monitor and compare CX for different interactions in customer journeys (i.e., pain-point analysis), as well as improve CX features and their marketing outcomes (i.e., CX profiling). By overcoming the existing fragmentation in available scales and providing a common omnichannel CX measure, this CX scale establishes an empirical foundation for developing CX knowledge and advancing related service research.
... Moreover, while the literature reports budding insight into experience design (e.g., Kuehnl et al., 2019), understanding of CE design remains scant (Alfalih, 2022), particularly in the industrial context (e.g., Davey et al., 2022;Heirati & Siahtiri, 2019;Hollebeek & Andreassen, 2018), highlighting the need for enhanced scholarly acumen in this integrative area, as, therefore, explored in this inter-disciplinary Special Issue. This paper makes the following theoretical contribution. ...
Article
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While the design of goods and services is undeniably important in cultivating customer engagement (CE) with industrial innovations, the theoretical interface of industrial design, innovation, and CE remains nebulous, exposing an important literature-based gap. Relatedly, while the literature has focused on the firm as the focal designing stakeholder, further knowledge building is needed regarding the engagement of other stakeholders (e.g., employees or fellow customers), who may co-design an industrial firm's offering (e.g., by contributing to its product development activity), and its effect on CE. That is, as co-designing stakeholders can help design industrial offerings through their respective engagement, we advance an omni-stakeholder perspective of industrial design in this paper. We address these issues by composing a conceptual model and an associated set of propositions that explore the effect of different stakeholders' engagement in co-designing industrial innovations, and their respective effect on CE with the innovation. Next, we introduce the papers contained in this Issue and their links to the framework. We conclude by outlining further research avenues that arise from our analyses.
... To develop the seamless shopping journey scale, we followed established scale development procedures (Churchill, 1979(Churchill, , 2012 and prior studies (Böttger et al., 2017;Brakus et al., 2009;Homburg et al., 2015;Kuehnl et al., 2019). The process is described in Table 2. ...
Article
Little is known about how omnichannel retailers should integrate their channels to provide their customers with seamless shopping journeys, or how this can impact desirable consumer behaviors. This gap in knowledge can be of significant concern for retailers due to the investment required in omnichannel and the potential negative impacts on their performance. This article explores the concept of the seamless shopping journey and proposes a valid and reliable measurement scale. By analyzing retailers’ omnichannel strategies and their consumers’ perceptions of seamless shopping, we show how retailer omnichannel integration strategies directly affect customers’ seamless shopping journey perceptions. Customers who perceive shopping as seamless are more engaged, likely to buy more and less likely to switch to another retailer. Our work offers actionable guidance to retailers seeking to enhance their omnichannel strategies and to achieve a seamless shopping journey.
... Карта пути клиента, включающая множество точек соприкосновения, каждая из которых представляет прямое или косвенное взаимодействие с компанией [14], служит основой для понимания клиентского опыта и управления им [18]. Клиентский опыт можно определить как реакцию потребителя на взаимодействие с компанией до, во время и после покупки, он формируется через соприкосновения по нескольким каналам взаимодействия и распределен во времени [26]. ...
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... Este recorrido implica diversas acciones como: comunicación de marca, mercadotecnia directa, marketing digital, experiencia en los puntos de venta físicos o digitales, uso de los productos, recomendaciones, servicio al cliente, conversaciones entre los clientes y las marcas, y programas de lealtad para volverlos defensores leales. Aún no se distingue entre el recorrido del cliente y la experiencia de marca, que son dos facetas distintas de la experiencia del cliente y ambas impulsan elementos de valor de marca, como la lealtad (Kuehnl et al., 2019). Por ello, las estrategias de marketing deben orquestar todos estos puntos de toque, junto con sus tácticas y estrategias específicas, para poder conectar con sus clientes y entregarles lo que realmente es significativo y memorable para ello (Clinehens, 2019). ...
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Geçmişten günümüze pazarlama alanında birçok değişim meydana gelmiş, pazarlama önemli bir evrim geçirmiştir. Pazarlamanın tarihi süreçte geçirdiği bu evrim geleneksel pazarlama stratejilerinin önemini yitirmesine, yeni pazarlama stratejilerinin önem kazanmasına sebep olmuştur. Bu evrim ile beraber pazarlama fonksiyonel ve faydacı özelliklerinin yanında deneyimlere dayalı bir kimlik kazanmıştır (Schmitt, 2005:1). Müşterilerin firma ile karşılaşmaları sonrasında değer algılamaları ve bu karşılaşmayı daha sonraki karşılaşmalarda anımsamaları olarak değerlendirilebilen deneyim olgusu günümüzde önemli bir pazarlama stratejisi olarak değerlendirilmekte, organizasyon başarısında oldukça önemli rol oynamaktadır. Günümüz pazar koşullarında müşteri deneyimleri doğrultusunda müşteri istek ve ihtiyaçlarını anlamak, bu doğrultuda müşteri odaklı bir yaklaşım sergilemek işletme başarısı için oldukça önemlidir. İşletmeler için müşteri beklentilerinin karşılanması ve müşteri memnuniyetinin sağlanması müşteri deneyimlerinin etkin bir şekilde yönetilmesi ile mümkün olabilmektedir. Özellikle hizmet ekonomisine geçişin deneyimsel pazarlamanın önem kazanmasında önemli bir öncül olduğu düşünüldüğünde (Williams, 2006:485); müşteri yolculuğu bağlamında hizmet süreci deneyimlerinin bir bütün olarak ele alınmasının da önemli bir işletme öncülü olduğu söylenebilir. Dolayısıyla müşteri yolculuğu dikkate alınarak deneyim haritalarının oluşturulması ve deneyim haritasındaki her bir temas noktasının müşteri bakış açısıyla ele alınması daha etkin bir hizmet sunumunu da berberinde getirebilir. Küresel anlamda meydana gelen gelişmeler müşteri bakış açılarında çeşitli değişimleri de beraberinde getirmiştir. Bu değişimler özellikle müşteri odaklı yaklaşım sergileyen işletmelerin bakış açılarında farklılıkların oluşmasına sebep olmuştur. Dolayısıyla küresel 4 anlamda en önemli sektörlerden biri olan sağlık sektöründe hizmet sürecinin daha etkin yönetilmesi açısından müşteri yolculuğu kapsamında temas noktalarının belirlenmesi ve değerlendirilmesinin oldukça önemli olduğu söylenebilir. Son yıllarda ortaya çıkan covid 19 pandemisi birçok kişinin yaşamını kaybetmesine neden olmuştur. Bu durum sosyal mesafe, temas, maske kullanımı gibi birçok kavramın da insanların hayatına girmesine sebep olmuştur. Bu veriler dâhilinde; müşterilerin hem pandemi öncesi döneme ait hem de pandemi dönemine ait hastane deneyimlerinin incelenmesi ve müşteri bakış açısı ile değerlendirmeler yapılması önem arz etmektedir. Bu doğrultuda oluşturulan kitap toplamda 2 bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde; deneyimsel pazarlamanın kavramsal olarak değerlendirilmesi, deneyimsel pazarlamanın ortaya çıkışı ve gelişimi, deneyimsel pazarlamanın özellikleri, müşteri deneyimi yönetimi, müşteri yolculuğu, müşteri yolculuğu dizaynı, müşteri yolculuğu haritası, müşteri yolculuğu temas noktaları, müşteri yolculuğu analizi başlıklarına yer verilmiştir. Çalışmanın ikinci bölümünde ise araştırma amaçları doğrultusunda uygulama kısmına yer verilmiştir.
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Das heutige Marketing ist ohne Customer Journey kaum noch denkbar. Sie ist essenzieller Bestandteil eines effektiven und effizienten Customer-Experience-Managements. Nur auf der Basis einer systematischen Analyse und zielgerichteter integrativer Maßnahmen entlang der Customer Journey ist es Unternehmen heute möglich, sich bei der Vielzahl analoger und digitaler Touchpoints im Wettbewerb zu behaupten. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über Ursprung und Begriff sowie Ziele der Customer Journey, stellt den Modulbaukasten der Customer Journey vor und gibt weiterführende methodische Hinweise zu dessen konkreter Umsetzung in einem integrierten Online- und Offline-Channel Marketing.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in the behavioural intentions of consumers in different countries, i.e. Japan, UK and Taiwan by employing a customer-based value model. Design/methodology/approach A total of 305 consumers of one of Japan's brand and chain stores, Muji, were interviewed. The moderating effects of cultural and economic distances from the home country of the firm were also tested. Findings The results showed that cultural distance moderates the impact of symbolic, experiential and aesthetic value on purchase intention; however, economic distance was found to only influence monetary value. Originality/value Cross-cultural studies on customer value in the retailing industry are limited. The findings from this study offer several implications for those firms that adopt a globalization strategy using another perspective, while to some degree glocalization could be a better strategy.
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