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The First Report of Arctiostrotus fontinalis (Oligochaeta: Megadscolecidae) in Canada.

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  • Oligochaetology Laboratory, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada
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The First Report of Arctiostrotus fontinalis (Oligochaeta: Megadscolecidae) in Canada.

Abstract and Figures

This is the first report of Arctiostrotus fontinalis from the Yukon Territory and Canada. This native earthworm species has previously been reported from the states of Oregon and Washington: from just one county in each state. The discovery of A. fontinalis in the Yukon Territory brings the number of known species of terrestrial earthworms to eight. One of the other species is a native (Bimastos parvus); the remaining six species are introduced European exotics.
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Printed in Canada ISSN 0380-9633
MEGADRILOGICA
Volume 24, Number 2, January 2019
THE FIRST REPORT OF ARCTIOSTROTUS FONTINALIS (OLIGOCHAETA:
MEGASCOLECIDAE) IN CANADA.
John Warren Reynolds1, Benoit Godin 2 and Denise Horwood 2
1 Oligochaetology Laboratory, 9-1250 Weber Street East, Kitchener, ON Canada N2A 4E1, and
Research Associate, New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, NB Canada E2K 1E5
(e-mail: john.reynolds1@sympatico.ca)
2 14A Thompson Road, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 0C4
(e-mail: saxifrage17@northwestel.net)
ABSTRACT
This is the first report of Arctiostrotus fontinalis from the Yukon Territory and Canada. This native
earthworm species has previously been reported from the states of Oregon and Washington: from just one county
in each state. The discovery of A. fontinalis in the Yukon Territory brings the number of known species of terrestrial
earthworms to eight. One of the other species is a native (Bimastos parvus); the remaining six species are introduced
European exotics.
Key-words: Canada, Yukon Territory, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae, earthworms, Arctiostrotus fontinalis,
distribution, first Canadian record.
RÉSUMÉ
Ceci est la première mention d'Arctiostrotus fontinalis pour le territoire du Yukon et pour le Canada. Cette
espèce indigène de ver de terre a déjà signalée dans un seul comté des états de l'Oregon et de Washington. La
découverte de cette espèce porte à huit le nombre d'espèces de vers de terre connues pour le Yukon. Une des autres
espèces (Bimastos parvus) est également indigène alors que les six autres espèces sont exotiques, introduites
d'Europe.
Mots-clé: Canada, territoire du Yukon, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae, vers de terre, Arctiostrotus fontinalis,
répartition, première mention canadienne.
RESUMEN
Este es el primer informe de Arctiostrotus fontinalis del Territorio Yukon y Canadá. Esta especie de
lombriz nativa se ha reportado desde un condado en los Estados de Oregon y Washington. Esto eleva a ocho el
número de especies conocidas de lombrices terrestres en Yukón. Una de las otras especies (Bimastos parvus) es
nativa, las restantes seis especies son especies exóticas europeas, introducidas
Palabras clave: Canadá, Territorio Yukon , Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae, Arctiostrotus fontinalis, lombrices de
tierra, distribución, primer registro canadiense.
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
Dies ist der erste Bericht des Arctiostrotus fontinalis aus dem Yukon-Territorium und Kanada. Diese
einheimische Regenwurm-Art wurde zuvor aus einem Landkreis in den Staaten Oregon und Washington berichtet.
Dies bringt die Zahl der bekannten Arten von terrestrischen Regenwürmer im Yukon auf acht. Eine der anderen
Arten ist einheimisch (Bimastos parvus). Die übrigen sechs sind eingeführte europäischen Arten.
Schlüsselworte: Kanada, Yukon-Territorium, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae, Regenwürmer, Arctiostrotus fontinalis,
geografische Verteilung, Kanadischer Erstnachweis.
First earthworm record of Arctiostrotus fontinalis in Canada18
INTRODUCTION
Very few earthworm records have been reported from
the Yukon Territory of Northern Canada. Berman and
Marusik (1994) reported Bimastos parvus and
Dendrodrilus rubidus from two locations in southwestern
Yukon:
1. East bank of Kluane Lake, Christmas Bay, Christmas Creek
mouth of the valley (in the site of ground road transpassing),
approximate coordinates 61°03 'N, 138°21 'W, 22 July 1993,
moist site of flood plain covered by water from time to time after
strong rains. Worms were taken from the first soil centimetre
directly under thin crust of young moss. Many earthworms and
their cocoons. It should be added here that close to this locality,
on the widely spread Sheep Mt. Range in the Cultus Bay
Drainage Basin on Kluane Lake, in the hollow on the north part
of the watershed (ca. 1200 m above sea level) in the willow
grove with moss cover, big enchytraeids (up to 4-5 cm) have
been found (13 July 1993), as well as smaller worms at the
elevation of about 1500 m in the willow grove litter.
2. Carmacks environs, about 10 km to the west from the main
road, near an unnamed lake from the right of ground road
(approximate coordinates 62°11 'N, 136°22'W, 19 July 1993).
About 30 worms . . . and their egg cocoons were collected
directly along the shoreline, 10-50 cm from water edge in the
one-cm horizon of the soils. No doubt, such a peculiar
supralittoral belt can flood during rough weather.
Teale (2007) conducted field collections during
June-August 2005:
[T]o substantiate anecdotal reports and obtain habitat
information. Sites were sampled by hand-sorting the soil from
25cm by 50cm plots or multiple small excavations in a localized
area, and extended through the organic layer to the mineral layer.
Sites were concentrated in limicolous (muddy) and garden soils
as suggested by anecdotal reports as well as Berman and Marusik
(1994). Others were taken along roads and waterways to
investigate the possibility of those corridors acting as dispersal
routes (Dymond et al., 1997; Tuinov et al., 2006).
In her preliminary survey, she recorded
Aporrectodea tuberculata, Dendrobaena octaedra, Eisenia
foetida, Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus terrestris
primarily in the greater Whitehorse area (Teale, 2007). A
summary of the species first reported from the Yukon
including their ecological type can be found in Reynolds
(2018).
There are other terrestrial oligochaetes reported
from the Yukon, notably a species of Enchytraeidae
(known as pot-worms) which are small white worms found
in soil and aquatic habitats. These were first reported from
the Yukon by Smith et al. (1990). Some of these were later
described by Tynen et al. (1991) as a new species to
science as Henlea yukonensis. Currently, they have
only been reported from the Beringia Refugium.
This paper reports the first collection of the
native North American species, Arctiostrotus
fontinalis McKey-Fender, 1994, from Canada. There
have been reports of other species of Arctiostrotus in
Canada, in particular, British Columbia, e.g.,
Arctiostrotus perrieri (Benham, 1892) on Queen
Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), Vancouver Island,
Neave's Island, Granite Island, Amos Island, Hohoae
Isla nd, Kamil's Island; and Arctio strot us
vancouverensis McKey-Fender, 1994 on Vancouver
Island. A closely related species to this genus is
Toutellus oregonensis (Smith, 1937) which has also
been reported from Vancouver Island (McKey-
Fender et al., 1994).
RESULTS
Benoit Godin and Denise Horwood
collected Arctiostrotus fontinalis (0-0-1) from
Surfbird Hill (Tombstone Territorial Park) 64.6977N,
138.4365 W at 1164 metres elevation, under willow
(Salix sp.) litter on 30 June 2018 (Fig. 1). The site is
near the bottom of the slope, on the east side of the
pad of the microwave tower to the west of the
Dempster Highway. (Figs. 2, 4, 5). It is located in a
dwarf birch (Betula sp.) and willow area of the
alpine/subalpine habitat. The soil was a wet black
organic soil (Organic Cryosol) (McKenna, in litt.,
15/11/18). The soil and litter samples were collected
using a garden tool and a dust pan to remove swiftly
the leaf litter and underlying soil containing the
organisms. The litter was then sifted through ¼ inch
(6.35 mm) nylon mesh. The residue was observed
for several minutes to check for the movements of
small organisms. The specimens were preserved in
70% alcohol and then sorted and preserved in 90%
alcohol for identification.
The characteristics of this small adult
clitellate specimen: 67 segments, clitellum on
segments 12, 13-18, no tuberculata, genital markings
in 12/13, male porophores, flat round, 1.5–2 times
AB, prostomium tanylobic, broad (Fig. 2), setae
separate, dd interval nearly 50%, aa:ab:bc:cd:dd =
2.2:1.0:1.6:1.6:9.8, dd:U about 0.48. For an
explanation of taxonomic characters and conventions
used in earthworm taxonomy consult Reynolds
(1977) or Gates and Reynolds (2017).
MEGADRILOGICA 19
Fig. 1. Site location of Arctiostrotus fontinalis collection
in the Yukon Territory, Canada.
Fig. 2. Arctiostrotus fontinalis (photo by Denise
Horwood).
Fig. 3. Broad tanylobic
prostomium of Arctio-
strotus fontinalis (from
McKey-Fender et al., 1994).
Fig. 4. Landscape at the site location (photo by Denise
Horwood).
Fig. 5. Typical vegetation
in the near vicinity of the
c o ll e ct io n s it e o f
Arctiostrotus fontinalis
( p ho t o b y D en is e
Horwood).
DISCUSSION
According to McKey-Fender et al. (1994),
Arctiostrotus fontinalis is the smallest and most
frequently found of the known Arctiostrotus species.
Originally collected from Tillamook County in
Oregon, USA in a seepage area on a spruce-hemlock
forest slope, it was also collected from saturated soils
in the same location in soils with a pH of 4.0 (H2O).
This species has also been collected in similar
habitats in Pacific County in the state of Washington,
USA in silty soils with a pH of 4.5 (H2O). A few of
the original collections of this species were from
terrestrial sites, but most were found in seepage
areas, at the margins of springs or near springs in
saturated little layers and/or saturated mineral soil
(McKey-Fender et al., 1994). They share the habitat
with other native megascolecid species, such as A.
perrieri (Benham, 1892), Driloleirus michaelseni
(Smith, 1937), and Kincaidodrilus kincaidii (Altman,
1936).
The American sites were at low elevations,
i.e., less than 100 metres, while here in the Yukon the
specimen was collected at 1164 metres elevation.
The American sites were also in spruce-hemlock
(Picea-Tsuga) conifer forests, while in the Yukon it
was found in willow (Salix) litter.
Recording one or a few specimens of a new
introduction of an earthworm species in North
America is not unusual (see Table 1).
So the fact that only one specimen of
Arctiostrotus fontinalis was collected in the Yukon
Territory at this time, is not unusual. Earthworm
collecting in the Yukon has been limited and
additional sampling in the future may possibly
uncover more specimens of this species and other
closely related native and introduced European
species.
First earthworm record of Arctiostrotus fontinalis in Canada20
Table 1. Some first introductions of earthworms in North America where only a few specimens were obtained.
Species Location Number No. Counties Reference
Specimens where present
Allolobophoridella eiseni Alaska, USA 0-0-5 1 Reynolds (1977, 2018)
Amynthas carnosus Kansas, USA 0-0-5 1 Carrera-Martínez & Snyder (2016)
Aporrectodea icterica Ontario, Canada 0-0-1 1 Reynolds (1976)
Arctiostrotus adunatus Washington, USA 0-0-1 1 McKey-Fender et al. (1994)
Arctiostrotus johnsoni Washington, USA 0-0-7 1 McKey-Fender et al. (1994)
Bimastos lawrenceae British Columbia, Canada 0-0-5 1 McKey-Fender et al. (1994)
Dendrobaena attemsi Oregon, USA 0-0-1 1 Fender (1985)
Dendrobaena lusitana New Brunswick, Canada 0-0-1 1 Reynolds (2017)
Dendrobaena pygmaea California, USA 0-0-1 1 Fender (1985)
Dichogaster modigianii Florida, USA 0-0-1 1 Csuzdi (1997)
Eisenia andrei California, USA 0-0-1 1 Fender (1985)
Eisenia hortensis Arkansas, USA 0-0-1 1 Causey (1952)
Eisenia zebra California, USA 0-0-1 1 Michaelsen (1901/2)
Helodrilus occulatus Virginia, USA 0-0-15 1 Callaham et al. (2016)
Lumbricus friendi Maryland, USA 6 sites 3 (Csuzdi and Szlávecz, 2003)
Lumbricus meliboeus New York, USA 0-0-5 1 Rodríguez et al. (2012)
Murchieona muldali 1Michigan, USA many 1 Murchie (1954)
Satchellius mammalis New Jersey, USA 0-0-4 1 Davies (1954)
1 recorded as Allolobophora minima.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are grateful to Wilma M. Reynolds of the
Oligochaetology Laboratory for reviewing the
manuscript, their comments and suggestions. We
acknowledge Bruce Bennett of the Yukon Conservation
Data Centre, Whitehorse for forwarding the specimen
fo r de t ermina t i o n , a n d K a r e n M c Kenna ,
CryoGeographic Consulting, for information on soil
type at the collection site and earthworm records in the
Yukon. The senior author appreciates Dr. Erin
Cameron, University of Helsinki, for suggesting the
specimen be sent to us. The authors also wish to thank
Dr. Catalina C. de Mischis, Universidad Nacional de
Córdoba (Argentina), Dr. Jean-Marc Gagnon, Canadian
Museum of Nature, and Dr. Josef H. Görres, University
of Vermont for translations of the abstracts and key
words.
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MEGADRILOGICA 21
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First earthworm record of Arctiostrotus fontinalis in Canada22
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Web Site for the Journal Megadrilogica:
http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~mjwetzel/Megadrilogica.home.html
Web Site for Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica – Editio Secunda
A catalogue of names, descriptions, and type specimens of the Oligochaeta:
http://wwx.inhs.illinois.edu/people/mjwetzel/nomenoligo
... Twenty-three as-yet unpublished observations from the Quebec Province are also reported. Overall, 11 species were exotic European species of earthworms, two were native (Arctiostrotus fontinalis, Bimastos parvus) (Reynolds et al. 2019a(Reynolds et al. , 2019b, and one was a putative native species [Bimastos (Dendrodrilus) rubidus; Csuzdi et al. 2017]. ...
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ABSTRACT In total, 42 collections were taken from Watson Lake to Dawson City and produced two species new to the Yukon: Eiseniella tetraedra and Lumbricus castaneus. The collections near Watson Lake, which is in the southeastern portion of the territory, were taken during the 2019 Yukon Conservation Data Centre Bioblitz. This brings the number of known species in the Yukon to ten. A collection in Kluane National Park produced the second sample of Arctiostrotus fontinalis in the territory. Bimastos parvus from Dawson City was also the second collection in the Yukon since the first in 1993. The most frequently encountered species in the Yukon are Dendrobaena octaedra and Dendrodrilus rubidus. Lumbricus rubellus is the first earthworm species to be reported from the Skagway area in Alaska. We present a key and illustrated glossary to the species in the Yukon. Key words: Canada, Yukon Territory, United States, Alaska, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, earthworms, distribution, new records, Arctiostrotus fontinalis, Bimastos parvus, Eiseniella tetraedra, Lumbricus castaneus, invasive species, key to species, illustrated glossary.
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In total, 42 collections were taken from Watson Lake to Dawson City and produced two species new to the Yukon: Eiseniella tetraedra and Lumbricus castaneus. The collections near Watson Lake, which is in the southeastern portion of the territory, were taken during the 2019 Yukon Conservation Data Centre Bioblitz. This brings the number of known species in the Yukon to ten. A collection in Kluane National Park produced the second sample of Arctiostrotus fontinalis in the territory. Bimastos parvus from Dawson City was also the second collection in the Yukon since the first in 1993. The most frequently encountered species in the Yukon are Dendrobaena octaedra and Dendrodrilus rubidus. Lumbricus rubellus is the first earthworm species to be reported from the Skagway area in Alaska. We present a key and illustrated glossary to the species in the Yukon. RÉSUMÉ Au total, 42 échantillons ont été prises entre le Lac Watson et Dawson City et ont résultés en deux nouvelles espèces pour le Yukon: Eiseniella tetraedra et Lumbricus castaneus. Les collections près du Lac Watson Lake, qui se trouve dans la partie sud-est du territoire, ont été obtenues lors du Bioblitz 2019 du Centre de données sur la conservation du Yukon. Cela porte à dix le nombre d'espèces connues au Yukon. Une collection dans le parc national de Kluane représente le deuxième échantillon d'Arctiostrotus fontinalis dans le territoire. Bimastos parvus de Dawson City est également le deuxième échantillon pour le Yukon depuis la première en 1993. Les espèces les plus fréquemment rencontrées au Yukon sont Dendrobaena octaedra et Dendrodrilus rubidus. Lumbricus rubellus est la première espèce de ver de terre à être signalée dans la région de Skagway, en Alaska. Nous présentons un clé d'identification et un glossaire illustré des espèces au Yukon.
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