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Positive Effects of Workplace Meditation Training and Practice



There is evidence that meditation is a powerful organisational tool for enhancing employee effectiveness, wellbeing, and job satisfaction; however, experimental studies on the effects of meditation on other organisational factors such as presenteeism and emotional intelligence are limited. This study investigated the impact of meditation on mindfulness, emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, and job stress-related presenteeism in an Australian workplace. Participants learned and practised an 'Auto Transcending Meditation Technique’ (ATMT) at their workplace. The study used the switching replications experimental design, comparing an intervention group with a control group. Quantitative data analysis used descriptive statistics and repeated measures to compare the mean pre-post intervention differences. Thematic analysis was completed on qualitative data gathered in focus groups and from the training evaluation. As a consequence of ATMT, participants showed significant improvements in their levels of mindfulness and emotional intelligence. Thematic analysis indicated that participants felt the meditation training and practice led to positive personal changes. In addition, the results showed that higher mindfulness buffers the effect of stress-related presenteeism on participants’ mental and physical health. Our results demonstrate that meditation training and practice enhances mindfulness and emotional intelligence, with benefits for employees’ physical and mental health. Workplace meditation should be considered in health promoting work settings.
International Journal of Psychological Studies; Vol. 11, No. 1; 2019
ISSN 1918-7211 E-ISSN 1918-722X
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Positive Effects of Workplace Meditation Training and Practice
Associate Prof Leila Karimi1, Prof Stephen P Kent1, Prof Sandra G. Leggat1, Dr Jiri Rada1 & Alison Angleton1
1 School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
Correspondence: Associate Prof Leila Karimi, School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University,
Plenty Road, Melbourne VIC 3086, Australia. E-mail:
Received: December 6, 2018 Accepted: January 2, 2019 Online Published: January 8, 2019
doi:10.5539/ijps.v11n1p15 URL:
Ethical Standards
The project was approved by the La Trobe University College Human Ethics Sub-Committee (CHESC)
(approval number: S15-29).
Informed Consent
Written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants prior to their inclusion in the study.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
There is evidence that meditation is a powerful organisational tool for enhancing employee effectiveness,
wellbeing, and job satisfaction; however, experimental studies on the effects of meditation on other
organisational factors such as presenteeism and emotional intelligence are limited. This study investigated the
impact of meditation on mindfulness, emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, and job stress-related presenteeism
in an Australian workplace. Participants learned and practised an 'Auto Transcending Meditation Technique’
(ATMT) at their workplace. The study used the switching replications experimental design, comparing an
intervention group with a control group. Quantitative data analysis used descriptive statistics and repeated
measures to compare the mean pre-post intervention differences. Thematic analysis was completed on qualitative
data gathered in focus groups and from the training evaluation. As a consequence of ATMT, participants showed
significant improvements in their levels of mindfulness and emotional intelligence. Thematic analysis indicated
that participants felt the meditation training and practice led to positive personal changes. In addition, the results
showed that higher mindfulness buffers the effect of stress-related presenteeism on participants’ mental and
physical health. Our results demonstrate that meditation training and practice enhances mindfulness and emotional
intelligence, with benefits for employees’ physical and mental health. Workplace meditation should be
considered in health promoting work settings.
Keywords: mindfulness, meditation, emotional intelligence, presenteeism, stress, wellbeing
1. Introduction
Meditation is a popular tool to enhance employee effectiveness, health, and job satisfaction in many
organisations (Goodson, 2013). Different cultures have practised meditation in various forms to connect the
mind, body and spirit for hundreds of years. Traditionally, meditation focuses on improving relaxation, creating
internal energy and positive feelings such as love, patience, and forgiveness (University of Wisconsin-Madison,
2008). Meditation techniques differ, but commonly include controlled breathing, repetitive phrases (mantra), and
visualisations; all forms of meditation share mindfulness and self-awareness skills (Charoensukmongkola, 2014).
A recent systematic review on the effects of mindfulness on stress measures and anxiety showed that meditation
is associated with decreases in heart rate, blood pressure and cortisol levels, especially in those with more
practice and strong focus on breathing (Pascoe & Crewther, 2016).
According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, anxiety is a leading source of adult disability worldwide
(Sharma & Rush, 2014) and workplace stress is a major contributor to anxiety (Colligan & Higgins, 2006).
Meditation has been promoted as effective management for stress and anxiety by various government and health International Journal of Psychological Studies Vol. 11, No. 1; 2019
organisations (healthdirect, 2016; National Institutes of Health, 2016). Indeed, meta-analyses and systematic
reviews, show that various meditative practices are beneficial in reducing anxiety, stress, job tension, insomnia and
fatigue, and can improve mood as well as general health in various populations (Alexander et al., 1993; Goyal et al.,
2014; Khoury, Sharma, Rush, & Fournier, 2015; Kulkarni, Janakiram, & Kumar, 2009; Sharma & Rush, 2014).
Shonin et al. (2014) conducted a randomised controlled trial to explore the effects of meditation on work-related
well-being and job performance. They found that after eight weeks of meditation training, participants showed
lower levels of work-related stress and psychological distress, and higher levels of job satisfaction and
performance. Meditation has also been found to improve work engagement, subjective job performance, and job
satisfaction (Shiba, Nishimoto, Sugimoto, & Ishikawa, 2015). A recent randomised controlled trial on adults with
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) found associations between mindfulness practices and less work loss and
fewer mental health professional visits (Hoge et al., 2017).
While there is evidence linking meditation with reduced stress and anxiety in the workplace, stress-related
presenteeism has not received much attention. Stress-related presenteeism occurs where ‘employees are
physically present at work, but their cognitive energy is not devoted to their work’ (Gilbreath & Karimi, 2012 p.
2). It is surprising that this presenteeism has not received greater attention, given that it costs the Australian
economy approximately $14 billion a year (Medibank Private, 2008). In addition to the health risks to the
employees, the net result for employers is substantial loss of worker productivity.
Intrapersonal resources and capacities have an impact on employees’ reactions to their workplace demands
(Laschinger. et al., 2016). Emotional Intelligence is an important intrapersonal resource that can buffer the
impact of workplace stress (Karimi, Cheng, Bartram, Leggat, & Sarkeshik, 2015; Karimi, Leggat, Donohue,
Farrell, & Couper, 2014). Emotion Regulation Theory (Baumeister & Heatherton, 1996), one of the most used
theories for the study of emotion at work, helps explain the empirical evidence. Emotion regulation refers to ‘the
processes by which individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they
experience and express these emotions’ (Gross, 1998 p. 275).
Studies show that meditation is positively associated with EI (Chiesa, Calati, & Serretti, 2011). Individuals who
completed meditation training showed significant improvements in EI and stress reduction compared with the
control group (Chu, 2010). Mindfulness skills and EI were correlated significantly with positive affect, life
satisfaction, and lower negative affect, with EI mediating the relationship between mindfulness and these
outcomes (Schutte & Malouff, 2011). A recent study replicated the finding that mindfulness meditation practice
enhanced EI and was directly related to decreased perceived stress (Charoensukmongkola, 2014).
Building on these findings we assessed the ability of a workplace meditation program to impact mindfulness, EI,
job-satisfaction, and stress-related presenteeism. We used a mixed-methods experimental approach to answer the
following research questions:
1. Does meditation training and participation enhance skills in mindfulness and emotional intelligence?
2. Does workplace meditation training and participation lead to increased job-satisfaction and decreased
stress-related presenteeism?
Long-term exposure to stressful workplace situations can lead to mental and physical health problems. However,
transactional models of stress, which assess the way individuals react to stressful conditions, suggest individual
factors such as self-awareness, coping strategies, and emotion regulation may moderate the experience of stress on
health (Slaski & Cartwright, 2002). A few studies have provided support for the role of mindfulness and EI in
reducing the health effects of stress (Charoensukmongkola, 2014; Schutte & Malouff, 2011). However, there is
little literature on the relationship between mindfulness and stress-related presenteeism. The role of self-awareness
and mindfulness in stress-related presenteeism and the physical-mental health relationship remains to be fully
investigated, leading to our third research question:
1. Does mindfulness moderate the effects of stress-related presenteeism on perceived health?
2. Methods
2.1 Participants
Study participants were clerical and administrative personnel at the corporate headquarters of a leading
Australian wellness company, who learned and practised meditation at their workplace. Participation was
voluntary; there were neither incentives nor disadvantages, penalties, or adverse consequences for not
participating or for withdrawing before the study was completed. Participants were identified by the researchers
only by assigned code numbers. The researchers were interested solely in aggregated relationships among the International Journal of Psychological Studies Vol. 11, No. 1; 2019
key concepts. Trainees received a letter of invitation that included a participant information statement, the
consent form, and a link to the online survey.
2.2 Meditation Training Intervention
The training and data collection for the project started at baseline and continued at two-monthly intervals for
four months. The meditation program was delivered by a certified meditation teacher and the participants were
trained in 'Auto Transcending Meditation Technique’ (ATMT). The technique was taught over four 120-minute
consecutive sessions at the workplace each morning before work. After the four days of training, the participants
meditated at the workplace daily in a group for two 20-minute sessions; at 8am and 3pm.
ATMT is an effortless technique that requires no focus, concentration, or control of the mind (Travis et al., 2010).
Automaticity can be achieved through extensive rehearsal which leads to ‘effortless’ concentration (Lutz, Slagter,
Dunne, & Davidson, 2008), utilising the repetition of a mantra. The aim of transcending refers to moving the
mind from the gross level of thinking to experience ever subtler levels of thought and awareness.
2.3 Timeline and Study Design
The study used the switching replications experimental design, which has strong internal validity and is highly
ethical because all participants eventually receive the intervention. Group 1 (n=35) received the training at the
outset and meditated for two months (i.e. no waiting period) and Group 2 (n=34) acted as the control group with
no training or meditation practice for the first two months (i.e. delayed training). After two months, Group 2 also
received the training (delayed training group) and commenced meditation, while Group 1 continued with two
more months of meditation practises.
2.4 Measures
Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). The FMI is a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess mindfulness’
(Walach, Buchheld, Buttenmuller, Kleinknecht, & Schmidt, 2006). The FMI questions focus on personal
experiences. One item, ‘I am impatient with myself and with others’ needed to be reverse coded. The responses
were Likert-based, ranging from 1 to 4, and representing ‘rarely true’ to ‘almost always true’ answers. An
example question was ‘I am open to the experience of the present moment’. A single score was calculated to
measure mindfulness; higher scores demonstrate higher levels of mindfulness. The reliability assessment for this
sample indicated high reliability for this scale (time 1 α =.89, time 2 α =.90, time 3 α =.88)
Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0®). The EQ-i 2.0® is a scientifically validated emotional intelligence
measure. It examines an individual’s social and emotional strengths and weaknesses (Statistical Solutions, 2015).
Respondents self-report on their life and workplace performance in a general score in self-perception,
self-expression, interpersonal skills, decision-making, and stress management. The inventory measures 15 key
areas of emotional skills that contribute to proficiency in complex activities such as conflict resolution and
planning. The reliability of the scale was reported as high in all previous studies. Due to copyright restriction, it
was not feasible to calculate reliability of the scale for this sample.
Job Satisfaction Scale. Job satisfaction refers to how content an individual is with their job, or whether they like
the job or individual aspects or facets of the job. It was measured using the six questions of the Job Satisfaction
Scale developed by Seashore et al.(1982). The responses range from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”; a
higher score indicates higher job satisfaction. The reliability of the scale in this sample was excellent at all three
time points (time 1 α =.92, time 2 α =.95, time 3 α =.92).
Job Stress-Related Presenteeism. Presenteeism was measured by a six-item scale developed by Gilbreath and
Frew (2008). The scale anchors are “all the time” (5) and “never” (1). The higher scores in this scale indicates
high level of perceived stress-related presenteeism. Example questions for this scale are ‘I'm unable to
concentrate on my job because of work-related stress’ and ‘Work stress distracts my attention away from my job
tasks’. The internal consistency of the scale scales were excellent at all three time points demonstrating the
reliability of the scale in this sample (time 1 α =.88, time 2 α =.92, time 3 α =.92).
Short-Form 12 Health Survey (SF-12).
The Short Form 12 item health questionnaire (Ware, Kosinski, & Keller, 1996) evaluates aspects of an
individual’s self-reported physical and mental health using 12 Likert scale items. The SF-12 has eight subscales
that collapse into two composite scales of mental health and physical health, where lower scores indicate better
health. The two composite scales have both successfully predicted poor health outcomes from large sample
studies (Herrman et al., 2002; Ikin et al., 2004; Taylor et al., 2000). The internal consistency of both physical International Journal of Psychological Studies Vol. 11, No. 1; 2019
health (time 1 α =.70, time 2 α =.70, time 3 α =.81) and mental health (time 1 α =.82, time 2 α =.84, time 3 α
=.75) scales were acceptable at all three time points demonstrating the reliability of the scale in this sample.
2.5 Data Collection and Analysis
The baseline measures were collected using an online survey at the beginning of the study (Time 1). Follow-up
measures were collected at two-monthly intervals for four months, Time 2 and Time 3 respectively. The online
survey was conducted using Qualtrics Survey Software (Qualtrics, Provo, UT). Quantitative data analysis was
conducted using descriptive statistics and repeated measures to compare the mean pre-post intervention
differences. The data were analysed using SPSS (v 21). Data were screened for outliers, errors, or missing data.
Because of the longitudinal design of the study, more data were missing towards the end. Only participants who
continued with the study to the end were included in the data analysis. Analysis of the patterns of missing data
indicated that data were missing at random, suggesting that they can be fully accounted for by variables where
there is complete information. Six percent of values missing and were replaced with mean substitution
(Tabachnick & Fidell, 2013).
Three focus groups were held after the final training sessions to explore the satisfaction of participants with the
meditation training and practice. The groups explored what was helpful about the training, what aspects of the
training could be improved, what specific benefits the participants experienced, and how the participants will
apply the learning to their job role. To complement the quantitative data, the data gathered in the focus groups
and from the training evaluation was subjected to thematic analysis, independently completed by two researchers.
The process involved familiarisation with the data and creation of preliminary codes to produce a list of items
with a recurring pattern, searching for and refining overarching themes, and substantiating each theme based on
the data.
3. Results
3.1 Demographic Characteristics
The majority of the 35 participants were female (68%), worked full-time (95%), and possessed a tertiary
qualification (82.5%). As summarised in Figure 1, the response rate to the online surveys for Group 1 was 31/35
and 28/35 at two and four months respectively; for Group 2, the response rate was 29/34 and 12/34 for the same
periods. The major reasons for the decrease in response rates included participants ceasing meditation, leaving
the company, and being away during the data collection period.
Figure 1. Participation data International Journal of Psychological Studies Vol. 11, No. 1; 2019
3.2 Quantitative Analysis
Mindfulness skills. A 2 (Group) x 3 (Time) repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to compare the scores on
the FMI over time and between groups. The main effect for group was not significant; F (1, 38) = 1.04, p = 0.31
with a small effect size of 2 = .027, suggesting that each group’s overall mean from the three phases did not
differ (Figure 2). The main effect for time revealed that both training groups improved their mindfulness skills
across the three phases of the study; F (2, 38) = 6.38, p = 0.003, with a larger effect size of 2 = .140. We do not
report the interaction effect (comparison of group trends across phases), as the control group, unlike a traditional
control group, is expected to increase the effect when it begins the meditation phase.
Emotional intelligence. The main effect between groups was not significant; F (2, 38) = 2.48, p = 0.12, with a
small effect size of 2 = .061 (Figure 3). However, the results indicate that the training groups showed
significant improvement for emotional intelligence skills over time; F (2, 38) = 11.91, p = 0.001, with a large
effect size of 2 = .239.
Figure 2. Effect of meditation on mindfulness skills. International Journal of Psychological Studies Vol. 11, No. 1; 2019
Figure 3. Effect of meditation on emotional intelligence skills.
Job satisfaction. Job satisfaction did not differ between groups; F (2, 38) = .41, p = 0.52, with a small effect size
of 2 = .011. It also did not differ over the study period; F (2, 38) = 2.74, p = 0.07, with a small effect size of 2
= .067.
Job stress-related presenteeism. There was no change in job stress-related presenteeism between groups; F (2, 38)
= 2.54, p = 0.119, with a small effect size of 2 = .063. The main effect for time was also not significant; F (2,
38) = 1.64, p = 0.20, with a small effect size of 2 = .042.
To test for the direct and interaction effects of presenteeism (Time 1) and mindfulness (Time 3) with perceived
mental and physical health (Time 3), we used the PROCESS macro for SPSS (Hayes & Rockwood, 2016) with
bootstrapping (N = 5000). Both the physical health and mental health models support an interaction between the
Table 1. Linear model of predictors of mental health
B SE B t p
Constant 76.05 (71.52-80.58) 2.24 33.83 0.001
Presenteeism -6.91 (-13.14—0.69) 3.08 -2.24 0.03
Mindfulness 7.98 (-3.03-18.99) 5.46 1.46 0.15
Presenteeism x mindfulness 13.80 (1.94-25.66) 5.88 2.34 0.02 International Journal of Psychological Studies Vol. 11, No. 1; 2019
Presenteeism and mindfulness interact to best explain the relationship with poor mental and physical health
(Tables 1 and 2). The Johnson-Neyman significance regions indicate a strong relationship between those with
higher presenteeism and reduced mental and physical health for those participants with lower mindfulness (mental
health < 60th percentile and physical health < 73rd percentile). Participants with mindfulness scores above these
points did not show associations between presenteeism and perceived health. The findings suggest that higher
mindfulness buffers the effect of presenteeism as these participants reported better mental and physical health
irrespective of presenteeism at baseline.
Table 2. Linear model of predictors of physical health
B SE B t P
Constant 80.55 (74.50-86.60) 2.99 26.88 0.001
Presenteeism -4.81 (-11.03-1.40) 3.08 -1.56 0.12
Mindfulness 1.00 (-9.13-11.13) 5.02 0.19 0.84
Presenteeism x mindfulness -8.86 (-15.98—1.75) 3.52 -2.51 0.01
Note. R²=0.07, N =46
Training evaluation. The mean score for the 14 closed questions on the Training Evaluation form was 4.67 of a
possible 5, suggesting high satisfaction with the training.
3.3 Qualitative Analysis
The application and impacts of the meditation intervention produced a range of responses from the participants.
The preliminary codes organised relatively well into the three identifiable key themes; positive personal changes,
good meditation training, and the company commitment and support. The theme of ‘positive personal changes’
included a subtheme of applying meditation learning to job role.
Positive personal changes were the strongest reported outcome of the meditation training and practice. The
participants also mentioned the fact that they learned a valuable skill, expanded their knowledge, and enjoyed the
process along the way. The theme spoke of the participants observing beneficial changes in themselves. Changes
for some hinted at a new direction that their life would take:
Meditation is and will now become a part of my daily routine
Now I am more conscious about the things I can’t control and don’t stress about it
I have become less reactive and more accepting
I have meditation in my diary and don’t schedule any meetings
Some participants commented on specific positive physiological changes that the training has produced:
I am sleeping much better
Feel better after meditating
I feel ‘gluggy’ when I don’t meditate on the weekends
I feel a lot calmer
Increased energy levels
More alert
Others noted the beneficial impact of the course on others:
I am more patient with my daughter
Able to cope better with distractions at home…. and the family likes me for that
The theme of positive personal changes was closely associated with the subtheme of applying meditation
learning to job role. Meditation during work hours enables the team to focus, declutter the mind, communicate
better, and practice mindfulness:
Able to ‘scan’ the situation better and make decisions a bit easier
Better clarity and the ability to focus on goals
Calmer and work through things better
More energy to put into my work International Journal of Psychological Studies Vol. 11, No. 1; 2019
Good meditation training was directly related to the experience of the presenter and the effective training
Well described, good instructions, learned by doing
We had an excellent teacher
I liked physiological explanations and the effects on the body
Course was great
Four sessions in a row were good to create a habit and get into the swing
Enjoyed the long meetings at the beginning
Content was relevant and not attached to any belief system which is important; non-spiritual
Some highlighted the group experience as an important factor in learning and succeeding. Individuals enjoyed
sharing knowledge with others and being part of a group:
Learned from other people’s experiences
Sharing and participating together
Company commitment and support to promoting the health and well-being of team members in the workplace
was evident throughout the study:
Good having instructions during working hours
Great to use work time for personal benefits
Really nice for (company name) to prioritise our health and happiness at work
The findings from this study suggest that participants in the meditation intervention benefited in several ways. The
participants reported improvement in both EI and mindfulness. Most importantly, the participants experienced
positive personal changes in themselves. Many of these changes were translated into their job roles.
4. Discussion
The main purpose of this mixed methods study was to measure the impact of meditation on mindfulness skills, EI,
job satisfaction, and job stress-related presenteeism in an Australian workplace. Our findings provided evidence
that meditation training and participation enhance skills in mindfulness and EI. Our findings are commensurate
with emotion regulation theory, as the participants, after mindfulness training, reported better understanding,
awareness and expression of their emotions. The quantitative data analysis showed significant self-reported
improvement in mindfulness, confirming that the level of mindfulness can be improved using ATMT meditation.
This finding is consistent with past studies (Charoensukmongkola, 2014; Jha, Krompinger, & Baime, 2007).
The findings also indicated that EI is a trainable skill and can be enhanced using mindfulness meditation. The
results add support to the empirical investigations that have examined the relationship between EI and meditation
(Chiesa et al., 2011). Individuals who are mindful are more adept at recognising how to behave appropriately in
different situations. They detect the triggers of their emotions and therefore are able to predict and manage their
emotions (Joseph & Newman, 2010). The participants in the present investigation reported that the mindfulness
and EI skills developed through meditation were applicable in the workplace, as well as in their personal lives.
There was no support for the second hypothesis that meditation training and participation leads to increased
job-satisfaction and decreased stress-related presenteeism, which is contrary to some of the literature in this area
(Levy, Wobbrock, Kaszniak, & Ostergren, 2012; Shiba et al., 2015; Shonin et al., 2014). In the present study,
however, the participating staff were already highly satisfied and displaying low levels of presenteeism and
therefore unlikely to improve further with this short-term intervention due to a ceiling effect. Other explanations
may be that the improvements in mindfulness and EI happened in advance of improvements in job satisfaction
and stress-related presenteeism, the duration of data collection was not able to capture these changes, or the
study lacked sufficient power to identify changes in these areas.
The findings do however, support the third hypothesis that mindfulness moderates the effects of stress-related
presenteeism on health. The statistical approach allowed for an assessment of how participants with differing
levels of mindfulness at the end of the program impacted the relationship between presenteeism and self-reported
mental and physical health. Our findings suggest that high levels of mindfulness buffers the impact of
presenteeism upon mental and physical health. For those with lower levels of mindfulness, the association was as
anticipated, with high levels of presenteeism associated with reports of poorer physical and mental health. International Journal of Psychological Studies Vol. 11, No. 1; 2019
Our qualitative data suggest that participants in the meditation intervention benefited in several ways. Most
importantly, the participants reported positive personal changes. Based on the participants’ self-reported
statements, many of these changes were translated into their job roles and putting more energy into their work,
which is consistent with previous quantitative studies (Shiba et al., 2015; Shonin et al., 2014). This study has clear
public health implications for relatively low cost, easy to implement health promoting activities at the workplace.
There are limitations of this study, which was planned to test the intervention and measurement tools. Further
longitudinal research is required to track all meditation effects.
4.1 Conclusions
The current study explored the effects of meditation on EI, mindfulness, job satisfaction, and job stress-related
presenteeism in an Australian corporate setting. The participants reported clear improvement in mindfulness and
EI skills, with those with high levels of mindfulness potentially protected from the deleterious health effects of
The results of this study have important implications for workplaces. Given that clerical and administrative staff
are traditionally hired for their technical expertise, greater mindfulness and emotional intelligence skills allow
them to be more inspiring, engaging, and empathetic. These skills, together with the traditional skill set,
comprise effective leaders, enable to better increase organisational effectiveness (Marques, 2013). Mindfulness
is an essential tool of self-awareness and our findings show it has an important effect in buffering the harmful
effects of stress-related presenteeism on employees’ health. Developing workplace mindfulness training requires
an ongoing, supporting infrastructure, consistent with a health promoting workplace.
4.2 Recommendations for Further Research
Further research is required to establish the direct and indirect impact of mindfulness, not only on health and
wellbeing, but also on the employees’ work performance. In addition, a study with a larger number of
participants may determine whether the significant moderating effect of mindfulness on health outcomes of job
stress-related presenteeism can be observed. Our findings demonstrate that mediation enhances mindfulness and
EI; consequently, organisations can use meditation training and practice as a workplace intervention, especially
for employees with higher emotional burdens, stress-related presenteeism or job demands.
This research was a joint project between La Trobe University and Swisse Wellness Pty Ltd. and was funded in
part by Swisse Wellness. The researchers acknowledge the support of Jonni Pollard, co-founder of 1 Giant Mind
and the participants who took part in this research and kindly shared their time and experience.
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... Meditation effect on the workplace employees and impact of mindfulness on senior managers or decision-makers was conducted by (Karimi et al., 2019;Valosek et al., 2018). Mindfulness plays a beneficially positive effect on innovative thoughts or creativity of the human brain (Ren et al., 2011). ...
... Researchers (Karimi et al., 2019) investigated the effects of meditation on employee attendance, job satisfaction, mindfulness, and emotional intelligence in an Australian company. The 'Auto Transcending Meditation Technique' was utilized at work for four months with a two-month break for meditation intervention. ...
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The article presents a conceptual and empirical research study with future scope for wellness programs for organizational health promotion and mental well-being. The study focuses on virtual programs on meditation or mindfulness integrated with artificial intelligence (AI). That adds to the literature, which is relatively minor on this subject. Meditation can be a powerful organizational resource to improve employee efficiency, emotional stability, well-being, and stress. Young engineers of middle-hierarchy employed at PPS International, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India (n=30), all males, were given an eight-week meditation intervention. The experimental group showed significant and influential improvements over control-group participants of the World Health Organization (WHO)-issued quality-of-life scale. The different domains studied were perception, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment.
... Author team (Karimi, L., et al.,2019) investigated the impact of meditation on mindfulness, emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, and job stress-related presenteeism in an Australian workplace. Participants were taught 'Auto Transcending Meditation Technique' in their office. ...
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Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic situation, the human race has entered the era of hope and transformation, and there is growing pressure and focus to raise awareness to adopt alternative interventions and sustainable practices to ensure gaining sound functioning of physiological organs. Can yoga and meditation promote clarity in thoughts and enhance alertness at work? Does practice of mudras help in improving concentration level of individuals? Do yoga and meditation help to improve the improve quality of life in general? The aim of this chapter is to help new practitioners, scholars, and employees to understand fitness mantra without stress and strain through Indian style of yoga and meditation. This chapter presents an overview of collection of research papers and articles written by yoga experts, saints, and researchers that have emphasized psychology, spirituality, and mentioned evidence for better mental health or effectiveness of yoga, meditation, and mudra interventions as tools for improving the overall personality and mental health of individuals.
... It has been possible to achieve an unparalleled performance level with dedication and commitment among all employees' and they are rightly proud of their achievements. A sound mind in a sound body is the sine qua non for such an attitude (Karimi et al., 2019). ...
Meditation is increasingly being practiced as a therapeutic technique. It is a practice where an individual uses mindfulness, focusing on a particular object or thing, feeling or thought to train themselves and increase the self-awareness to achieve calm and a clear mind to attain a stable state. Effects of meditation have generally been positiveits estimated that 200–500 million people meditate worldwide. Over 14% of Americans have meditated at least once. Meditation also increased lately and the number of people practising has increased rapidly. There have been several articles, researches and books which have been released. Meditation will help the individual change attitude towards life, and provide peace of mind and happiness. It helps to achieve a better understanding of themselves as well as others. This review focuses on studying and understanding the negative and positive effects of meditation on mental health and how meditation helps in reducing anxiety. It focuses on pros and cons of meditation as well. Meditation depends on individuals and each one of them has a different experience. People have experienced both pleasant and unpleasant experiences.
Conference Paper
Experts and youths for hundreds of years have practiced the art of mindfulness meditation. A reliable contemplation practice can help quiet your mind and do substantially more for your general wellbeing. Emotional intelligence or EQ is one’s ability to understand and manage emotions appropriately. Research indicates that EQ is a superior indicator of welfare & progress than IQ. Job stress occurs when the prerequisites of the employees do not coordinate with the abilities, assets, or necessities of the individuals. Research suggests that "thought decrease" or "mental quietness" may have explicit impacts applicable to work pressure and emotional welfare. Much of the population ventured into online mediums to continue their meditation practice due to its ease of accessibility and self-benefits specially during the pandemic. The two main aims of this paper were, 1) To study the difference between the experimental and control group on the dimensions of Emotional Intelligence. 2) To study the difference between the experimental and control group on the dimensions of Work Stress. An empirical- analytical approach was applied through an extensive review of existing literature and two predetermined questionnaires to study the Emotional Intelligence and Work stress level of individuals engaging in online meditation. For this study, an experimental research design was implemented for collection of data. Statistical Analysis through T-test was conducted on the data to understand the difference between two groups. Emotional health and stress are linked in their impact on an individual's well-being, which makes it crucial for future researchers to explore their interaction with mindfulness.
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Anxiety is a leading source of disability worldwide and current treatment methods are not beneficial for all individuals. There is evidence that meditation has mood-enhancing properties however the biological mechanisms are largely unknown. This systematic review investigates the effects of meditation on sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activation measures. It focuses on studies collecting physiological parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, cortisol, and peripheral cytokine expression. Overall the 23 trials reviewed trials indicate that meditation practice increases parasympathetic nervous system activation, as well as decreases anxious symptomatology in diverse populations. Further research is required to confirm these preliminary findings and facilitate implementation in clinical settings.
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Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of individuals who practice meditation, and (3) examine the association between meditation practice and job performance. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and the characteristics of the persons practicing meditation; in Study 2, we examined the association between meditation practice and job performance. The outcome variables included work engagement, subjective job performance, and job satisfaction. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was used to assess work engagement, the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was used to measure subjective job performance, and a scale developed by the Japanese government was used to assess job satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in Study 2. Demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were included as covariates in the analyses. The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were younger and had a higher education, higher household income, higher stress level, and lower body mass index than those who did not practice meditation. The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = 0.112, p < .001), subjective job performance (β = 0.116, p < .001), and job satisfaction (β = 0.079, p = .002), even after adjusting for covariates (β = 0.083, p < .001; β = 0.104, p < .001; β = 0.060, p = .015, respectively). The results indicate that meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job performance, and work engagement.
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Regression methods were used to select and score 12 items from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) to reproduce the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scales in the general US population (n = 2,333). The resulting 12-item short-form (SF-12) achieved multiple R squares of 0.911 and 0.918 in predictions of the SF-36 Physical Component Summary and SF-36 Mental Component Summary scores, respectively. Scoring algorithms from the general population used to score 12-item versions of the two components (Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary) achieved R squares of 0.905 with the SF-36 Physical Component Summary and 0.938 with the SF-36 Mental Component Summary when cross-validated in the Medical Outcomes Study. Test-retest (2-week) correlations of 0.89 and 0.76 were observed for the 12-item Physical Component Summary and the 12-item Mental Component Summary, respectively, in the general US population (n = 232). Twenty cross-sectional and longitudinal tests of empirical validity previously published for the 36-item short-form scales and summary measures were replicated for the 12-item Physical Component Summary and the 12-item Mental Component Summary, including comparisons between patient groups known to differ or to change in terms of the presence and seriousness of physical and mental conditions, acute symptoms, age and aging, self-reported 1-year changes in health, and recovery from depression. In 14 validity tests involving physical criteria, relative validity estimates for the 12-item Physical Component Summary ranged from 0.43 to 0.93 (median = 0.67) in comparison with the best 36-item short-form scale. Relative validity estimates for the 12-item Mental Component Summary in 6 tests involving mental criteria ranged from 0.60 to 1.07 (median = 0.97) in relation to the best 36-item short-form scale. Average scores for the 2 summary measures, and those for most scales in the 8-scale profile based on the 12-item short-form, closely mirrored those for the 36-item short-form, although standard errors were nearly always larger for the 12-item short-form.
With support from one of its Associate University Librarians, since the fall of 2007, the UCSD Libraries have offered midday yoga sessions in the library twice weekly for library staff. For the group of regular attendees and newcomers and those who join in periodically, the yoga program has helped to reduce stress at work – a perk that has been well needed, in particular, during the last several years which have seen significant continued budget cuts to the library, new strategic initiatives, and a complete organizational restructuring in the library.
Objectives: To examine the effect of mindfulness meditation on occupational functioning in individuals with Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Fifty-seven individuals with GAD (mean (SD) age=39 (13); 56% women) participated in an 8-week clinical trial in which they were randomized to mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or an attention control class. In this secondary analysis, absenteeism, entire workdays missed, partial workdays missed, and healthcare utilization patterns were assessed before and after treatment. Results: Compared to the attention control class, participation in MBSR was associated with a significantly greater decrease in partial work days missed for adults with GAD (t=2.734, df=51, p=0.009). Interestingly, a dose effect was observed during the 24-week post-treatment follow-up period: among MBSR participants, greater home mindfulness meditation practice was associated with less work loss and with fewer mental health professional visits. Conclusion: Mindfulness meditation training may improve occupational functioning and decrease healthcare utilization in adults with GAD.
There have been numerous treatments in the clinical research literature about various design, analysis, and interpretation considerations when testing hypotheses about mechanisms and contingencies of effects, popularly known as mediation and moderation analysis. In this paper we address the practice of mediation and moderation analysis using linear regression in the pages of Behaviour Research and Therapy and offer some observations and recommendations, debunk some popular myths, describe some new advances, and provide an example of mediation, moderation, and their integration as conditional process analysis using the PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS. Our goal is to nudge clinical researchers away from historically significant but increasingly old school approaches toward modifications, revisions, and extensions that characterize more modern thinking about the analysis of the mechanisms and contingencies of effects.
Background: As the nursing profession ages, new graduate nurses are an invaluable health human resource. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing new graduate nurses' successful transition to their full professional role in Canadian hospital settings and to determine predictors of job and career satisfaction and turnover intentions over a one-year time period in their early employment. Design: A national two-wave survey of new graduate nurses across Canada. Participants: A random sample of 3906 Registered Nurses with less than 3 years of experience currently working in direct patient care was obtained from the provincial registry databases across Canada. At Time 1, 1020 of 3743 eligible nurses returned completed questionnaires (usable response rate=27.3%). One year later, Time 1 respondents were mailed a follow-up survey; 406 returned a completed questionnaire (response rate=39.8%). Methods: Surveys containing standardized questionnaires were mailed to participants' home address. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted using SPSS software. Results: Overall, new graduate nurses were positive about their experiences and committed to nursing. However, over half of new nurses in the first year of practice reported high levels of emotional exhaustion and many witnessed or experienced incivility (24-42%) at work. Findings from hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that situational and personal factors explained significant amounts of variance in new graduate nurses' job and career satisfaction and turnover intentions. Cynicism was a significant predictor of all four outcomes one year later, while Psycap predicted job and career satisfaction and career turnover intentions. Conclusions: Results provide a look into the worklife experiences of Canadian new graduate nurses over a one-year time period and identify factors that influence their job-related outcomes. These findings show that working conditions for new graduate nurses are generally positive and stable over time, although workplace mistreatment is an issue to be addressed.
Due to its potential to concurrently improve work-related wellbeing (WRW) and job performance, occupational stakeholders are becoming increasingly interested in the applications of meditation. The present study conducted the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of meditation on outcomes relating to both WRW and job performance. Office-based middle-hierarchy managers (n = 152) received an eight-week meditation intervention (Meditation Awareness Training; MAT) or an active control intervention. MAT participants demonstrated significant and sustainable improvements (with strong effect sizes) over control-group participants in levels of work-related stress, job satisfaction, psychological distress, and employer-rated job performance. There are a number of novel implications: (i) meditation can effectuate a perceptual shift in how employees experience their work and psychological environment and may thus constitute a cost-effective WRW intervention, (ii) meditation-based (i.e., present-moment-focussed) working styles may be more effective than goal-based (i.e., future-orientated) working styles, and (iii) meditation may reduce the separation made by employees between their own interests and those of the organizations they work for.