ArticlePDF Available

Comparing Comprehension of a Long Text Read in Print Book and on Kindle: Where in the Text and When in the Story?

  • French National Centre for Scientific Research; Marseille

Abstract and Figures

Digital reading devices such as Kindle differ from paper books with respect to the kinesthetic and tactile feedback provided to the reader, but the role of these features in reading is rarely studied empirically. This experiment compares reading of a long text on Kindle DX and in print. Fifty participants (24 years old) read a 28 page (approx. one hour reading time) long mystery story on Kindle or in a print pocket book and completed several tests measuring various levels of reading comprehension: engagement, recall, capacities to locate events in the text and reconstructing the plot of the story. Results showed that on most tests subjects performed identically whatever the reading medium. However, on measures related to chronology and temporality, those who had read in the print pocket book, performed better than those who had read on a Kindle. It is concluded that, basically comprehension was similar with both media, but, because kinesthetic feedback is less informative with a Kindle, readers were not as efficient to locate events in the space of the text and hence in the temporality of the story. We suggest that, to get a correct spatial representation of the text and consequently a coherent temporal organization of the story, readers would be reliant on the sensorimotor cues which are afforded by the manipulation of the book. Keywords: reading comprehension; kinesthetic feedback; cognitive map; print-book; kindle; long text reading.
Content may be subject to copyright.
fpsyg-10-00038 February 4, 2019 Time: 16:4 # 1
published: 15 February 2019
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00038
Edited by:
Francesca Marina Bosco,
Università degli Studi di Torino, Italy
Reviewed by:
Christian Tarchi,
Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy
Anne Giersch,
Institut National de la Santé et de la
Recherche Médicale (INSERM),
Jean-Luc Velay
Specialty section:
This article was submitted to
Cognitive Science,
a section of the journal
Frontiers in Psychology
Received: 20 September 2018
Accepted: 08 January 2019
Published: 15 February 2019
Mangen A, Olivier G and Velay J-L
(2019) Comparing Comprehension
of a Long Text Read in Print Book
and on Kindle: Where in the Text
and When in the Story?
Front. Psychol. 10:38.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00038
Comparing Comprehension of a
Long Text Read in Print Book and on
Kindle: Where in the Text and When
in the Story?
Anne Mangen1, Gérard Olivier2and Jean-Luc Velay3*
1Norwegian Reading Centre, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway, 2Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Récits Cultures Et
Sociétés (LIRCES EA 3159), Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France, 3Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives
(UMR 7192), CNRS and Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France
Digital reading devices such as Kindle differ from paper books with respect to the
kinesthetic and tactile feedback provided to the reader, but the role of these features
in reading is rarely studied empirically. This experiment compares reading of a long text
on Kindle DX and in print. Fifty participants (24 years old) read a 28 page (1 h reading
time) long mystery story on Kindle or in a print pocket book and completed several tests
measuring various levels of reading comprehension: engagement, recall, capacities to
locate events in the text and reconstructing the plot of the story. Results showed that
on most tests subjects performed identically whatever the reading medium. However,
on measures related to chronology and temporality, those who had read in the print
pocket book, performed better than those who had read on a Kindle. It is concluded
that, basically comprehension was similar with both media, but, because kinesthetic
feedback is less informative with a Kindle, readers were not as efficient to locate events
in the space of the text and hence in the temporality of the story. We suggest that, to
get a correct spatial representation of the text and consequently a coherent temporal
organization of the story, readers would be reliant on the sensorimotor cues which are
afforded by the manipulation of the book.
Keywords: reading comprehension, kinesthetic feedback, cognitive map, print-book, kindle, long text reading
The Digitization of Literary Reading
Overall, in the western world, reading is increasingly digitized. Due to the popularity of handheld,
portable digital devices such as e-readers (e.g., Kindle) and tablets (e.g., iPad), also long-form
literary reading is becoming screen- rather than print-bound. This transition invites a number of
research questions pertaining to the role of substrate affordances (e.g., screen displays and paper)
on cognitive and emotional aspects of narrative, literary reading.
In striking ways, the move from paper to screen makes evident that reading is a case of human-
technology interaction (Mangen and van der Weel, 2016). In addition to more commonly addressed
perceptual and cognitive components of discourse processing, reading typically entails manual
engagement with a device (e.g., a print pocket book, an e-reader or a tablet). Different devices have
Frontiers in Psychology | 1February 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 38
fpsyg-10-00038 February 4, 2019 Time: 16:4 # 2
Mangen et al. Long-Text Reading in Print vs. Kindle
different user interfaces and material affordances (Gibson, 1977),
and the substrate of paper in a print book provides sensorimotor
contingencies (O’Regan and Noë, 2001) that differ from those
of texts displayed on a screen. Print texts are physically and
tangibly contiguous with the medium, whereas digitized texts are
physically separable from their medium. This enables a digital
device to store a large number of texts and other content.
However, we know little about the ways in which such
seemingly subtle differences may interact with cognitive and
experiential aspects of reading. Reading scholars of a theoretical
ilk have emphasized how reading is more multisensory than
commonly acknowledged: “Smell and sight are relevant senses
when it comes to reading [,]” says Naomi Baron, “but touch may
well be the most important” (Baron, 2015, p. 142). Analogously,
Mc Laughlin notes how “the feel of the book to the hand, the
smell of the paper, the haptic pleasure of manipulating the screen
[. . .] reinforce and deepen the habit of reading” (Mc Laughlin,
2015, p. 31). Broadly conceptualized, “haptic” (from Greek
haptikos = able to touch) refers to the sense of touch. As such,
it encompasses both “passive” (cutaneous [tactile]) and “active
(proprioceptive; kinesthetic) sensory processes. In the research
literature, terms such as haptic, force feedback, and kinesthetic
are often used interchangeably. In this article, kinesthetics will
refer to the combined (passive) sense of touch (e.g., pressure;
temperature) and the (active) aspects entailed in proprioception
(the sense of the relative position of muscles, joints and tendons)
and kinesthesia (the sense of movement).1Questions concerning
the role of haptics and kinesthetics in reading rise to prominence
with the current digitization, and the increasing use of e-readers
and tablets is an occasion to put such theoretical assumptions to
empirical scrutiny.
Reading on Paper and Screens
During the past couple of decades, scientists and scholars in
reading research have increasingly taken an interest in potential
effects of technological interfaces on aspects of reading and
learning, more generally. A large number of empirical studies
have been carried out, comparing reading on computer screens
and, more recently, on tablets and smartphones, with reading on
paper (see Baron, 2015 for an overview). This research spans a
range of disciplines and a variety of methodologies, assessing the
effects of screen properties on, e.g., perceptual processes (Roschke
and Radach, 2016), memory and recall (Morineau et al., 2005;
Kerr and Symons, 2006;Porion et al., 2016), comprehension
(Mangen et al., 2013;Margolin et al., 2013;Rockinson-Szapkiw
et al., 2013;Hermena et al., 2017;Hou et al., 2017;Xu et al., 2017;
Salmerón et al., 2018) and metacognition/calibration (Ackerman
and Goldsmith, 2011;Norman and Furnes, 2016;Sidi et al.,
2016, 2017). More recently, research has begun to address
topics such as ergonomics (Köpper et al., 2016), issues of
medium materiality (Hou et al., 2017) and interactions between
medium and particular text types/genres (Rasmusson, 2014;
Singer and Alexander, 2017a). As for effects of medium on
1See, for instance, Klatzky and Lederman (1988),Lederman and Klatzky (1998),
and Klatzky and Lederman (2002) for more in-depth exploration of these closely
related phenomena.
reading comprehension, the issue remains somewhat unsettled
(see Hermena et al., 2017;Xu et al., 2017). Some empirical
studies have found reading comprehension to be superior on
paper (Kim and Kim, 2013;Mangen et al., 2013;Rasmusson,
2014), whereas others show no differences between paper and
screen (Margolin et al., 2013;Rockinson-Szapkiw et al., 2013;
Porion et al., 2016). However, a recent meta-analysis (Delgado
et al., 2018) of 54 experiments published between 2000 and 2017
comparing the reading of comparable texts on paper and screens
does find an advantage for paper both for between-participants
and for within-participants studies. The meta-analysis revealed
three significant moderators for this main finding: (i) time frame
(i.e., the advantage for paper-based reading was stronger in time-
constrained reading than in self-paced reading); (ii) text genre:
the paper-based reading advantage was consistent across studies
using informational text or a mix of informational and narrative
texts, but there was no difference for narrative-only texts; and
(iii) publication year: contrary to assumptions of “digital natives”
becoming better screen readers with increasing screen exposure
and experience, the meta-analysis found that the advantage of
paper-based reading in fact increased from 2000 to 2017 (Delgado
et al., 2018).
In a similar vein, a systematic literature review of empirical
research (Singer and Alexander, 2017b) found that when
participants were reading texts for depth of understanding and
not solely for gist, print was the more effective processing
medium. Moreover, with respect to reader preferences and habits,
a recent large international survey (Mizrachi et al., 2018) with
more than 10,000 participants found that, for academic reading,
a broad majority reported a preference for print, especially when
reading longer texts. Interestingly, participants reported that they
felt they remembered the material better and were better able to
focus when reading in print, compared to when reading digitally
(Mizrachi et al., 2018).
On another note, some studies have revealed a discrepancy
between objective and subjective measures. A study (Kretzschmar
et al., 2013) combining EEG, eye tracking and questionnaires
found that participants overwhelmingly preferred paper over
digital reading, but comprehension accuracy did not differ
between media.
Visual and Ergonomic Affordances of
Paper and Screen Substrates
Screen technologies vary with respect to visual ergonomics.
Laptop/computer and tablet (LCD) screens emit light and hence
are found to cause eyestrain and visual fatigue (Baccino, 2004;
Blehm et al., 2005;Yan et al., 2008). In contrast, e-readers (e.g.,
Kindle) are based on electronic ink, a screen substrate specially
designed to mimic paper (Siegenthaler et al., 2011). Due to a
stable image, wider viewing angle, and the fact that they merely
reflect ambient light rather than emitting light, e-readers are
more reader friendly than tablets and computers, particularly
for longer texts. A growing body of evidence indicates that the
readability of e-readers is experienced as being equal to, and
occasionally better than, that of paper (Siegenthaler et al., 2011,
2012;Benedetto et al., 2013). In addition, with screens it is
Frontiers in Psychology | 2February 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 38
fpsyg-10-00038 February 4, 2019 Time: 16:4 # 3
Mangen et al. Long-Text Reading in Print vs. Kindle
possible to scroll up and down the pages of a book. However,
scrolling is known to impede readers’ capacity to create an
effective mental map of the text (Hou et al., 2017). For these
reasons, and unlike earlier studies on narrative reading on
paper and screen (e.g., Mangen and Kuiken, 2014;Singer and
Alexander, 2017a), we used a Kindle in the present study.
However, when reading a long text included in a book, there
is more to reading than meets the eye. Indeed, for a long
text printed on many pages, reading does not only involve the
eyes: it also involves the hands. Whereas a text displayed on a
Kindle and in a print book may be similar with respect to visual
properties (the texts look identical on paper and on screen), the
two texts differ with respect to the ergonomic affordances of the
substrate. Manipulating a printed-book and an e-book is not the
same. When reading print text on paper, readers have immediate
sensory kinesthetic and tactile access to text sequence, as well
as to the entirety of the text. The sensorimotor contingencies of
paper gives book readers visual as well as kinesthetic feedback to
their progress through a text (Mangen and Kuiken, 2014). To
know where they are in a text printed on paper, readers have
at their disposal several cues: they can have a look at the page
number (visual cue), but they can also refer to tactile-kinesthetic
cues given by the handling movements informing about the
repartition of the weight of the pages on the left and on the right
of the current page, and consequently on the number of pages
already read and on the number of pages still to read. In addition,
the page turning movements might also somehow inform about
the number of pages already read. Conversely, screen readers
have only visual information on progress and spatial location
(e.g., by page numbers or progress bars).
During holding, manipulation of the objects allows to gather
information about them even without the aid of vision (Hatwell
et al., 2003;Ittyerah, 2017). Thanks to manipulation movements,
we build an internal representation of the spatial characteristics
of the objects. Print books are special objects whose size, weight
and volume are a direct indication of the length of the text. This
is not the case when reading e-books.
Now, it is often reported by digital readers that they feel it
difficult to have a clear representation on the entirety of the text
and to localize a given part of information within the text (e.g.,
Rose, 2011), and there is some empirical evidence supporting
this phenomenon (Mangen and Kuiken, 2014). For this reason,
readers of long documents on computer screen often prefer to
print the document (Baron et al., 2017;Mizrachi et al., 2018).
For a reader, being able to situate where he/she read a given
piece of information in the text is important because the relative
position of events presented in the space of the text is related to
the moment these events took place in the time of the story. For
certain types of texts, such as texts relying on plot (the unfolding
of the story in a clear logical and temporal fashion), a clear
representation of the temporal relationships between the events
in a story is crucial to build a coherent situation model sustaining
the comprehension of a text. Temporal links between events are
generally equivalent to causal connections between these events
(usually causes come before their consequences) and causal links
between events is one of the components of the situation model
(Kintsch and van Dijk, 1978;Kintsch, 1998).
When reading on a digital device, haptic and kinesthetic cues
such as these are not available to the reader. When reading on
a Kindle, for instance, the reader has access to visual cues only
with respect to the spatial location of text segments, and to the
temporal progression of reading. Therefore, the main hypothesis
of this study was that reading a relatively long, linear text on a
Kindle generates difficulties to localize relevant events within the
space of the text and within the time of the story.
Still, reading experiments using long narrative texts as stimuli
is scarce. In what may have been the first experiment to compare
narrative engagement when reading a “real, somewhat longer
(ca. 2700 words) narrative text on iPad and on paper, Mangen and
Kuiken (2014) found that the paper group reported a better grasp
of text length and of their location in the text than the iPad group.
Interestingly, however, they found no correlation between this
“sense of dislocation” with readers’ reported sense of narrative
engagement, nor did the groups differ on cognitive measures
(Mangen and Kuiken, 2014).
The present study elaborates Mangen and Kuiken’s study by (i)
using a Kindle DX instead of an iPad; (ii) using a longer, literary
text in its entirety; and (iii) focusing on potential effects of the
Kindle’s lack of, specifically, tactile feedback on spatial location
and progress. In addition, in the present study the stimulus text
in both conditions is matched for surface dimensions. Whereas
Mangen and Kuiken (2014) opted for using the Kindle app for
iPad to ensure comparable reader friendliness across conditions,
we modeled the print stimulus on the surface measures of the
Kindle, so that page layout, margin sizes, sentence number and
length, and number of pages were identical in Kindle and in print.
This matching was done in order to avoid visual discrepancies as
a potential confound, and was important in light of our attempt
at disentangling potential effects due to visual ergonomics on the
one hand, and effects due to haptics and kinesthetics on the other.
We combined cognitive measures of recall and comprehension
with subjective measures assessing experiential aspects of reading
a mystery short story on Kindle and in a print pocket book.
Specifically, we combined word- and sentence recognition tasks,
factual recall measures and assessment of readers’ ability to
reconstruct spatial and temporal aspects of the text with rating
scales assessing aspects of readers’ engagement.
Fifty young adults (mean age 24 ±3.9; 32 females) participated
in the experiment. All participants had normal or corrected to
normal vision. They signed a written and informed consent after
the procedure was fully explained and were paid for participation.
Two participants with learning difficulties were discarded prior
to the experiment and replaced by two new subjects. Prior
to the reading session, participants completed a questionnaire
asking about their study level, reading habits, and familiarity
with e-readers. Upon asking participants about their experience
with Kindle (or similar device) reading, it was found that
some were casual users of e-books. Only two participants among
50 were expert Kindle readers who did all their reading, including
Frontiers in Psychology | 3February 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 38
fpsyg-10-00038 February 4, 2019 Time: 16:4 # 4
Mangen et al. Long-Text Reading in Print vs. Kindle
literary reading, on their own Kindle. Groups were matched
at best with respect to demographic variables (age, gender,
education) and reading habits (reading frequency). Considering
all these criteria, these two participants were assigned to the
Kindle group. Therefore, they read on their preferred device
but without unbalancing the two groups regarding e-reader
familiarity (see Table 1). After the reading session, we checked
with the participants if they had read the story before. This was
not the case for any of them. The study had prior approval by
the Ethics Committee of the Aix-Marseille University (NRCB
2010-A00155-34) and the CNRS. Participants signed a written
informed consent form prior to the study. They were fully
debriefed following their participation.
The stimulus was a 28-page (about 10,800 words) mystery story
by Elizabeth George, titled Lusting for Jenny, Inverted. The text
appears in a collection of short stories (George, 2010). Lusting for
Jenny, Inverted is a quite conventional mystery story, a “clever
tale of lust, greed and false pretenses” (Goodstein, 2010). It
tells the story of an older woman, Jenny, who is called to be
the executrix of her aunt’s will. Jenny feels unfulfilled with her
comfortable but boring housewife life in Long Beach, California.
When she he comes to the isolated Washington state island
community to settle her aunt’s estate, she meets a charming young
man who seems to offer her romance and excitement. They
embark on an affair that seems to promise complete fulfillment
of all of Jenny’s desires, but things get very complicated when
a very valuable stamp collection is discovered as part of the
estate. The story is plot-based, easy to read and progresses in a
linear fashion, without any significant analepses (flashbacks) or
prolepses (foreshadowing) (Genette, 1983).
Media Dimensions (Print Book and Kindle)
For the print book condition, the 28 pages of the text appeared in
a 250-page long dummy pocket book (see Figure 1). Ten blank
pages preceded the first page of the story, and all pages following
the end of the story, were blank. The text was printed recto-
verso, just like in a “real” book. The pocketbook was 20.0 cm
in height, 14.0 cm in width and 1.8 cm thick. Its weight was
TABLE 1 | Descriptive statistics: demographics and reading habits.
Medium Sample Age Number of
years at
Print N= 25 (16
females); 4
23.6 ±3.8
4.2 ±2.0 2.6 ±1.0 0.3 ±0.7
Kindle N= 25 (16
females); 5
23.8 ±4.1
4.2 ±2.1 2.4 ±1.2 0.4 ±0.9
aNumber of books read per year: 0–3 books = 1; 3–5 books = 2; 5–10 books = 3;
>10 books = 4. bE-reader familiarity: have never used a Kindle or similar device = 0,
have occasionally used a Kindle or similar device = 1, have often used a Kindle or
similar device = 2, always using a Kindle or similar device = 3.
FIGURE 1 | The print pocket book and the Kindle. The left-hand page in the
print book corresponds to the page displayed on the Kindle.
328 g. Great methodological care was taken to ensure similarity
of the visual ergonomics of both reading display. The same pdf
file was used to create both the print and the e-book. The surface
dimensions of each page (font size, sentence length, size of line
spacing and margins, letters size) were defined to match exactly
those of the screen of the Kindle. In addition, the electronic ink
technology used in the Kindle allows long-form reading without
visual fatigue which could have a detrimental effect on reading.
The Kindle was a Kindle DX, measuring 26.5 cm in height,
18.0 cm in width and 0.5 cm thick. The weight was 540 g. The
screen dimensions were: 20.0 cm ×14.0 cm (see Figure 1). The
reader turned the page by clicking on two buttons on the right
side, marked by color-codes and “forward” and “back labels. In
order to ensure maximum comparability with the print book,
all other Kindle affordances were disabled (e.g., the keyboard;
search options; bookmarking). Before reading, the participant
was briefly shown how to turn the pages.
We were particularly interested in potential changes in the
participants’ ability to locate events in the text. To avoid that the
participants referred to the page numbers to see how many pages
they had read, we stripped the texts in both conditions for page
numbering and we concealed the progress bar of the Kindle.
Tasks and Procedure
Participants were explained that they participated to an
experiment comparing paper and e-book reading and that they
have been assigned to one of the reading groups. They were
not informed of the exact purpose of the experiment, but only
that they will have to read a short story and that they will be
asked to answer some questions after their reading. They were
not told about the content of the questions. The session took
place in a quiet room, and the participant sat in a comfortable
chair equipped with armrests. The experimenter was seated
in the opposite corner of the room, facing away from the
participant. Participants were handed the book opened on the
first page and asked to start reading. When the participants
had finished reading, the experimenter registered the actual
reading time and the participants were asked to estimate the
duration of their reading (number of minutes). Although it is
not a common assessment in reading experiments, we used the
estimated reading time as an indirect index of how far the readers
were transported in the story: the longer the estimated time, the
lesser the transportation of the reader and vice-versa. Then, the
participants completed the tests in the following order:
Frontiers in Psychology | 4February 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 38
fpsyg-10-00038 February 4, 2019 Time: 16:4 # 5
Mangen et al. Long-Text Reading in Print vs. Kindle
-Transportation and Engagement Scale: a shortened, 33-
item measure assessing aspects of readers’ sense of
transportation, narrative engagement and resistance to
distraction, largely adapted from Busselle and Bilandzic’s
Narrative Engagement Scale (Busselle and Bilandzic,
2009)2. This scale has been used extensively in experiments
assessing readers’ emotional engagement in narrative
fictions (see e.g., Kuijpers et al., 2014).
Assessments of readers’ comprehension were inspired by Van
Dijk and Kintsch’s (1983) model of comprehension, defining
comprehension as an outcome of the interaction of features of
the text and the readers’ knowledge. Van Dijk and Kintsch’s
(1983) model distinguishes between comprehension at text base
level (corresponding to the propositional representation of the
text at micro- and macro-levels), and the situation model
(referring to the representation of the text which is integrated
with readers’ prior knowledge), accommodating a nuanced
assessment of readers’ mental representations of different textual
features at several levels In the present experiment, short-term
recall, text-based (surface) level representation were assessed by
recognition tasks, whereas situation model representation was
assessed with measures tapping into readers’ reconstruction of
the story Short term memory of words and sentences denotes
the attention readers paid to the text during reading and the text
- The Word Recognition Task consisted of 90 words.
Participants were asked “Was this word present in the text
you just read?” on a computer screen and the response was
given using the arrow keys of the keyboard.
- The Sentence Recognition Task contained 40 sentences.
Participants were asked “Was this sentence present in the
texts you just read?” with the procedure being same as for
the word recognition test.
Participants’ factual recall was assessed with a Content
Recall Questionnaire comprising 64 multiple-choice items in five
categories: (i) Characters: 23 questions about the story characters,
their physical characteristics, personality features, relationships
between characters (sample item: “How old was Jenny when
she had her first child?”); (ii) geographical setting: 9 questions
about the locations of the story, assessing readers’ recollection
of spatial content (sample item: “What is the name of the island
where the story takes place?”); (iii) key locations: 9 questions
about key locations in the story (sample item: “In which room
in the cottage was Marion Mance found dead?”); (iv): objects: 6
questions about key objects in the story (sample item: “What is
the estimated value of the ‘inverted Jenny’ stamp?”); and (v) time
and temporality: 7 questions assessing readers’ recollection of
temporal dimensions of the story, e.g., time lapse between events,
chronology and duration of events (sample item: “For how long
do Ian and Jenny stay at Blackberry point before the owners come
back?”). Participants gave their response orally, and the examiner
registered the response.
2Cronbach’s alpha for the original Narrative Engagement Scale was 0.80 (see
Table 3 in Busselle and Bilandzic, 2009).
- Where in the text?”: in a measure inspired by the Rothkopf
(1971). Experiment we asked participants to locate 16
sentence-length condensations of key events to their correct
place in the text: the first (pages 1–9), second (pages 10–
18), or third part (pages 19–28) (sample item: “When did
Ian discover the value of the ‘Inverted Jenny’ stamp?”). The
question format sentences were presented, one-by-one, on
the screen and the participant gave her response orally. The
examiner registered the response.
-Plot Reconstruction Task: 14 sentence-length condensations
of key events of the story were written on laminated
pieces of paper and were presented in a shuffled order
to the participant. Participants were asked to sort them
in the correct order, in accordance with the plot. Upon
completion of the task, the resulting order was registered
by the experimenter.
Statistical Analysis
In all tests, data from both groups were compared using
independent samples t-tests, except for the factual recall
questionnaire and the ‘where in the text?’ test for which the data
were submitted to a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures.
Objective and Subjective Measures of
Reading Time
Results are presented in Table 2. There was no difference between
reading media with respect to objective reading time [58 min
in average, corresponding to a reading speed of 186 words per
minute (wpm), t(48) = 0.34, ns], and reading time estimates were
nearly identical across groups [50 min, t(48) = 0.06, ns].
Transportation and Engagement Scale
For each participant, responses were summarized for all 33
items of the scale. Results showed no significant between-group
difference between ‘print’ and ‘kindle groups scores [140 and 149
respectively; t(48) = 0.2, ns].
Word Recognition Task
The mean number of correct responses in this test was 59.8 (±7.5)
and 61.2 (±6.9) with the print book and kindle respectively. The
difference was not significant [t(48) = 0.70, ns].
Sentence Recognition Task
The mean number of correct responses in this test was 27.5 (±4.4)
and 26.5 (±4.6) with the print book and kindle respectively. The
difference was not significant [t(48) = 0.76, ns].
TABLE 2 | Mean (SD) actual and estimated reading times with both reading
Medium Actual reading time Estimated reading time
Print 59 (17) 50 (25)
Kindle 57 (20) 50 (18)
Frontiers in Psychology | 5February 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 38
fpsyg-10-00038 February 4, 2019 Time: 16:4 # 6
Mangen et al. Long-Text Reading in Print vs. Kindle
Factual Recall Questionnaire
Results are presented in Table 3. As the number of questions
differed across sentences categories, we calculated the percentage
of correct responses in each category by dividing the number of
correct responses by the number of questions in the category.
Then, the percentages were arc sinus transformed to be analyzed
by means of a two-way ANOVA with category as a within-subject
factor and reading medium (print vs. Kindle) as between-subjects
factor. The mean number of correct responses was 63.5 and
60.5% for print and e-book respectively [F(1,48) <1, ns]. The
number of correct responses differed as a function of question
category [F(4,192) = 13.2, p<0.001, η2= 0.22]. Because we were
particularly interested in the “time and temporality” questions
we made a specific planned comparison between the two reading
media in this category which revealed a statistically significant
difference [F(1,48) = 4.1, p<0.05, η2= 0.08].
‘Where in the Text?’ Measure
There was no significant difference between the two reading
media [F(1,48) = 1.91, ns]. The ‘part of the text’ factor was
close to significant [F(2,96) = 2.97, p<0.057]. Indicative
of a well-known recency effect (Murdock, 1962;Gershberg
and Shimamura, 1994), participants scored better for questions
concerning the last third of the text, compared to the first and
TABLE 3 | Factual Recall Questionnaire: Rate of correct responses (%).
Characters Geographical
Objects Time and
Print 76.4 60.0 62.5 61.6 57.1
Kindle 72.2 59.4 57.1 69.6 44.0
second part (Figure 2). Although this effect may seem larger
in the Kindle group, the ‘medium’ by ‘part of text’ interaction
was not significant [F(2,96) = 1.1, ns). However, the medium
comparison for the first part only revealed a significant effect
(p<0.05, η2= 0.06). In other words, the print book readers
gave more correct responses than the Kindle readers for questions
concerning the first part of the text.
Plot Reconstruction Task
To measure the distance between the correct arrangement of
events according to the plot, and the arrangement proposed by
the participant, we used the Kendall’s tau rank distance (Kendall,
1938, 1962), a statistical measure that corresponds to the number
of pairwise disagreements between two ranking lists. The more
the ranking list given by the participant is far from the exact
list, the larger the distance Kendall is3. The mean distance was
4.8 for the ‘print’ group and 7.8 for the ‘Kindle’ group, and a
t-test showed that the between-group difference was statistically
significant [t(48) = 2.03, p<0.05; η2= 0.08], meaning that the
print group performed better (with a shorter distance from the
correct order) than the Kindle group on this measure (Figure 3).
Correlation Between ‘Where in the Text?’
and Plot Reconstruction Tests
Because both tests were supposed to assess the capacity to localize
events in the space of the text and to replace events of the story
3Kendall tau distance is equivalent to the number of swaps required to place one list
in the same order as the other list. If both classifications are identical, the Kendall
tau distance = 0; if both classifications are totally in opposite, the Kendall tau
distance = N (N-1) / 2 (in this case N= 14), resulting in a maximum distance of 91.
The intermediate arrangements have a distance from the correct plot arrangement
ranging from 0 to 91.
FIGURE 2 | Where in the text: rate of correct responses (%).
Frontiers in Psychology | 6February 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 38
fpsyg-10-00038 February 4, 2019 Time: 16:4 # 7
Mangen et al. Long-Text Reading in Print vs. Kindle
FIGURE 3 | Plot reconstruction task: distance from correct order.
in the correct order, we supposed that the performance in both
tests would be somehow linked. Therefore, we made a regression
analysis of the rate of correct responses in the ‘where in the
text?’ test and the Kendall distance in the ‘plot reconstruction
test across all subjects (both reading media confounded). This
analysis revealed a significant correlation between both variables
[R=0.356, F(1,48)= 6.98, p<0.02]. The correlation was
negative, therefore the greater the number of correct responses
given in the ‘where in text?’ test, the smaller the distance between
the exact order of the ranking list and the list reconstructed by the
The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of
material affordances of a Kindle on cognitive aspects of narrative
reading. More specifically, we tested whether the Kindle’s lack of
kinesthetic and tactile feedback on the distribution and location
of text elements may negatively affect aspects of readers’ cognitive
reconstruction of a narrative reading, in particular, with respect
to its temporal and chronological dimension.
The question of the material affordances of the reading
support has never been really explored and in order to address
this question specifically, we made some methodological choices,
the most important being the length of the text to read.
Obviously, if the kinesthetic feedback generated by the book
manipulation matters, it can be only during long-form reading.
Therefore, in this experiment we decided to have adult readers
to read a long text (10,800 words), requiring approximately
1 h reading and hence a substantial manipulation of the book.
Such a long reading time is beyond those usually required in
experiments devoted to reading comprehension. Comprehension
of long texts involves short- and long-term memory of the text
and building a coherent situation model representation, a major
feature of which is its global organization into main points and
subordinate points (Kintsch, 1998). This situation model might
depend partly on a cognitive map, a spatial representation, of the
text (Payne and Reader, 2006;Li et al., 2013;Hou et al., 2017) that
the readers automatically build during reading and which might
be less precise when reading an e-book as compared to a print
The results showed that, on most of the measures, there were
no differences between the Kindle and the print pocket book. This
is in line with some recent reviews of reading comprehension
on paper and screen (Hermena et al., 2017;Xu et al., 2017).
This was particularly the case concerning the reading time which
has been a matter of controversies in the literature, with some
authors reporting a slower reading with tablets and others no
difference. In the present study, the reading time did not differ
according to the type of reading support. Beside the actual
reading time, the level of engagement of the reader in the
reading was assessed by a questionnaire, and more indirectly, by
the subjective reading time. Neither of these measures yielded
differences between the reading media, thus we may assume that
readers’ emotional engagement were roughly the same with both
types of books. Furthermore, readers’ score on the word- and
sentence-recognition tests did not differ in the two conditions,
suggesting that surface reading and attention paid to the text
did not differ between the print book and the e-book. Finally,
in the recall questionnaire, most of the questions about the text
content did not yield any differences. To conclude, most of the
measures we used to assess the text comprehension did not show
any differences between print- and e-book.
Nevertheless, some differences were observed between the
media regarding tasks tapping into readers’ ability to correctly
reconstruct temporal and chronological aspects of the text. In the
recall questionnaire, on measures related to time and temporality,
those who had read in the print pocket book, performed better
than those who had read on a Kindle. The ‘where in the text?’
test, which was specifically devoted to assessing the capacity
of the readers to localize the events in the text, also yielded
results going in the same direction: paper readers were better at
localizing the events than the Kindle readers when the events
were the furthest from the end of the book (or at the beginning
of the story). Hence, the mental representation of the part of the
text corresponding to the reading events which were the most
remote in time (at the time of the task), was stronger for those
who had read on paper than for those who had read on Kindle.
Finally, the plot reconstruction test, which directly assessed the
mental representation of the chronology of the story, indicated
that print book readers had a more coherent situation model
than e-book readers.
How may these differences between the two reading supports
be interpreted? First, it is worth emphasizing here that memory
of the text per se was not affected by medium. The word and
sentence recognition tests and the majority of the recall questions
yielded the same results in both reading media. Therefore,
the differences on some of the measures cannot be related
to differences in memory in the two media, nor can they be
explained by differences in attention paid to the text during
reading. If either of these had been the case, one would have
expected the Kindle group to have performed differently on all
the tests.
We suggest that these differences could be interpreted as an
indication that the sensorimotor assessment of the device may be
related to certain aspects of cognitive processing and, moreover,
that these aspects are specifically related to reading longer linear
texts. The text used in the present experiment was one in which
Frontiers in Psychology | 7February 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 38
fpsyg-10-00038 February 4, 2019 Time: 16:4 # 8
Mangen et al. Long-Text Reading in Print vs. Kindle
the temporal unfolding of events in the story corresponded
closely with their spatial localization in the text (e.g., no major
flashbacks) so that there was a correspondence between “where
in the text” and “when in the story” events occur. This is shown
by the significant correlation observed between both tests results.
In other words, the better the readers were able to locate events
in the space of the text, the better their representation of the
chronology of the story was. In this respect, the fixity of a text
presented on the physical substrate of paper provides material
placeholders, functioning to off-load cognitive processes during
reading. Such off-loading may be of particular importance when
reading certain kinds of texts for instance, long narrative texts
in which the distribution of elements (e.g., story events and
characters interactions) according to the unfolding of a narrative
(i.e., the plot) matters. On the other hand, the intangibility of
a text on a Kindle and lack of fixed cues “material anchors”
(Schilhab, 2017) to length and spatiotemporal extension of the
text may also contribute to a loss of orientation with respect to
readers’ assessment of the temporal relations between events in
the text. The lack of fixity (and hence less informative tactile
feedback) of the text displayed on the Kindle may have left
readers less confident about where they are in the text corpus
(volume), and this lack of confidence may have had a negative
effect on their ability to build a correct representation of the
story. Of related relevance, research has shown that having a good
mental representation of the spatial representation or layout of
the text supports reading comprehension (Baccino and Pynte,
1994;Cataldo and Oakhill, 2000;Hou et al., 2017). Somehow,
the material anchors of paper seem to have provided better
scaffolding for aspects of the mental reconstruction than the e-ink
display of the Kindle. However, any conclusive interpretation of
these results is challenged by the fact that establishing causality is
linked to the processing of order events, hence, inferior ordering
of events could have been expected to negatively affected readers’
mental construction of causality, in turn resulting in poorer
overall comprehension. This was not the case in the present
experiment, as readers in both conditions performed equally
well on the comprehension measures. Instead, the differences
observed may be more closely related to the participants’ ability
to correctly locate single events in time, rather than their ability to
reconstruct the order of events per se, on a global level. Future
research should be designed to enable more precise assessments
of the ways in which the affordances of reading substrates
screen displays and paper may differently affect distinct, but
closely related, aspects of mental reconstruction of chronology
and temporality during perhaps especially long-form reading.
In this task, developing improved measures for inter-events
associations is pivotal.
Hou et al. (2017) distinguished two mechanisms to explain
why reading on a digital support versus on paper might result in
different reading outcomes. The first mechanism contends that,
because they lack fixed visual anchors, screens make it difficult
for readers to construct an effective spatial representation of
the text and, in turn, readers are impaired in their capacity to
locate pieces of information in text. The second mechanism they
evoked is concerned with the sensorimotor engagement with
the paper or digital texts, which was highlighted in the present
experiment. We think that these two mechanisms are in fact the
two sides of the same coin: both mechanisms could be involved
simultaneously and differently depending on the visual display of
the screen and the length of the text. Visual cues, informing about
spatial relationships between parts of the text within a page, and
sensorimotor cues furnished by the book handling and informing
about spatial relationships between parts of the text disseminated
among pages of the book, likely participate to the construction
of the cognitive map of the text. In the present study, since we
compared two books with visually identical pages, we focused
more on the second aspect of reading.
Another aspect to consider which may help explain the poorer
performance on reconstruction of chronology and temporality
on a Kindle compared to paper, may be related to the “recursive
dimension” of print (see e.g., Wolf, 2018). When reading
lengthy texts, perhaps in particular narratives and novels, we
occasionally need to backtrack to remind ourselves of, for
instance, relations between characters, their names, or how events
were interconnected. When we read in a print book, we can easily
go back and check whenever needed, and we have immediate
access to earlier pages whether they are five or fifty pages before
the one page we’re currently reading. Obviously, we can also
go back on a Kindle, but backtracking on a digital device is
not as quick and effortless as with a paper book. Moreover, the
reader’s task of locating information on earlier pages, spatially
and temporally, is made more challenging with the lack of
materiality of a digital text whether on a Kindle or on an iPad.
It may be that such a sense of added cognitive (and sensorimotor)
effort discourages readers from going back to re-read earlier parts
of a text when reading on a digital device, with a potential effect
being a sub-optimal mental representation of spatiotemporal
relations between events and/or characters. As this is the first
experiment to compare the reading of a long, linear text on
paper and screen, we recommend that future studies are designed
to address this issue more specifically and in-depth. This could
be done by, for instance, using text manipulations that can be
assumed to trigger back-tracking and re-reading, for instance by
systematically changing information in a way that will require
updates in readers’ situation model (e.g., character names or
goals; event locations; causal or temporal relationships between
events). We may hardly conclude that reading comprehension
was affected with e-book because most of the tests did not
reveal differences between print and e-book. Yet, reading on an
e-book seems to give rise to a less correct representation of the
chronology of the events occurring in the story. Because temporal
and causal links between events are usually closely connected, the
understanding of the story might be somehow different in print
and e-book. This point needs to be studied more precisely with
longer texts and more specific measures.
Although steps were taken to ensure a more ecologically valid
experimental setting than is often the case, it can be discussed
whether the masking of page numbers (in both books) and also
hiding the progress bar on the Kindle actually introduced an
artifact that could somehow have influenced the results. Since
we were primarily interested in assessing whether the difference
in sensorimotor cues between a paper-based and a screen-based
book made a difference for aspects of comprehension, we decided
to strip both texts of any visual cues to text length. Based on
the results of the present experiment, we can only conclude
Frontiers in Psychology | 8February 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 38
fpsyg-10-00038 February 4, 2019 Time: 16:4 # 9
Mangen et al. Long-Text Reading in Print vs. Kindle
that sensorimotor cues play a role when reading a print book,
whereas they are lacking when reading an e-book. The question
remains whether visual cues, such as the progress bar on a Kindle,
are equally efficient as sensorimotor cues. Therefore, future
studies comparing long-form reading on paper and screen should
include page numbers and/or other indicators of text localization,
to assess whether such visual aids differently support mental
reconstruction on paper and screen, as compared to sensorimotor
cues. An additional limitation of the present study is that most
of the participants were novices with respect to reading on a
Kindle, and it can be claimed that they were not very avid readers
of literature. To determine the role of medium expertise and
preferences, and to empirically assess the assumptions underlying
claims about so-called “digital natives, future studies should
compare reading different kinds of texts on an e-reader and on
paper among expert Kindle (and similar device) readers. It would
be interesting to also replicate this finding with participants who
are more avid literary readers.
The stimulus in this experiment was a plot-based mystery
story, to a large extent based on a chronological ordering of
actions and events, so that the occurrence of an event in the story
content the “when in the story” is often closely matched to
the spatial location of the text passage in the book the “where
in the text.” While it is not implausible that similar results can be
found by using other types of linear, chronologically structured
texts (e.g., narratively presented historical accounts in textbooks),
replications of the present study are needed, using different types
and genres of texts (e.g., literary texts that are less plot-based;
expository texts with low degree of narrativity). It may be that
the ergonomic and visual affordances of different screen media
may differently affect cognitive aspects of reading, depending on a
number of variables relating to text (e.g., literary vs. non-literary;
degree of narrativity; length; genre; structure/layout; complexity)
as well as reader characteristics (e.g., medium/technology
expertise and preference). The increasing popularity of the Bring-
Your-Own-Device solution (see, e.g., Song, 2014) is testimony to
the fact that for instance device ownership may be a significant
factor in this equation.
Future research should also address the affective and
emotional aspects of reading. Beyond applying an adapted
version of Busselle and Bilandzic’s (2009) Narrative Engagement
Scale, we did not include any measures of emotional and affective
aspects. Given that the stimulus text is a mystery story by an
established author, this may seem an unfortunate omission.
Moreover, applied post hoc, rating scales are also liable to
distortion and can more accurately be said to measure readers’
verbalized memory of what they may have felt at the time of
reading (see e.g., Jacobs, 2016a,b). Ideally, offline measures
of emotional aspects of reading should be complemented
by online measures that are less prone to such distortions.
Specifically, ratings and other verbal responses could be
fruitfully complemented with online, indirect, behavioral
measures such as eye tracking or electrodermal activity, in
order to shed more light on the role of affective and emotional
processes in perhaps especially long-form, literary reading.
The development of sophisticated interdisciplinary and multi-
methodological frameworks such as the Neurocognitive Poetics
Model (Jacobs, 2015) is especially promising in this respect,
applying a combination of measures at neural, behavioral and
phenomenological levels in the study of literary poetic as well
as prose textual material (see also Jacobs and Willems, 2018).
Overall, we know too little about the ways in which digitization
may affect emotional and motivational aspects of reading, and
empirical research addressing such questions is much needed
(see Kaakinen et al., 2018). As noted by Willems and Jacobs
(2016), using literary texts as stimuli is, in this regard, a rich and
largely untapped potential.
Limitations as the above notwithstanding, it seems safe
to conclude that digitization brings with it the need to
update existing models of reading in general, and of reading
comprehension, in particular. Importantly, models should be
elaborated and refined to account for the role of various features
of media (e.g., print books, laptops, tablets, and e-readers)
and their substrates (e.g., paper, electronic ink screens, LCD
screens) on the reading of various types of texts, for different
purposes. Mangen and van der Weel (2016) propose such
an integrative, transdisciplinary model, accounting for the
psychological, ergonomic, technological, social, cultural and
evolutionary aspects of reading and how these are being affected
by digitization. An exploratory model, it is intended to point
to blanks in our knowledge of the differences between paper
and screen reading, hence pointing out directions for future
empirical research. The findings of the present experiment
indicate that one salient textual parameter to pursue in future
research comparing paper and screen reading, is text length and
the ways in which a text may prompt re-reading, at various levels
and for various reasons.
Although it should be considered largely exploratory, the
study adds to a growing body of evidence indicating that
paper and screen reading may differ also in cases of linear,
narrative reading where there are no hyperlinks to click on
or multimedia content to process. Moreover, it illustrates the
value of studying parameters not commonly addressed in reading
research, such as haptic and tactile feedback. In the process
toward more ecologically valid experiments in reading research,
the study also contributes valuable insights into aspects of
reading comprehension when the text is substantially longer than
what is typical in empirical reading research of any disciplinary
AM and J-LV conceived and designed the experiments. GO and
J-LV performed the experiments. J-LV analyzed the data. AM and
J-LV wrote the manuscript.
Research supported by grants ANR-16-CONV-0002 (ILCB),
ANR-11-LABX-0036 (BLRI) and the Excellence Initiative of Aix-
Marseille University (AMIDEX).
Frontiers in Psychology | 9February 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 38
fpsyg-10-00038 February 4, 2019 Time: 16:4 # 10
Mangen et al. Long-Text Reading in Print vs. Kindle
Ackerman, R., and Goldsmith, M. (2011). Metacognitive regulation of text
learning: on screen versus on paper. J. Exp. Psychol. Appl. 17, 18–32. doi:
Baccino, T. (2004). La Lecture Electronique. Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de
Baccino, T., and Pynte, J. (1994). Spatial coding and discourse models during text
reading. Lang. Cogn. Process. 9, 143–155. doi: 10.1080/01690969408402114
Baron, N. S. (2015). Words Onscreen: The Fate of Reading in a Digital World.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Baron, N. S., Calixte, R. M., and Havewala, M. (2017). The persistence of print
among university students: an exploratory study. Telematics Informatics 34,
590–604. doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2016.11.008
Benedetto, S., Drai-Zerbib, V., Pedrotti, M., Tissier, G., and Baccino, T. (2013).
E-Readers and visual fatigue. PLoS One 8:e83676. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.
Blehm, C., Vishnu, S., Khattak, A., Mitra, S., and Yee, R. W. (2005). Computer
vision syndrome: a review. Surv. Ophthalmol. 50, 253–262. doi: 10.1016/j.
Busselle, R., and Bilandzic, H. (2009). Measuring narrative engagement. Media
Psychol. 12, 321–347. doi: 10.1080/15213260903287259
Cataldo, M. G., and Oakhill, J. (2000). Why are poor comprehenders inefficient
searchers? An investigation into the effects of text. J. Educ. Psychol. 92, 791–799.
doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.92.4.791
Delgado, P., Vargas, C., Ackerman, R., and Salmerón, L. (2018). Don’t throw away
your printed books: a meta-analysis on the effects of reading media on reading
comprehension. Educ. Res. Rev. 25, 23–38. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2018.09.003
Genette, G. (1983). Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
University Press.
George, E. (2010). “Lusting for jenny, inverted, in Two of the Deadliest, ed. E.
George (New York, NY: HarperCollins), 227–254.
Gershberg, F. B., and Shimamura, A. P. (1994). Serial position effects in implicit
and explicit tests of memory. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 20, 1370–1378.
doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.20.6.1370
Gibson, J. J. (1977). “The theory of affordances, in Perceiving, Acting, and Knowing:
Toward an Ecological Psychology, eds R. Shaw and J. Bransford (Hillsdale, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum), 67–82.
Goodstein, J. (2010). Book Review: Two of the Deadliest. Available at: http:// two-of-the-deadliest/ [accessed May 30, 2017].
Hatwell, Y., Streri, A., and Gentaz, E. (eds) (2003). Touching for Knowing.
Amsterdam: Johns Benjamins Publishing Compagny. doi: 10.1075/aicr.53
Hermena, E. W., Sheen, M., AlJassmi, M., AlFalasi, K., AlMatroushi, M., and
Jordan, T. R. (2017). Reading rate and comprehension for text presented on
tablet and paper: evidence from arabic. Front. Psychol. 8:257. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.
Hou, J., Rashid, J., and Lee, K. M. (2017). Cognitive map or medium materiality?
Reading on paper and screen. Comput. Hum. Behav. 67, 84–94. doi: 10.1016/j.
Ittyerah, M. (2017). Emerging trends in the multimodal nature of cognition: touch
and handedness. Front. Psychol. 8:844. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00844
Jacobs, A. M. (2015). Neurocognitive poetics: methods and models for investigating
the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literature reception. Front. Hum.
Neurosci. 9:186. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00186
Jacobs, A. M. (2016a). The scientific study of literary experience and neuro-
behavioral responses to literature. Sci. Study Lit. 6, 164–174. doi: 10.1075/ssol.6.
Jacobs, A. M. (2016b). The scientific study of literary experience: sampling the state
of the art. Sci. Study Lit. 5, 139–170. doi: 10.1075/ssol.5.2.01jac
Jacobs, A. M., and Willems, R. M. (2018). The fictive brain: neurocognitive
correlates of engagement in literature. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 22, 147–160. doi:
Kaakinen, J., Papp-Zipernovszky, O., Werlen, E., Castells, N., Bergamin, P.,
Baccino, T., et al. (2018). “Emotional and motivational aspects of digital
reading, in Learning to Read in a Digital World, eds M. Barzillai, J. M.
Thomson, S. Schroeder, and P. Van den Broek (Amsterdam: John Benjamins),
141–164. doi: 10.1075/swll.17.06kaa
Kendall, M. G. (1938). A new measure of rank correlation. Biometrika 30, 81–93.
doi: 10.1093/biomet/30.1-2.81
Kendall, M. G. (1962). Rank Correlation Methods, 3rd Edn. New York, NY: Hafner
Publishing Company.
Kerr, M. A., and Symons, S. E. (2006). Computerized presentation of text: effects
on children’s reading of informational material. Read. Writ. 19, 1–19. doi:
10.1007/s11145-003- 8128-y
Kim, H., and Kim, J. (2013). Reading from an LCD monitor versus paper: teenagers’
reading performance. Int. J. Res. Stud. Educ. Technol. 2, 15–24. doi: 10.5861/
Kintsch, W. (1998). Comprehension: A Paradigm for Cognition. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Kintsch, W., and van Dijk, T. A. (1978). Toward a model of text comprehension
and production. Psychol. Rev. 85, 363–395. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.85.5.363
Klatzky, R. L., and Lederman, S. J. (1988). “The intelligent hand, in Psychology
of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 21, ed. G. Bower (San Diego, CA: Academic
Press), 121–151.
Klatzky, R. L., and Lederman, S. J. (2002). “Touch, in Handbook of Psychology:
Experimental Psychology, Vol. 4, ed. I. B. Weiner (New York, NY: Wiley),
Köpper, M., Mayr, S., and Buchner, A. (2016). Reading from
computer screen versus reading from paper: does it still make
a difference? Ergonomics 1–18. doi: 10.1080/00140139.2015.
Kretzschmar, F., Pleimling, D., Hosemann, J., Füssel, S., Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, I.,
and Schlesewsky, M. (2013). Subjective impressions do not mirror online
reading effort: Concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books
and digital media. PLoS One 8:e56178. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056178
Kuijpers, M. M., Hakemulder, F., Tan, E. S., and Doicaru, M. M. (2014). Exploring
absorbing reading experiences. Sci. Study Lit. 4, 89–122. doi: 10.1075/ssol.4.1.
Lederman, S. J., and Klatzky, R. L. (1998). “The hand as perceptual system, in The
Psychology of the Hand, ed. K. J. Connolly (London: McKeith Press.), 16–35.
Li, L., Chen, G., and Yang, S. (2013). Construction of cognitive maps to improve
e-book reading and navigation. Comput. Educ. 60, 32–39. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.
Mangen, A., and Kuiken, D. (2014). Lost in the iPad: narrative engagement on
paper and tablet. Sci. Study Lit. 4, 150–177. doi: 10.1075/ssol.4.2.02man
Mangen, A., and van der Weel, A. (2016). The evolution of reading in the age
of digitisation: an integrative framework for reading research. Literacy 50,
116–124. doi: 10.1111/lit.12086
Mangen, A., Walgermo, B. R., and Brønnick, K. (2013). Reading linear texts on
paper vs. computer screens: effects on reading comprehension. Int. J. Educ. Res.
58, 61–68. doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2012.12.002
Margolin, S. J., Driscoll, C., Toland, M. J., and Kegler, J. L. (2013). E-readers,
computer screens, or paper: does reading comprehension change across media
platforms? Appl. Cogn. Psychol. 27, 512–519. doi: 10.1002/acp.2930
Mc Laughlin, T. (2015). Reading and the Body: The Physical Practice of Reading.
New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1007/978-1- 137-52289-4
Mizrachi, D., Salaz, A. M., Kurbanoglu, S., and Boustany, J. (2018). Academic
reading format preferences and behaviors among university students
worldwide: a comparative survey analysis. PLoS One 13:e0197444. doi: 10.1371/
Morineau, T., Blanche, C., Tobin, L., and Gueguen, N. (2005). The emergence of
the contextual role of the e-book in cognitive processes through an ecological
and functional analysis. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 62, 329–348. doi: 10.1016/j.
Murdock, B. B. Jr. (1962). The serial position effect of free recall. J. Exp. Psychol. 64,
482–488. doi: 10.1037/h0045106
Norman, E., and Furnes, B. (2016). The relationship between metacognitive
experiences and learning: is there a difference between digital and non-digital
study media? Comput. Hum. Behav. 54, 301–309. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.043
O’Regan, J. K., and Noë, A. (2001). A sensorimotor account of vision and
visual consciousness. Behav. Brain Sci. 24, 939–973. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X01
Payne, S., and Reader, W. (2006). Constructing structure maps of multiple on-line
texts. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 64, 461–474. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2005.09.003
Frontiers in Psychology | 10 February 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 38
fpsyg-10-00038 February 4, 2019 Time: 16:4 # 11
Mangen et al. Long-Text Reading in Print vs. Kindle
Porion, A., Aparicio, X., Megalakaki, O., Robert, A., and Baccino, T. (2016).
The impact of paper-based versus computerized presentation on text
comprehension and memorization. Comput. Hum. Behav. 54, 569–576. doi:
Rasmusson, M. (2014). Reading paper reading screen. Nord. Stud. Educ. 35, 3–19.
Rockinson-Szapkiw, A. J., Courduff, J., Carter, K., and Bennett, D. (2013).
Electronic versus traditional print textbooks: a comparison study on the
influence of university students’ learning. Comput. Educ. 63, 259–266. doi:
Roschke, K., and Radach, R. (2016). “Perception, reading, and digital media, in
The Cognitive Development of Reading and Reading Comprehension, ed. C. M.
Connor (New York, NY: Routledge), 33–52.
Rose, E. (2011). The phenomenology of on-screen reading: University students’
lived experience of digitised text. Br. J. Educ. Technol. 42, 515–526. doi: 10.1111/
Rothkopf, E. Z. (1971). Incidental memory for location of information in text.
J. Verbal Learn. Verbal Behav. 10, 608–613. doi: 10.1016/S0022-5371(71)
Salmerón, L., Strømsø, H., Kammerer, Y., Stadtler, M., and van den Broek, P.
(2018). “Comprehension processes in digital reading, in Learning to Read in
a Digital World, eds M. Barzillai, J. M. Thomson, S. Schroeder, and P. van
den Broek (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company), 91–120. doi:
Schilhab, T. (2017). Derived Embodiment in Abstract Language. New York, NY:
Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3- 319-56056-4
Sidi, Y., Ophir, Y., and Ackerman, R. (2016). Generalizing screen inferiority-does
the medium, screen versus paper, affect performance even with brief tasks?
Metacognit. Learn. 11, 15–33. doi: 10.1007/s11409-015-9150-6
Sidi, Y., Shpigelman, M., Zalmanov, H., and Ackerman, R. (2017). Understanding
metacognitive inferiority on screen by exposing cues for depth of processing.
Learn. Instr. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.01.002
Siegenthaler, E., Schmid, L., Wyss, M., and Wurtz, P. (2012). LCD vs. e-ink: an
analysis of the reading behaviour. J. Eye Move. Res. 5, 1–7. doi: 10.16910/
Siegenthaler, E., Wurtz, P., Bergamin, P., and Groner, R. (2011). Comparing
reading processes on e-ink displays and print. Displays 32, 268–273. doi: 10.
Singer, L. M., and Alexander, P. A. (2017a). Reading across mediums: effects of
reading digital and print texts on comprehension and calibration. J. Exp. Educ.
85, 155–172. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2016.1143794
Singer, L. M., and Alexander, P. A. (2017b). Reading on paper and digitally: what
the past decades of empirical research reveal. Rev. Educ. Res. 87, 1007–1041.
doi: 10.3102/0034654317722961
Song, Y. (2014). “Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)” for seamless science inquiry
in a primary school. Comput. Educ. 74, 50–60. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.
Van Dijk, T. A., and Kintsch, W. (1983). Strategies of Discourse Comprehension.
New York, NY: Academic Press.
Willems, R. M., and Jacobs, A. M. (2016). Caring about Dostoyevsky: the untapped
potential of studying literature. Trends Cogn. Sci. 20, 243–245. doi: 10.1016/j.
Wolf, M. (2018). Reader, Come Home: The Reading Brain in a Digital World.
New York, NY: Harper.
Xu, B., Chen, G., Sun, Y., and Huang, R. (2017). “The effectiveness of
media platforms on reading comprehension: a meta-analysis, in Proceedings
of the 25th International Conference on Computers in Education, ed. W.
Chen (Zhongli District: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education),
Yan, Z., Hu, L., Chen, H., and Lu, F. (2008). Computer vision syndrome:
a widely spreading but largely unknown epidemic among computer
users. Comput. Hum. Behav. 24, 2026–2042. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2007.
Conflict of Interest Statement: The authors declare that the research was
conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could
be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Copyright © 2019 Mangen, Olivier and Velay. This is an open-access article
distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the
original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original
publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these
Frontiers in Psychology | 11 February 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 38
... Furthermore, ease of access to academic material from any digital device anywhere (Baron et al., 2017) is yet another reason that the current corpus of literature has revealed favorable use of digital technology in student learning. In addition, Mangen, Olivier & Velay (2019) equally argue that digital devices allow for the storage of copious amounts of texts on simple, lightweight devices, thus minimizing storage space, which may equally be another probable reason students gravitate towards them. In addition, Martin-Beltran, Tigert, Peercy & Silverman (2017) also contend that adolescents and youth alike are more inclined to use digital devices for their lighter portability (one laptop as opposed to many text books). ...
... In addition, Martin-Beltran, Tigert, Peercy & Silverman (2017) also contend that adolescents and youth alike are more inclined to use digital devices for their lighter portability (one laptop as opposed to many text books). Still, other reasons advocating the likely tendency for adolescents and youth to prefer screen reading over print is for environmental considerations as less paper is consumed (Mangen, Olivier & Velay, 2019). Moreover, students and youth alike are equally likely to favor digital texts as they claim more engagement through collaborative group work, videos, hyperlinks and other interactive media which they claim makes the lesson more stimulating and engaging (Riddler, 2000). ...
... Loh & Kanai (2016) equally argue that while students have been working on digital devices, they have also been noted to do other tasks during a lecture, which later compromised their performance. Furthermore, Singer & Alexander (2017) suggest that digital devices may likely cause eye strain (Mangen, Olivier & Velay, 2019) and visual fatigue, thus interrupting students' deep reading. These interruptions are likely due to the distractions inherent in the nature of liquid crystal display (LCD) screens such as the flickering light, constant refreshing of the webpage as well as contrast levels. ...
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether digital reading had an impact on reading skills, as well as students’ tendencies to read online or offline in the L2 English speaking classroom. Approach/Methodology/Design: This quantitative-qualitative mixed methods case study involved was comprised of a convenient, purposive sample of 16 participants for semi structured focus group interviews in an English-speaking private university. Findings: The findings seem to suggest that reading digitally prods students not only to adopt skimming patterns, but to use the “Control F” command to bypass reading altogether. Furthermore, students’ reading preferences for online/offline material was also revealed, showing a significant tendency of students to revert to online material “just to understand” or “get an idea” while deep understanding was substantially associated with preference for offline reading. Practical Implications: The findings of this study may serve to guide teachers of English in the L2 classroom how to navigate online texts comprehensively, what skills to promote while reading online and which to forgo. Originality/value: This study sheds light on the possible misuse of “Control F” during online reading exercises and underscores the necessity of using this tool over and above reading strategies and skills, and not as a stand-alone tool in itself
... Furthermore, ease of access to academic material from any digital device anywhere (Baron et al., 2017) is yet another reason that the current corpus of literature has revealed favorable use of digital technology in student learning. In addition, Mangen, Olivier & Velay (2019) equally argue that digital devices allow for the storage of copious amounts of texts on simple, lightweight devices, thus minimizing storage space, which may equally be another probable reason students gravitate towards them. In addition, Martin-Beltran, Tigert, Peercy & Silverman (2017) also contend that adolescents and youth alike are more inclined to use digital devices for their lighter portability (one laptop as opposed to many text books). ...
... In addition, Martin-Beltran, Tigert, Peercy & Silverman (2017) also contend that adolescents and youth alike are more inclined to use digital devices for their lighter portability (one laptop as opposed to many text books). Still, other reasons advocating the likely tendency for adolescents and youth to prefer screen reading over print is for environmental considerations as less paper is consumed (Mangen, Olivier & Velay, 2019). ...
... Loh & Kanai (2016) equally argue that while students have been working on digital devices, they have also been noted to do other tasks during a lecture, which later compromised their performance. Furthermore, Singer & Alexander (2017) suggest that digital devices may likely cause eye strain (Mangen, Olivier & Velay, 2019) and visual fatigue, thus interrupting students' deep reading. These interruptions are likely due to the distractions inherent in the nature of liquid crystal display (LCD) screens such as the flickering light, constant refreshing of the webpage as well as contrast levels. ...
... Literary reading and publishing are undergoing a digital transformation. E-books and audiobooks are replacing traditional text reading in paper books (Balling et al., 2019;Mangen et al., 2019;Tattersall Wallin and Nolin, 2020). Literature is more available, and reading is adapted to a wider range of situations by the affordances in tablets for reading and smartphones for listening (Gibson, 1977;Norman, 2013;Spjeldnaes and Karlsen, 2022). ...
... The reading of longer texts demands the readers' focused attention, to make room for the interchange between the authors' texts and the personal experiences activated to establish meaning when reading (Baron, 2021;Baron and Mangen, 2021;Thompson, 2010Thompson, , 2021. Attentive presence is a prerequisite whether reading a traditional paper book, an e-book or an audiobook, regardless of how the digital formats and their affordances influence the cognitive processes in reading (Clowes, 2019;Hillesund et al., 2022;Mangen, 2020;Mangen et al., 2019). Deep reading depends on immersion. ...
Full-text available
This article scrutinizes how digitalization influences fiction and non-fiction literature publishers in the era of ubiquitous digital connection. The analysis states how a lack of attention is triggering a sense of urgency for the future of literary reading. Further, the digital transition entails an overarching ambivalence. Key stakeholders in literary publishing are experiencing how media on platform-based streaming services is competing with traditional reading. They perceive a battle for time and question the future of reading. From the perspectives of Bourdieu’s theory, the article reveals how penetrating connectivity is leading to a change in the professional habitus. Continuous busyness and increased professional presence are triggering ambivalence between work-related duties and personal well-being. Moreover, the publishing stakeholders reveal an ambivalence in voicing future expectations. While worried about the future of reading, the professional habitus leans on a promising future for the industry.
... /fpsyg. . of the meaning of the text. According to this view, the act of reading varies with reading devices, and, using the concept of affordances (Gibson, 1995), researchers have examined how different reading technologies allow for different ways of holding, handling, perceiving, and interpreting the text (Hillesund, 2010;Mangen et al., 2019). Even if these studies are preoccupied with the significance of bodily movements and text materiality for reading, they often take for granted that technologies play a oneway causal role and examine how variations in materiality influence the meaning-making of reading, which ultimately is perceived as going on inside the body (including the brain). ...
Full-text available
Using observational interviews and introducing theories of embodied and distributed cognition, this study examines the scholarly reading and the intellectual habits of a group of social scientists. All participants were working at universities in task environments dominated by digital artifacts and technologies. The study found a strong connection between scholarly reading and the scholars' writing processes and a further coupling to their digital publishing activity. While examining the participants' print and online reading, it turned out that their reading was so tightly coupled to their writing that this entanglement had to be at the core of the analysis. In the study, scholarly reading and writing are analyzed as cognitive processes that extend beyond the brain and body and comprise cognitive artifacts of texts and their material bearers, such as printouts, digital displays, computers, and the Internet. In the process of creating text—or reading and writing—brains, bodies, and artifacts are considered to be dynamically coupled in a distributed cognitive process. Based on interviews with a sample of academics, the study analyses how their scholarly reading relates to the other elements in such an extended process and how they utilize the affordances of cognitive digital artifacts in their creative and intellectual endeavors.
People increasingly read text displayed on digital devices, including computers, handheld e-readers, and smartphones. Given this, there is rapidly growing interest in understanding how the cognitive processes that support the reading of static text (e.g., books, magazines, or newspapers) might be adapted to reading digital texts. Evidence from recent experiments suggests a complex interplay of visual and cognitive influences on how people engage with digital reading. Although readers can strategically adjust their reading behaviors in response to their immediate reading context, the efficacy of these strategies depends on cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational factors. A better understanding of the factors that influence reading offers the promise of leveraging digital technologies to enhance the reading experience.
Introduction. In many countries of the world, the school is considered to be a center possessing all the resources for the formation of a free, democratic personality, a center for moral, civic, multicultural education. Literature, history, social science play an important role in educational programs in foreign countries; their study is considered as a source of spirituality, humanity, and citizenship. In the modern Russian school at the stage of primary education, much attention is paid to the formation of civic identity foundations, the cultivation of patriotism, and raising a responsible, creative, proactive, competent citizen of Russia. A special place in the moral education of primary students is occupied by the lessons of literature reading. Through the analysis of literary works, students understand the deep moral content of the work, the author’s attitude to the characters, the idea of the work. While considering the peculiarities of modern primary students, who are more focused on digital reading than traditional one, it becomes necessary to instill patriotic feelings in primary students through the creation of book trailers based on books by children’s writers about a heroic deed, about the Motherland, about the Great Patriotic War. The research is aimed at theoretical substantiation and experimental testing of the efficiency of the methodology for instilling patriotism in primary students through the creation of book trailers. Materials and methods. The research involved 51 students of the third grade of the general educational organization of the city of Zelenodolsk (the Russian Federation). The research used a combination of theoretical and experimental methods of studying objects that corresponded to the goals and objectives set and were aimed at determining the level of development of cognitive, emotional, activity criteria of patriotism (tests by N.F. Vinogradova "Great people of Russia", "Russia is proud of them"), revealing the level of development of behavioral motives in the education of patriotism (N. Biryukova’s test "I am a patriot"), identifying the level of development of digital literacy of a student (method of A.A. Efanova, M.A. Budanova, E.N. Yudina). For quantitative comparison, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used. Results. An analysis of the problem of instilling patriotism in primary students through the creation of literary and artistic book trailers based on books by children’s writers about the Motherland, the war, and heroic deeds allowed developing and testing a model of patriotic education of children based on the interactive activities of the teacher and students and aimed at educating cognitive, emotional, activity criteria of patriotism as well as development of digital literacy of students. Introduction of the model induced the following changes: 1) an increase in the level of the cognitive criterion of patriotism (up to 0.7082 and after 0.1075); 2) an increase in the level of the emotional criterion of patriotism (up to 0.5916 and after 0.0165); 3) an increase in the level of the activity criterion of patriotism (up to 0.7480 and after 0.0438); 4) an increase in the level of formation of digital literacy of students by 0.0457 (up to 0.6493 and after 0.0457). Conclusion. The model created for instilling patriotism in primary students through the development of book trailers allowed introducing and using this methodology in the educational process of primary school. The research results have demonstrated that the creation and use of book trailers in primary school had an effective impact on the development of interest in reading books about patriotism and citizenship, about the history of Russia, about the great people of Motherland, on the development of the emotional sphere of children as well as the development of activity criterion of patriotism in primary students.
Full-text available
Transhumanism and Posthumanism in Twenty-First Century Narrative brings together 15 scholars from five different countries to explore the different ways in which the posthuman has been addressed in contemporary culture and more specifically in key narratives, written in the second decade of the 21st century, by of these works engage in the premises and perils of transhumanism, while others explore the qualities of the (post)human in a variety of dystopian futures marked by the planetary influence of human action. From a critical posthumanist perspective that questions anthropocentrism, human exceptionalism, and the centrality of the 'human' subject in the era of the Anthropocene, the scholars in this collection analyse the aesthetic choices these authors make to depict the posthuman and its aftereffects.
Full-text available
When reading a text, readers not only recognise words and retrieve their meanings as they construct a mental representation of the text, but they also process the physical location of the text, including the position of key information. This study investigates how different presentation formats (prints vs. digital) influence the ability to locate information in texts, and if this is influenced by different types of text, and age.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The debate about whether digital devices are better than paper to support reading has been on for decades since e-book was introduced. Researches had Researchers have focused on this issue and drawn different results. The present study aims to synthesize them by the meta-analysis method and gain a comprehensive conclusion. This paper analyzed data extracted from 27 published studies, concluding that computer and iPad have a positive influence on reading comprehension but others are not. In addition, text genre and the grade of participants are important moderators.
Full-text available
***** OPEN ACCESS at: **************** With the increasing dominance of digital reading over paper reading, gaining understanding of the effects of the medium on reading comprehension has become critical. However, results from research comparing learning outcomes across printed and digital media are mixed, making conclusions difficult to reach. In the current meta-analysis, we examined research in recent years (2000–2017), comparing the reading of comparable texts on paper and on digital devices. We included studies with between-participants (n = 38) and within-participants designs (n = 16) involving 171,055 participants. Both designs yielded the same advantage of paper over digital reading (Hedge's g = −0.21; dc = −0.21). Analyses revealed three significant moderators: (1) time frame: the paper-based reading advantage increased in time-constrained reading compared to self-paced reading; (2) text genre: the paper-based reading advantage was consistent across studies using informational texts, or a mix of informational and narrative texts, but not on those using only narrative texts; (3) publication year: the advantage of paper-based reading increased over the years. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed.
Full-text available
This study reports the descriptive and inferential statistical findings of a survey of academic reading format preferences and behaviors of 10,293 tertiary students worldwide. The study hypothesized that country-based differences in schooling systems, socioeconomic development, culture or other factors might have an influence on preferred formats, print or electronic, for academic reading, as well as the learning engagement behaviors of students. The main findings are that country of origin has little to no relationship with or effect on reading format preferences of university students, and that the broad majority of students worldwide prefer to read academic course materials in print. The majority of participants report better focus and retention of information presented in print formats, and more frequently prefer print for longer texts. Additional demographic and post-hoc analysis suggests that format preference has a small relationship with academic rank. The relationship between task demands, format preferences and reading comprehension are discussed. Additional outcomes and implications for the fields of education, psychology, computer science, information science and human-computer interaction are considered.
Full-text available
Emotions guide our actions and have a profound influence on how we approach, experience and later remember information. This chapter provides an overview of the role of emotions in reading and describes how emotional processes differ across digital and print texts. After introducing what emotions are and how they can be measured, we discuss the influence of text genre on inducing emotions. We further explore the effects of digital texts on the emotional experiences in narrative and expository text reading. We then consider the importance of the reader’s motivational orientation, as it may influence preferences for digital vs. print texts. Finally, we discuss the impact of the communicative and collaborative aspects of digital reading environments on the emotions emerging during reading. It is evident that little is known about the impact of digitalisation on emotional processes during reading, and more theory-based research is needed.
Full-text available
This systematic literature review was undertaken primarily to examine the role that print and digitally mediums play in text comprehension. Overall, results suggest that medium plays an influential role under certain text or task conditions or for certain readers. Additional goals were to identify how researchers defined and measured comprehension, and the various trends that have emerged over the past 25 years, since Dillon’s review. Analysis showed that relatively few researchers defined either reading or digital reading, and that the majority of studies relied on researcher-developed measures. Three types of trends were identified in this body of work: incremental (significant increase; e.g., number of studies conducted, variety of digital devices used), stationary (relative stability; e.g., research setting, chose of participants), and iterative (wide fluctuation; e.g., text length, text manipulations). The review concludes by considering the significance of these findings for future empirical research on reading in print or digital mediums.
Full-text available
Advances in tactile cognition and haptics have increased our understanding of the multimodal nature of touch. Haptic data is mostly confined to human performance arising from the flexibility and dexterity of the fingers used to discriminate shapes and objects. Studies with infants indicate that recognition of objects either seen or held in the hand is possible during early periods of infancy. Evidence indicates performance differences between the hands decrease over periods of development, reflecting maturation of the cortical brain system supporting motor skills. Thus ability is not confined to the preferred hand. Tactile process and haptic cognition reflect hand ability. Studies examining manual performance must consider the relevance of haptics in research. Knowing about the evolution of the hands controlled by the cerebral hemispheres is of interest because it is a major contribution to the repertoire of human hand actions. The emergence of RDBM (role differentiated bimanual manipulation) is an important shift in the development of infant manual skills. Between 4 and 7 months of age, infants begin to manipulate objects using RDBM where one hand stabilized an object while the other hand manipulated the object. Understanding the affordance of a tool is an important cognitive milestone in early sensorimotor period that develops during the second year in full-term infants. This ability has also been demonstrated in preterm infants indicating the emergence of handedness during prenatal periods. Thus a multimodal approach that incorporates studies of tactile processes and hand actions may reveal their interactions with task demands and haptic ability.
Full-text available
How does knowledge of phenomena and events we have no direct experiences of emerge? Having a brain that learns from being in the world, how can we conceive of prehistoric dinosaurs, Atlantis, unicorns or even 'desire'? This book is about how abstract knowledge becomes anchored in direct experiences through well-formed conversations. Within the framework of evolutionary biology and through the lens of contemporary studies in cognitive science, the neurosciences, sociology and anthropology, this book traces topics such as our inborn sensitivity to the environment, bottom-up and top-down processes in knowledge formation and the importance of language when we learn to categorise the world. A major objective of this monograph is to identify the key determinants of the specific interactivity mechanisms that control the cognitive processes while we are linguistically immersed. The emphasis is on real-life interactions in conversations. While the concrete word-object paradigm depends relatively more on direct experiences, the successful acquisition of abstract knowledge depends on the emphatic skills of the interlocutor. He or she must remain sensitive to the level and quality of the imagination of the child while making mental tableaus that are believed to elicit images to which the child associates the concept. Derived embodiment in abstract thought is a landmark synthesis that operationalizes contemporary neuroscience studies of acquisition of knowledge in the real life conversational context. The result is an exciting biology-based contribution to theories of knowledge acquisition and thinking in sociology, cognitive robotics, anthropology and not at least, pedagogy. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017. All rights are reserved.
Full-text available
Fiction is vital to our being. Many people enjoy engaging with fiction every day. Here we focus on literary reading as one instance of fiction consumption from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. The brain processes which play a role in the mental construction of fiction worlds and the related engagement with fictional characters, remain largely unknown. We discuss the Neurocognitive Poetics Model (Jacobs, 2015a) of literary reading specifying the likely neuronal correlates of several key processes in literary reading, namely inference and situation model building, immersion, mental simulation and imagery, figurative language and style, and the issue of distinguishing fact from fiction. An overview of recent work on these key processes is followed by a discussion of methodological challenges in studying the brain bases of fiction processing. 3 Introduction Fiction does not take us outside the range of human nature into something else — " convention, " or " culture, " or " literary tradition. " Ultimately, it's all human nature. Carroll (2012, p. 298).
Full-text available
The internet offers readers the unique opportunity to access rich information scenarios, but doing so requires the use of advanced digital reading skills. Examples of such scenarios are searching and acquiring information from multiple sources (e.g., hypertext, images, videos) and participating in the social exchange of information (e.g., web forums, social networks, commenting newspapers). In such scenarios, the reader has to cope with a) the constantly growing number of available information sources, b) the different formats in which digital information is presented, c) the varying quality of the information available. To deal with these affordances, individuals need to possess advanced reading skills that go beyond what is needed to understand a single text. Such skills include: a) search and navigation skills to select relevant web pages and hyperlinks and to avoid getting lost in hyperspace; b) integration of multiple pieces of information and multiple presentation formats (texts from different web pages, text and animations); and c) critical evaluation of information (e.g., assessing the trustworthiness of the information on a web page and evaluating the quality of a comment from a social network). Existing literature suggests that children and adolescents possess some of these skills, but that students at all levels struggle in complex scenarios. In the present chapter, we aim to review the literature regarding the skills needed to master the affordances of advanced digital reading scenarios.