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A Review on Using Opportunities of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Construction Project Management


Abstract and Figures

Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR), a kingdom-of-the-art technology for superimpos­ing information onto the real world, have recently started to have an effect on our everyday lives. In addition, AR and VR have shown a great contribution to advanced construction management in recent years. However, a comprehensive critical review of AR and VR technolo­gies in construction management is absent in the liter­ature. This study provides a comprehensive review of a summary of using potential opportunities of AR and VR to solve a variety of construction management issues effectively and efficiently. This study found that AR is successfully used in construction project scheduling, progress tracking, worker training, safety management, time and cost management, and quality and defects management. VR is effectively used as a visualization tool, worker training technology, safety management tool, and quality and defects management tool. In addi­tion, AR and VR are used for developing a network that allows the possibility of having conferences with those who are geographically far off from each other or the construction site. This study could help to explore the potential fields of using AR and VR technologies in the construction industry effectively as advance time- and cost-saving profitable tools.
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Organization, Technology and Management in Construction 2019; 11: 1839–1852
Review Article Open Access
Shakil Ahmed
A Review on Using Opportunities of
AugmentedReality and Virtual Reality in
Construction Project Management
DOI 10.2478/otmcj-2018-0012
Received May 30, 2018; accepted Nov 05, 2018
Abstract: Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality
(VR), a kingdom-of-the-art technology for superimpos-
ing information onto the real world, have recently started
to have an effect on our everyday lives. In addition, AR
and VR have shown a great contribution to advanced
construction management in recent years. However, a
comprehensive critical review of AR and VR technolo-
gies in construction management is absent in the liter-
ature. This study provides a comprehensive review of
a summary of using potential opportunities of AR and
VR to solve a variety of construction management issues
effectively and efficiently. This study found that AR is
successfully used in construction project scheduling,
progress tracking, worker training, safety management,
time and cost management, and quality and defects
management. VR is effectively used as a visualization
tool, worker training technology, safety management
tool, and quality and defects management tool. In addi-
tion, AR and VR are used for developing a network that
allows the possibility of having conferences with those
who are geographically far off from each other or the
construction site. This study could help to explore the
potential fields of using AR and VR technologies in the
construction industry effectively as advance time- and
cost-saving profitable tools.
Keywords: Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Con-
struction Industry, Construction Management, Advance
Construction Technology
1 Introduction
Throughout the twentieth century and beyond, the
world has seen huge modifications in extensive types
and variety of aspects in the construction sector. In our
regard, there has been a massive transformation and
advancement within the construction industry all over
the world. Through constructing larger and better things,
the construction industry has revolutionized approaches,
methods, techniques and strategies. Similarly, in order to
overcome the shortage of fit workforce, long-time duration
and defective work, the construction industry has taken
advantage of technologies to better recruit and preserve
new workers and methods in the construction profession
(Escamilla and Ostadalimakhmalbaf 2016). One of the
technological tools used by the construction industry is
called virtual reality (VR), wherein a three-dimensional,
computer-generated environment can be explored and
interacted through a person. Augmented reality (AR) stocks
the same concept, but in place of interacting in a nonexist-
ing surrounding (digital fact), AR makes use of the exist-
ing environment at the same time as implementing virtual
elements to appear as if both are together at the same time
(Dunleavy and Dede 2014). AR is a kind of interactive,
reality-based display environment that takes the capabili-
ties of computer-generated display, sound, textual content
and effects to enhance the user’s real-world experience
(Loijens et al. 2017). AR combines real and computer-based
scenes and images to deliver a unified but enhanced view
of the world. The VR is the computer-generated simulation
of a three-dimensional image or environment that may be
interacted within an apparently real or physical manner
by a person with the use of a special digital system, which
includes a helmet with a display screen inside or gloves
outfitted with sensors (Whyte 2003a).
A variety of applicability assessment of AR and VR in
architecture, engineering and construction can be found
in Dunston and Wang (2011), Li et al. (2018), Park et al.
(2013), Sampaio et al. (2010) and Wang (2009). However,
*Corresponding author: Shakil Ahmed, Dept. of Building Engineering
and Construction Management, Khulna University of Engineering
& Technology, Khulna, Bangladesh, E-mail:
Open Access. © 2019 Ahmed, published by Sciendo.   This work is
licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License.
1840  Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management
effective use of AR and VR is not easy in the construction
sector; for this, many researchers had worked hard in the
last few decades. The successful outcomes appeared in
the recent years than previous attempts. There are various
sectors in construction that show successful implementa-
tion of AR and VR as desired.
AR and VR technologies have many applications that
could benefit a project with accelerated working site train-
ing and safety, design development and communication
with involved parties from the owner all the way down
to the laborer and help to exceed owner’s expectations
and decrease project costs (Behzadi 2016). AR and VR are
being used in the world of construction engineering and
management by placing a 3D model in the front of the eyes
of the consumer, consultant and contractor and starting
up a learning experience unlike any seen before (Park et
al. 2013). In this way, it permits for an individual to inter-
act with real-world projects and deal with defects, risks
and accidents before they even occur. Through creating
exposure to a project before it physically exists, AR and
VR create a unique gaining knowledge of opportunity for
the inexperienced and construction-savvy people alike by
means of presenting the opportunity to locate and fix a
project’s flaws in a safe, hazard-free environment all in
real time (Lin et al. 2013). AR and VR are the future of con-
struction as they are used in various important parts of
projects. Worker’s safety training, defects management,
quality management, projects scheduling, information
collection, safety management, logistics management,
project progress evaluation and so on are conducted by
the AR and VR technologies in the modern construction
process. As there is no summarized information of using
opportunities of AR and VR in the construction manage-
ment available in the open access literature. To fill the
gap, this study could be valuable to the potential readers.
So the objective of this study is to find out the effective-
ness and application opportunities of AR and VR tech-
nologies in the construction management. This study
summarizes the various researchers’ efforts to use AR and
VR in construction effectively than existing methods and
models. This study could help the authorities to know and
understand the usability and effectiveness of various AR
and VR technologies to solve many managerial issues in
the construction management.
2 Research Method
AR and VR technologies are extensively used in recent
years for research purposes or experimentally in the con-
struction project management. Different researchers get
success in different sections of construction management
such as quality management, safety management, plan-
ning and scheduling, defect identification, cost and time
management and worker training. Hence, using oppor-
tunities and benefits of AR and VR in the construction
management is spread out across the literature. To know
and learn all the effective use of opportunities in various
departments of construction management is very diffi-
cult without any summarized structured of information.
In identifying the key research relating to the AR and VR
technologies in the construction management, this paper
provides a review in terms of various aspects.
As it is a literature review, for conducting this study,
comprehensive literature review was conducted through-
out the distinguish sources, such as journal papers, con-
ference papers, newspapers, websites, blogs, books and
electronic media, which related to AR and VR in the con-
struction sector. Relevant publications were identified by
searching the Web of Science, Google Scholar, Research-
Gate, Scopus and ASCE Library databases with the follow-
ing keywords:
(1) Research topic: “construction safety management”,
“quality and defect management”, “time manage-
ment”, “cost management”, “planning and sched-
uling of project”, “worker training”, “visualization
and inspection”, “project progress tracking”, “pro-
gress assessment”, “construction communication”
and “information collection/sharing/exchange”,
“advanced construction management’, “AR in con-
struction” and “VR in construction”.
(2) Construction management: “construction”, “con-
struction management”, “BIM”, “CAD”, “VR”, “AR”,
“safety”, “quality”, “training”, “progress”, “QA/QC”
and “technology’.
(3) Research direction and field: ‘science and technol-
ogy”, “engineering management”, “construction
management”, “civil engineering and construction”,
“automation in construction”, “building technol-
ogy”, “computer aided design in construction” and
“quality, risk and safety”.
The search words helped to identify 84 relevant papers in dis-
tributed sources. These are summarized in Figure 1 in terms
of the number of annual publications from 1997 to 2018.
3 AR in Construction
AR is used in various phases and departments of construc-
tion project. Many researchers believe that for bringing the
automation in construction, AR is the most and obvious
Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management  1841
technology to implement in the construction project. In
2018, it is undoubtable that AR has a great contribution
to change the culture of the construction industry to a
fully automated sector in near future. In this section of the
review, various using opportunities of AR technologies are
discussed through analysis of numerous research articles.
3.1 Scheduling and project progress tracking
AR has enhanced the scheduling aspect of the construc-
tion project significantly; it is able to show an as-planned
vs. an as-built form to allow visualization of progress.
From the study of Zaher et al. (2018), Figure 2 shows
the scheduling and progress tracking of the construc-
tion project by AR application. The white color portion
of the model is completed, and green portion is behind
the schedule of a residential construction project. Hence,
the green portion actually represents the delay of project.
Wang et al. (2014a) showed in their study that AR could be
used as a scheduling tool better than other existing tools
to understand and to make someone understand without
any ambiguities. Chantawit et al. (2005) also used AR
technologies effectively for the scheduling of project with
visualization feature in early twenty-first century. Zaher et
al. (2018) used the mobile AR technologies integrated with
Microsoft Project and Primavera for construction project
scheduling and schedule monitoring. Hui et al. (2017)
showed in their research that AR could be effectively used
for the safety task scheduling in a construction project.
These highlighted researches along with other researches
have changed the definition of scheduling in the construc-
tion sector in recent years.
Meža et al. (2015) stated in their study that for moni-
toring and tracking the construction project, AR on tablet
PC or mobile is the best option than other 3D models or
Gantt chart. They also pointed out that AR has been able
to represent that it is possible to visualize and estimate
the work this is performed on site in accordance with the
proposed schedule of the process. Wang et al. (Park et al.
2013) noted the use of AR for construction project progress
tracking as a way to compare the project progress to the
schedule. A visual comparison between the planned facil-
ities versus as-built facilities is easily displayed by the AR
technologies. Wang et al. (Park et al. 2013) also monitored
a step in addition and connected AR to material tracking
to make sure that the necessary materials are on site. Gol-
parvar et al. (2009), Omar and Nehdi (2016), Zhou et al.
(2008) and Turkan et al. (2012) also showed that in con-
struction progress tracking and scheduling, AR is going to
be one of the most used functions in advanced construc-
tion project management.
3.2 Communication and data acquisition
An important prerequisite to make successful construc-
tion project is underlying within the effective communi-
cation and information retrieval from the construction
site. Pejoska et al. (2016) noted in their study that access
Fig. 1: Number of reviewed publications by year.
1842  Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management
Fig. 2: Construction project scheduling and progress tracking by AR technology (Zaher et al. 2018).
Fig. 3: Construction field data and design information acquisition process using AR technologies.
to project information on-work site and effective com-
munication are significantly enhancing with the intro-
duction of different AR programs as compared to more
traditional information sources. Figure 3 shows how the
AR technologies are used for the field data collection and
distribution to the user in the construction industry. It also
represents the communication ways between project par-
ticipants and project information.
Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management  1843
AR systems allow fast and easy access to information
and helps project managers to decide on corrective actions
to minimize cost and delays due to performance incom-
patibilities (Bae et al. 2013). Yeh et al. (2012) stated that
to reduce the difficulties and complexity for on-site data
retrieval, many organizations are undertaking effort to
develop light-weight mobile devices. The study also noted
that organizations are working to develop devices that
could exchange detail drawings and related information
based on the location of the user. The added visualization
benefits of AR technologies allow for better communica-
tion between parties when commenting and making sug-
gestions for a particular project. The introduced visuali-
zation features and benefits of AR technologies allow for
better communication between different parties involved
in the construction project when commenting and making
suggestions and decisions for a specific project (Behzadi
2016). Various researchers (Klopfer et al. 2002, Golpar-
var-Fard et al. 2009, Omar and Nehdi 2016, Reddy et al.
2010, Van Krevelen and Poelman 2010, Woodward et al.
2010) indicated in their study that AR is one of the most
effective ways of collecting information from the construc-
tion site and could be a way of effective communication
between different stakeholders of the project.
3.3 Quality and defect management
Quality management and defect control are important
parts of construction management. There are many com-
pleted projects accepted by the client that are defected
or failed to meet the desired quality and after arise dis-
putes. To bring the automation in the quality and defect
management system, AR plays a significant role in global
construction. Various researches show the usability of AR
in QA/QC in significant ways. As in Figure 4, Kwon et al.
(Kwon et al. 2014) showed the process of marker-based
AR technology for defects and quality management. Their
study developed an effective tool for defect identification
and correction. The whole construction period and main-
tenance period both could be facilitated by the AR tech-
nologies in the QA/QC sector.
AR technologies facilitate construction management
to deal with defects that are probably unnoticed in the
inspection process and save time to do so. Park et al (2013)
noted that if managers realize the core control time points
and measures for works to be checked proactively through
the defect element ontology, then the worker’s perfor-
mance can be automatically checked at the appropriate
time with BIM- and AR-applied inspection equipment
without visiting the workplace. A marker-based AR tech-
nology is used for the quality improvement and defects
management of construction project, and the output is
very satisfactory (Kwon et al. 2014). The study (Kwon et
al. 2014) concluded as the AR technologies enhance the
current manual-based defect management to reduce site
managers’ workloads and prevent construction work
defects proactively by utilizing BIM and AR technologies.
AR was regarded as a way to carry exceptional additional
value and experience of concreteness, particularly in
close-to-target locations in which the shapes and volume
of the planned buildings could be visualized (Olsson
Fig. 4: Process of defect management by AR (Kwon et al. 2014).
1844  Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management
et al. 2012). An effective defectless facilities manage-
ment system is developed for the construction project in
a modern automated way that facilitates users at a more
satisfactory level than any time before (Koch et al. 2014).
AR is also mentioned as a fruitful quality and defects man-
agement technology for on-site construction project (Kim
et al. 2013). To eliminate any defects in piping assembly in
the construction project, an AR technology-based manage-
ment system is developed and the system concluded with
expected outcomes and showed hope for the future (Hou
et al. 2013). Some others’ studies (Bulearca and Tamarjan
2010; Lee et al. 2012; Rankohi and Waugh 2013; Williams
et al. 2014) also show how the AR technologies are used
in construction quality and defects management system.
3.4 Time and cost management
Time and cost are undoubtedly the major issues of con-
struction process. All the management of construction
project is to reduce the time of completion and save the
expenses of the construction. Time and cost management
of construction exists in the construction process from the
beginning of construction history but is not significantly
effective at any time. To increase the effectiveness of con-
struction management, technological changing take place
in different form with the changing in time. For the con-
tinuation of this changing, AR-based applications in con-
struction management for monitoring and controlling the
time and cost issues are appeared significantly.
Wong et al. (2014) stated that both time- and cost-
saving opportunities are available to the project managers
by using AR technologies, which precise projects at the
same time as lowering labor work/time and cost efficiencies
because of defects and construction rework. About 913%
time and 14–19% money are wasted because plans or draw-
ings are misinterpreted or the information is transferred
imprecisely from the plan to the real object (Kumaran
et al. 2007). The AR technologies unravel issues includ-
ing lack of manpower inside the management and cost-
efficiencies in the construction project (Behzadi 2016).
Park et al. (2013) and Kwon et al. (2014) showed in their
study that for the defects and quality management, there
is no more physical labor necessary to conducting defects
management process. Physical inspection and reporting
are very time consuming in the construction sector (Fan
et al. 2015). So the manpower is reduced along with their
associated cost and time of conducting these management
processes. For the construction site’s data acquisition, AR
technologies are used effectively with saving time, reduc-
ing labor hours and decreasing data acquisition cost in
most significant ways (Golparvar-Fard et al. 2009). The
AR technologies reduce the defects and rework of the
construction project; this means, they save time and cost
of the construction project by using AR mobile comput-
ing technologies (Kim et al. 2013). There are some other
studies (Azhar et al. 2015; Tang et al. 2003; Van Krevelen
and Poelman 2010; Wang et al. 2014b) that have explored
the opportunity of saving cost and reducing time of the
construction industry by using AR technologies.
3.5 Employee training and safety
management program
Safety management system is a very concerning issue in
modern days in the construction industry. Thousands of
people die every year in the world in construction acci-
dents. The training of employees is another most impor-
tant thing for every construction project. These issues are
not easy at all to perform at the desired or standard level.
However, AR technologies assist both issues to give the
employees an effective training and implement the safety
management system as the specification. Figures 5 and 6
show the AR-based safety management tools. Figure 5 is
from HSE International (2017) who invented a wearable
augmented glass for construction safety. In Figure 6, “Pro-
Vis AR”, a safety management AR-based learning mobile
app, is used to train about crane safety.
Chi et al. (2013) showed in their study that AR technol-
ogies could be effectively used for the training of operators
of heavy equipment in the construction projects. Wang
and Dunston (2007) also revealed that AR technologies
are significantly used for training construction workers to
operate heavy and medium construction crane, excavator
and assembling equipment. AR technologies assist the
workers and stakeholders to understand various complex
designs and arrangements in an easy and effective way
and educate the project-involved persons about various
project issues (Lee 2012). Izkara et al. (2007) developed a
conceptual diagram of AR system for the safety at work
site in the construction industry. For safety concerns, con-
struction workers need to have and maintain a completely
clear understanding of the real objects and safety hazards
around them and the AR technologies assist the workers
effectively to clear understanding (Stricker et al. 2001).
Wang et al. (2013) developed a conceptual framework for
integrating building information modeling with AR for the
safety management system in the construction industry.
So AR technologies are the new approach for the modern
construction management, particularly in the training
and safety management system.
Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management  1845
4 VR in Construction
Human beings are immersed in a new dimension with
the feeling of the real world by the VR technologies. The
noticeable fact about VR technologies is that they furnish
the opportunity to get thrown into a new dimension with
a new depth of digitally constructed reality that resem-
bles real life. In the construction industry, dealing with
the reality of workers and consultants, construction pro-
jects often failed for arising problems directly related with
incapability, unreachability and inexperience of field
personnel and consultants. In this case, VR technologies
allow them to truly experience a project before it is built.
VR technologies are now used in an integrated department
of the construction industry. It is used as an essential tool
for worker training, safety management system, progress
tracking, labor management, defects management and
so on. In this section of the review, comprehensive use of
opportunities and benefits of these technologies is dis-
cussed through various research work analyses.
Fig. 5: AR-based wearable glass for construction safety (HSE International 2017).
Fig. 6: AR-based construction crane safety application (Pro-Vis AR mobile app).
1846  Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management
4.1 Worker training
Before starting any project, there is no other concern in
construction projects as important as workers’ training
is. The construction quality and safety of workers mostly
depend on the proper training of the workers (Demirkesen
and Arditi 2015; Rumane 2016). A construction project
can gain more profit with excellent success if the workers
of this project are highly trained in an effective manner
(Kerzner and Kerzner 2017). The traditional construction
training program is not significantly effective because
workers do not understand the work and procedures and
also do not know about the associated risks and hazards.
Figure 7 (Knutt 2017) shows that a worker gets training for
operating heavy construction excavator by VR technol-
ogies. This app is developed by a software company 3D
Repo. This VR safety training system has been adopted by
Cape, a contractor and supplier to the offshore and energy
VR technologies are used for the worker training
for the safety issue in the construction project (Le et al.
2015b; Park et al. 2015). For operating the crane, excava-
tor and other construction equipment, VR-based training
program is an effective and proven technology (Fang etal.
2014; Hilfert et al. 2016) in recent years. Peters et al. (2016)
revealed that by providing VR-based training, it is possi-
ble to enhance the working ability of workers in particular
construction work. Le et al. (2015a) developed a platform
for training the workers who are assigned to steel erection
activities in construction, and its outcome is significantly
good. Zhao and Lucas (2015) proposed a framework for a
VR training tool for design and installation of electrical
systems in the construction project. Alcinia et al. (Sampaio
and Martins 2014) developed some models that are used in
an e-learning platform and assist professional training for
construction field personnel and involved parties. Many
researchers believe that VR technologies are undoubtedly
effective training tools for the global construction indus-
try in the modern age.
4.2 Construction safety management
Construction industry is considered as one of the most haz-
ardous industries for it unique nature of risk and uncer-
tainty. Safety needs to be the top priority to each person
Fig. 7: Construction excavator operating training by VR technology (Knutt 2017)
Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management  1847
associated with our field of work in the construction
project. Every year thousands of people die due to con-
struction accidents (Rozenfeld et al. 2010). For the reduc-
tion in the accident rate in the construction site, VR tech-
nologies open wide windows for training, monitoring and
controlling safety management of construction compa-
nies. The construction industry is a complex environment
where excessive accident rates make widespread contribu-
tions to cost overruns and schedule delays. VR technolo-
gies could be playing an important role to provide safety
training, education, warning, information and a learning
platform for safety management in the construction indus-
try. Figure 8 represents the opportunity of worker training
on health safety issues through the VR technology. This
app is created by 3M Science (Science 2017) for Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE) training of worker.
Safety education is essential in promoting a safe
and healthy working environment in construction. For
this, Le at al. (2015b) developed a VR-based construction
safety education system for experiential learning. Zhao
and Lucas (2015) described a framework for construction
safety management and worker training for safety perfor-
mance by the help of VR tools. Bhoir and Esmaeili (2015)
used the VR technologies in the construction safety man-
agement program, and they significantly reduced the rate
of accident in a result. Sacks et al. (2015) showed that VR
technologies are highly beneficial for designers to appre-
ciate the implications of designs on the safety program.
These applications of VR could run numerous drills or
unique scenarios that will provide the user with a real-
life feeling of a potential threat. Numerous authors also
have a notion that tracking progress is not systematically
monitored properly, making work sites at risk of potential
dangers (Golparvar-Fard et al. 2015). A distinctive method
for the use of augmented and virtual realities is how they
could improve safety by acquiring better training and
education. A research illustrates, as an instance, how the
use of AR proves the excellent training within the short-
est time while also preserving the longest knowledge and
skill acquired through the simulator (Sekizuka et al. 2017).
There are some other researches (Chittaro et al. 2018; Guo
et al. 2017; Hilfert and König 2016; Li 2018; Li et al. 2018;
Sidani et al. 2018) who showed that various VR models,
platforms and applications could be used effectively on
construction safety issues.
4.3 Defect and quality management
Before the VR technologies in construction, the defect
management system was a costly and time-consuming
issue. Sometimes, the defect is overlooked and report is
missed or damaged. However, with the help of VR technol-
ogies, defect management becomes very easy and effec-
tive. Here, there are no chances of overlooking and report-
ing damages. No physical labor needs to proceed with
this operation. So labor, cost and time are saved by this
method of the defect and quality management. Shen et al.
(2010) showed how the VR technologies are used in the
construction defect management in an effective manner
than before. Dong et al. (2006) developed an application
for construction defect reporting using VR-based mobile
and digital workbench technologies from work site to
head office without any time and workforce loss. Gordon
et al. (2003) illustrated an automatic quality and defect
management model using VR and used it in construction
project positively. Wong et al. (2014) used VR technologies
to develop a framework for proactive construction defect
management with BIM technologies.
4.4 Visualization
Some decades ago, developing a construction project
model virtually before staring the actual project was a
nightmare. But today, by using VR technologies, a virtual
project model is possible to build that give the feeling of
real-world affection before the project started physically.
Visualization of project model contains various parametric
information that is not possible before or 2D CAD model. It
works as a one-stop information booth and solution for all
departments of the whole construction team. VR technol-
ogies allow a person to visit the whole project at its entire
inside and outside peripheries with the new dimension of
real-world feeling. VR is used in the planning phase for
making effective decision with the demand of time. It also
assists the consultant and contractor to design a project
Fig. 8: Worker training on PPE by VR technology (Science 2017).
1848  Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management
with available constructability. After the construction
period, VR technologies reduce the effort and cost associ-
ated with maintenance and facilities management. Figure
9 shows a construction project model before the work is
started. The image is collected from a developed VR-based
visualization model of a study (Hilfert and König 2016).
A huge number of studies have been conducted on
construction visualization using VR technologies over
mostly the last three decades. Park and Kim (2013) used
an application of VR-based technologies to visualize the
hazards and risk of construction process. With the recent
rapid advancement of visualization technologies, recog-
nized research work for improving construction safety
management practices has been conducted for identify-
ing safety risks and worker on-site training by VR (Park
and Kim 2013). Field construction can be planned, mon-
itored and controlled more effectively by the detailed
visualization using VR technologies (Kamat et al. 2010).
Bouchlaghem et al. (2005) showed the advantages of
construction project visualization using VR. Applica-
tions of VR provided an interactive, spatial, real-time
medium for visualization of the project model that pro-
motes safety, quality and defectless construction project
(Whyte 2003b). There are some other studies (Cheng and
Teizer 2013; Huang et al. 2007; Jayaram et al. 1997; Kopp
et al. 2003; Shen et al. 2010; Woodward et al. 2010) that
described the benefits of VR technologies for visualization
of construction project at the planning, design, construc-
tion and maintenance period.
5 Discussion
It is clear from the recent researches that AR and VR tech-
nologies are the future of automotive construction man-
agement. Now, most of the construction management tools
are integrating with AR or VR for increasing the output
rate. Huge use of opportunities of AR and VR in the con-
struction management is pointed out earlier. AR is used
in project scheduling and project progress tracking in the
modern construction process. However, the effectiveness
of progress tracking is very significant than scheduling for
both AR and VR technologies. For the effective and less
time-consuming communication between different project
participants, AR and VR are proven technologies. AR and
VR provide a great platform for the project participants
to share and exchange valuable information without any
physical medium and within a second. AR and VR are also
used for quality and defects management in the construc-
tion project. For the management of QA/QC, AR is greatly
appreciated by the researchers than VR, but both play very
important and effective role individually. The effective-
ness of AR and VR technologies in quality management
Fig. 9: Project model visualization before the actual work start (Hilfert and König 2016).
Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management  1849
is recommendable for every construction project. AR and
VR technologies are hugely used in construction safety
management and worker training for years. Many related
researches proved that in training and safety manage-
ment, AR and VR are the most effective and efficient tools
in recent years. Project parametric model visualization
and walk through into the project before the starting of the
actual project with the feeling of the real world is another
great characteristic of AR and VR technologies. For the
visualization purpose, VR has a great contribution to the
construction project from planning phase to maintenance
phase. VR and AR are already used in many construction
companies effectively, and many are preparing to adopt
these technologies to visualization, training, safety and
progress tracking of projects. Even though AR and VR
technologies seem to be a vital tool in the construction
industry, there are multiple drawbacks of these technol-
ogies too. There are some limitations and drawbacks that
appeared to implement the AR and VR technologies in the
construction industry. The high cost of AR and VR tech-
nologies, lack of AR and VR experts and technicians, una-
vailability of these technologies and maintenance are the
major limitations for any construction company to adopt
AR- and VR-based construction management system.
Many researchers believe that all the drawbacks and lim-
itations will be quickly broken by the upcoming genera-
tions. Assuming that AR and VR technologies will improve
with safety, quality, visualization, workforce management
and time management, it is far nearly sure that such tech-
nologies will play more important roles in construction for
future years. Readers and respective authorities could use
the AR and VR technologies to their construction projects
to get maximum benefits of modern construction man-
agement and also work with constraints or limitations to
overcome achieving ultimate profit by using AR and VR
technologies in construction projects.
6 Conclusion
Construction industry is one of the largest industries in the
world. Tremendous changes are going on from the begin-
ning of the history of construction industry. Among the so
many changes, the AR and VR technologies are bringing
out an unimaginable modification and advancement in
various construction management issues. The principal
purpose of this study is to explore the using opportunities
of AR and VR technologies in construction management
and also explore the contribution to overcome various
construction management issues from last three decades.
It is revealed in the study that these incredible improve-
ments in AR and VR technologies are having a great
impact on the construction industry in a couple of ways.
In this review, various uses of VR and AR technologies are
shown. This study discusses opportunities and associated
benefits of using AR and VR technologies in construction
management issues. It could be helpful to the potential
readers to know the potential fields of using AR and VR in
construction management aspects and learn how projects
have been benefited by these technologies.
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... Recent studies show that AR and VR technologies are used in the construction industry, as in many other industries (Shakil, 2019). VR is an application that provides 3D vision in which any visible or imaginable place can be simulated with a computer and internet environment. ...
... VR is an application that provides 3D vision in which any visible or imaginable place can be simulated with a computer and internet environment. A study was conducted on the safety of construction equipment with AR-based wearable glasses for occupational safety and health in the construction field (Shakil, 2019). With AR and VR, not only occupational safety and health but also worker plot training are provided. ...
... It has been seen that the inclusion of such educational tools and practices can increase the prevalence of more focused educational knowledge transfer while protecting the health of students by reducing personal contact at the same time (Ramyani & Sparkling, 2021). In another study, excavator drivers were trained with VR technology for a construction machine operator to have experience in his vehicle before working in the field (Shakil, 2019). With the rapidly developing technology in the world, project management organizations become more stable with the introduction of AR and VR technologies. ...
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A conceptual construction management model can be applied to the metaverse 3D technology in this study, which demonstrates how accelerated back-and-forth replays of the construction process can be used to evaluate the impact of new decisions on the project. Participants in the proposed model will be able to see exactly how their decisions during construction affect the progress of the project. In order to develop this model, three phases are required: 1) Analyzing the problem and planning the algorithm, 2) collecting data and designing the hybrid model utilizing artificial intelligence and construction network scheduling techniques, and 3) coding the algorithm. The design-based research will contribute to the development of new meta-models for construction management, present innovative ideas for students, engineers, and managers working in the field of construction management.
... Hence, these technologies could help construction teams to comprehend the built environment throughout the whole life-cycle of the building; AR/VR alone or integrated with the BIM applications are presented in Table 9. These technologies enable project teams to enhance their knowledge about the final product needlessly to a prototype [115], [116] and allow engineering teams to identify and solve project risks before construction [117]. Due to improved understanding, projects are completed with less cost and time while reducing rework [118]; and in the case of potential repairs, higher knowledge facilitates the process [119]. ...
... Identifying defects and risks before happening [117] Assessing the project needlessly to a prototype [115] Enhancing project teams' understanding of the final deliverable by illustrating a 3D virtual model [116] Construction ...
... end if 13: Update the global best position and its corresponding fitness value: 14: if f i < f g then g ← 1,53,55,84,85,86,87,115,122,124,131,132,133,134,135,137,138,139,140,141,142,168,169,171,195,196,197,206,215,216 117,123,197,198,199,200,203,206,207,208,209 117,118,197,198,199,200,213,214 ...
Nanoindentation is a widely used nondestructive testing method to determine the mechanical properties of engineering materials, especially for small volume/small scale materials/components. If the Poisson’s ratio of the material is specified, but generally unknown for new materials, the Young’s modulus of a bulk material can be extracted from the nanoindentation load-depth data, especially the unloading indentation load versus depth data. The effect of Poisson’s ratio on nanoindentation test response remains unknow and can be elucidated by computer modeling and data analysis based on the nanoindentation testing data. In this chapter, computer modeling based on finite element analysis (FEA) will be introduced to simulate the nanoindentation testing of specimens of different materials, such as mild steel AISI1018, steel alloy AISI4340 and aluminum alloy AL6061-T6 with a different indenter, such as a Berkovich pyramidal sharp-tip indenter, a cylindrical flat-tip indenter, or a spherical indenter. The effect of Poisson’s ratio on the response of the nanoindentation (nanoindentation load versus depth curves) will be investigated. The effects of different indenters on the response of the nanoindentation tests with different testing materials will be studied and formulated through computer modeling based on FEA and data analysis. Based on the relationships among the nanoindentation test factors, the Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio can be estimated simultaneously. However, a single nanoindentation test is fundamentally insufficient for simultaneously extracting both Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, and another fundamentally sound method, such as the ultrasonic testing method, combined with nanoindentation testing should be explored to reliably determine the Poisson’s ratio and Young’s modulus simultaneously, such as an ultrasonic testing method. Numerical analysis based on FEA and data analysis can be a powerful tool to effectively estimate the Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio of a material without a specified Poisson’s ratio and the relationships of the material properties based on the nanoindentation test data can be established.
... Kim [19], Dey [20] and De Souza Cardoso [9] address industrial AR use independent from the application field. Other authors analyze the state of research for specific application fields: Manufacturing [6,8,[21][22][23][24][25][26], maintenance [11,27], shipbuilding [28], automotive [29], engineering services [30], construction [31][32][33][34][35], and logistics [17,36] To assess the article's impact on the scientific community, we determined the average number of citations using the Average Citation Score (ACC), according to [20]. The ACC is calculated by dividing the total number of citations by the time since publication in years. ...
... Regarding technology, we could identify numerous challenges that we divided into hardware-and software-related challenges. Hardware-related challenges include the lack of ergonomics of AR hardware [6,9,11,17,19,22,24,27,28,30,[32][33][34]36], or the so-far insufficient Field of View of head mounted displays (HMD) [6,8,9,11,19,22,[28][29][30]36]. Furthermore, in the industrial work context the hardware must comply with occupational safety regulations [6,27,29,32,36]. ...
Numerous Augmented Reality-based prototypes and proof of concepts of assistance systems have been developed for industrial application scenarios that have not yet reached operational use. Alongside remaining technical challenges, the human-centered development of the systems and the associated improvement of the human-machine interfaces are seen as critical challenges for successful development and introduction. Therefore, this contribution addresses the challenges of designing and implementing augmented reality-based decision support systems for intralogistics work processes focusing on system users. The authors compared the qualitative results of a multiple case study conducted in ten intralogistics companies with challenges for industrial AR systems based on a literature review and the resulting focus areas regarding a human-centered design process. The view of the experts from the companies confirms the literature-based challenges on many points. However, some aspects pose particular challenges in intralogistics, such as the high-efficiency requirements for work processes. Overall, the results underscore the importance of involving operators in system development and highlight factors like usability, workload, and user acceptance, which can be evaluated through user research methods.
... Besides BIM, Augmented and virtual reality (AR and VR) are also part of ICTs. These are tools utilized for project data exchange, labourer's education and visualization, time management, and programme safety (Ahmed, 2018). Sensors which are small sized devices equipped with sub-systems communication, and resource processing cannot be excluded from relevant ICT tools in recent times (Ammari, 2018). ...
Conference Paper
The building sector relies entirely on good communication among teams, individuals, and organisations. But communication in a project-based environment involves different stakeholders and individuals that come together for a certain period to share the project's goals as well as organisational goals. The adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has developed a productive and active method of information exchange among experts. This study set out to evaluate the drivers of ICTs in South African construction organisations to encourage more adoption. An e-questionnaire was employed as part of a quantitative research technique to gather information from construction industry professionals. They consist of mechanical, industrial, and electrical engineers, construction managers, and project managers, as well as quantity surveyors. Standard deviation (SD), mean item score (MIS), and Kruskal-walli's were utilised to examine the collected data. The results showed that the most prominent drivers of ICTs in construction organisations involve the elimination of time-consuming processes, communication and collaboration, and maximized project profitability. It is recommended that construction professionals should adopt the various ICTs because of the advantages they bring to construction projects from inception to completion. Additionally, training should be given to all the project members to encourage its adoption.
... Related studies show a generally low effectiveness rate on explanation and description tasks [21]. Recent AR applications use different tracking configurations that can be categorized into 'mark-based' and 'marker-less' types [22]. AR implementation is still a relatively new field in construction but some applications have already been present such as GAMMA AR, Morpholio AR, and DAQRI Smart Helmet. ...
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This paper starts by presenting the concept of a mobile application. A literature review is conducted, which shows that there is still a certain lack with regard to smartphone applications in the domain of engineering as independent simulation applications and not only as extensions of smartphone tools. The challenges behind this lack are then discussed. Subsequently, three case studies of engineering applications for both smartphones and the internet are presented, alongside their solutions to the challenges presented. The first case study concerns an engineering application for systems control. The second case study focuses on an engineering application for composite materials. The third case study focuses on the finite element method and structure generation. The solutions to the presented challenges are then described through their implementation in the applications. The three case studies show a new system of thought concerning the development of engineering smartphone applications.
... Nếu không đăng ký chính xác thì các đối tượng ảo trong thế giới thực sẽ dễ bị ảnh hưởng cũng như đánh mất đi niềm tin của người sử dụng (Papagiannis, 2017) Mặc dù AR đã được nghiên cứu với thời gian khoảng hơn 20 năm (Hollerer & Feiner, 2004) nhưng thời gian gần đây công nghệ này mới trở nên phổ biến cùng với chi phí phù hợp trên toàn thế giới, nhất là có sự tích hợp với điện thoại thông minh có trên cả hai nền tảng IOS và Android (Olsson & Salo, 2011). Có rất nhiều lĩnh vực đã áp dụng công nghệ AR thành công chẳng hạn như: Du lịch (Chung và cộng sự, 2015), giáo dục (Kesim & Ozarslan, 2012), xây dựng, (Shakil, 2019), văn hóa, (Arifitama và cộng sự, 2019), bán lẻ (Poushneh, 2018), ngành tiếp thị và trò chơi (Parekh và cộng sự, 2020), chăm sóc sức khỏe (Zhu và cộng sự, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Tóm tắt. Với sự phát triển của khoa học công nghệ cùng với thói quen mua sắm trực tuyến của người tiêu dùng, công nghệ AR đang trở thành xu hướng, công cụ được kỳ vọng làm giảm đi khoảng cách giữa mua sắm trực tuyến và ngoại tuyến của người tiêu dùng. Nghiên cứu được thực hiện nhằm xác định và đánh giá mức độ ảnh hưởng của các nhân tố tác động đến ý định lựa chọn điện thoại tích hợp công nghệ thực tế ảo tăng cường (AR) trong mua sắm trực tuyến của người tiêu dùng tại Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Tác giả tiến hành khảo sát 230 bảng câu hỏi và thu về 218 câu trả lời hợp lệ. Nghiên cứu sử dụng mô hình UTAUT và UAUT2, sử dụng phương pháp phân tích Cronbach's Alpha, phân tích EFA cùng với phân tích hồi quy để xử lý dữ liệu. Kết quả cho thấy: Hiệu quả mong đợi, điều kiện thuận lợi, động lực hưởng thụ và thói quen có ảnh hưởng cùng chiều; Ngược lại, nhân tố nỗ lực mong đợi tác động ngược chiều đến ý định lựa chọn điện thoại tích hợp công nghệ AR trong mua sắm trực tuyến của người tiêu dùng tại Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Từ khoá. điện thoại tích hợp công nghệ; thực tế ảo tăng cường (AR); UTAUT; UTAUT2; ý định lựa chọn. Abstract. With the development of science and technology along with consumers' online shopping habits, AR technology is becoming a trend, a tool that is expected to reduce the gap between online and offline shopping of consumers. consumers. The study was conducted to determine and evaluate the influence of factors affecting the intention to choose a phone integrated with augmented reality technology (AR) in online shopping of consumers in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City. The author conducted a survey of 230 questionnaires and obtained 218 valid answers. The study uses UTAUT and UAUT2 models, uses Cronbach's Alpha analysis method, EFA analysis along with regression analysis to process data. The results show that: Expected effect, favorable conditions, enjoyment motivation and habit have a positive influence; In contrast, the expected effort factor has a negative effect on the intention to choose a phone with AR technology in online shopping of consumers in Ho Chi Minh City.
Along the long service life of the approximately 65,000 bridges in Germany of more than 50 years, it requires the execution of many meetings under the participation of many different parties. These meetings are still location‐bound and run very manually using analog inventory documentation. For an optimization, further digitization as well as dissolution of the location dependency at the structure, immersive technologies can be used in connection with digital twins of bridge structures. This article presents an approach for a location‐independent meeting at the bridge structure under the integration and possibility of interaction of all actors and linking of the digital and physical world. A digital building model of the bridge serves as the data basis and immersive technologies such as augmented and virtual reality as the output and interaction technology. In the first section, the status quo is elaborated based on a literature review. This is followed by the presentation of the theoretical concept. In the next step, the concept is implemented and validated by using a real bridge demonstrator. Finally, further development possibilities as well as still existing challenges are derived. The result of the article shows a concept and the first feasibility of location‐independent meetings in the maintenance management of a bridge by merging the following elements.
Maturity evaluation of BIM-based Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) systems is a challenging issue that requires ensuring their effectiveness and reliability. However, the lack of appropriate evaluation methods, tools, and standards for these systems makes this task even more complex. In this context, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the maturity of BIM-based AR/VR systems, by using ISO standards. It represents a first and important step towards developing a standardized maturity model for such systems. The proposed framework enables the identification of fundamental concepts related to the evaluation of BIM-based AR and/or VR systems’ maturity. This ranges from identifying the evaluation goals to interpreting the final findings to identify mechanisms to evaluate outcomes. This framework is based on ISO/IEC TS 33061 standard for determining maturity levels and ISO/IEC 15939 for identifying measurement concepts. Evaluation can be performed either globally or in a customized way. The global evaluation considers all aspects of the system, while customized evaluation allows users to select specific key elements according to their requirements. A feasibility study, conducted by academic experts in the field, has been carried out in order to validate the proposed framework.KeywordsMaturityEvaluationBIM-based ARBIM-based VRISO standards
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The aim of this study is to enhance the quality of civil engineering project management and optimize project control in order to ensure adequate construction resources and facilitate seamless project progression. By integrating building information modeling (BIM) technology with deep learning techniques, optimal control was examined at various stages of civil engineering project management. A simulation test was performed on a selected gymnasium engineering project, focusing on cost and resource control aspects. The findings revealed that, as the project advanced, the planned cost exceeded the actual cost by nearly 100,000 yuan in the final stage. The combination of BIM technology and deep learning model prediction substantially reduced the cost and material budgets of the engineering project. Data analysis showed that the average positioning error of the convolutional neural network algorithm for the project model was below 2%.
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The construction sector is notable for its interdisciplinary knowledge and complex interactions between different parties and the sector has been gradually adopting new methodologies to improve work and collaboration practices, such as the case of Building Information Modeling (BIM). A protocol for a systematic review is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality techniques in the Architectural, Engineering, Construction and Operations sector. The search will be carried out in the reference databases for the field. One of the main outcomes of this study is to assess the effectiveness of virtual reality tools implemented in construction projects at the same time it will try to estimate the cost of the equipment and the implementation of the intervention and if any other mentioned cost might be related to risk reduction or better performance. This protocol is registered in PROSPERO under the code of PROSPERO CRD42018085845.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the process of monitoring construction projects. Classic practice for construction progress tracking relies on paper reports, which entails a serious amount of manual data collection as well as the effort of imagining the actual progress from the paperwork. Design/methodology/approach This paper presents a new methodology for monitoring construction progress using smartphones. This is done by proposing a new system consisting of a newly-developed application named “BIM-U” and a mobile augmented reality (AR) channel named “BIM-Phase”. “BIM-U” is an Android application that allows the end-user to update the progress of activities onsite. These data are used to update the project’s 4D model enhanced with different cost parameters such as earned value, actual cost and planned value. The “BIM-Phase” application is a mobile AR channel that is used during construction phase through implementing a 4D “as-planned” phased model integrated with an augmented video showing real or planned progress. Findings The results from the project are then analysed and assessed to anticipate the potential of these and similar techniques for tracking time and cost on construction projects. Originality/value The proposed system through “BIM-U” and “BIM Phase” exploits the potential of mobile applications and AR in construction through the use of handheld mobile devices to offer new possibilities for measuring and monitoring work progress using building information modelling.
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Virtual reality (VR) simulates real-world situations. Players are immersed in an environment that resembles reality. In the past, head-mounted VR devices’ costs were insurmountably high, nipping their application in the bud. Thus, VR is not common among general laymen. In recent years, however, technological breakthroughs in smartphones and VR gear have turned a new page in the gaming industry. Handy software and hardware have turned VR into an affordable gaiety of nations. It has been included in the electronic gaming industry in recent years. It has also been applied in car-driving lessons and shopping mall promotional activities. VR, which is adopted in the construction industry for safety training, is also as fine as a ninepence. In this chapter, we aim to study (1) the popularity of searches of VR around the globe, (2) the costs and benefits of VR in the construction industry and (3) real-life applications of the tools in Hong Kong for safety training and the US construction industry when the building is still in its inception stage.
The first edition published in 2010. The response was encouraging and many people appreciated a book that was dedicated to quality management in construction projects. Since it published, ISO 9000: 2008 has been revised and ISO 9000: 2015 has published. The new edition will focus on risk-based thinking which must be considered from the beginning and throughout the project life cycle. There are quality-related topics such as Customer Relationship, Supplier Management, Risk Management, Quality Audits, Tools for Construction Projects, and Quality Management that were not covered in the first edition. Furthermore, some figures and tables needed to be updated to make the book more comprehensive.
Aviation safety knowledge is a key factor in determining how passengers will respond in an emergency, but the effectiveness of the tools (preflight safety briefing, safety briefing card) used by airlines to educate passengers about safety has been shown to be lacking. This paper explores how one of these tools could be made interactive in order to increase its effectiveness. In particular, we use Virtual Reality (VR) techniques, adapting them to the constraints imposed by on-board aircraft use, such as usage on non-immersive, small displays. As a practical application, the paper examines aviation life preserver donning, which the literature has shown to be particularly difficult for passengers. To evaluate the proposed mobile VR tool, we contrasted it with the traditional safety briefing card in a between-groups study with 68 participants, age 20–24, focusing on different aspects of effectiveness. The results of the study show that the participants who used the mobile VR tool were able to transfer the presented safety knowledge to the real world, and don an aviation life preserver significantly faster and with fewer errors than participants who used the traditional briefing card. Moreover, these objective results were consistent with subjective ratings by participants; the mobile VR tool was perceived as significantly more engaging, simpler, and more effective than the traditional briefing card. Finally, participants who used the mobile VR tool attained a higher level of self-efficacy. The generalizability of these results would benefit with additional work aimed at an older age cohort that would ostensibly be less familiar with interactive VR technology.
Construction is a high hazard industry which involves many factors that are potentially dangerous to workers. Safety has always been advocated by many construction companies, and they have been working hard to make sure their employees are protected from fatalities and injuries. With the advent of Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR), there has been a witnessed trend of capitalizing on sophisticated immersive VR/AR applications to create forgiving environments for visualizing complex workplace situations, building up risk-preventive knowledge and undergoing training. To better understand the state-of-the-art of VR/AR applications in construction safety (VR/AR-CS) and from which to uncover the related issues and propose possible improvements, this paper starts with a review and synthesis of research evidence for several VR/AR prototypes, products and the related training and evaluation paradigms. Predicated upon a wide range of well-acknowledged scholarly journals, this paper comes up with a generic taxonomy consisting of VR/AR technology characteristics, application domains, safety scenarios and evaluation methods. According to this taxonomy, a number of technical features and types that could be implemented in the context of construction safety enhancement are derived and further elaborated, while significant application domains and trends regarding the VR/AR-CS research are generalized, i.e., hazards recognition and identification, safety training and education, safety instruction and inspection, and so on. Last but not least, this study sets forth a list of gaps derived from the in-depth review and comes up with the prospective research works. It is envisioned that the outcomes of this paper could assist both researchers and industrial practitioners with appreciating the research and practice frontier of VR/AR-CS and soliciting the latest VR/AR applications.
Augmented and virtual technologies both play vital roles in the construction industry. Augmented technologies, however, have a higher benefit when compared to virtual. The two technology types are discussed; with their similarities and differences explained. The past, present, and future is described. Some benefits to using augmented technology are discussed. The drawbacks are mentioned, with the way to correct them detailed