Organization, Technology and Management in Construction 2019; 11: 1839–1852
Review Article Open Access
A Review on Using Opportunities of
AugmentedReality and Virtual Reality in
Construction Project Management
Received May 30, 2018; accepted Nov 05, 2018
Abstract: Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality
(VR), a kingdom-of-the-art technology for superimpos-
ing information onto the real world, have recently started
to have an effect on our everyday lives. In addition, AR
and VR have shown a great contribution to advanced
construction management in recent years. However, a
comprehensive critical review of AR and VR technolo-
gies in construction management is absent in the liter-
ature. This study provides a comprehensive review of
a summary of using potential opportunities of AR and
VR to solve a variety of construction management issues
effectively and efficiently. This study found that AR is
successfully used in construction project scheduling,
progress tracking, worker training, safety management,
time and cost management, and quality and defects
management. VR is effectively used as a visualization
tool, worker training technology, safety management
tool, and quality and defects management tool. In addi-
tion, AR and VR are used for developing a network that
allows the possibility of having conferences with those
who are geographically far off from each other or the
construction site. This study could help to explore the
potential fields of using AR and VR technologies in the
construction industry effectively as advance time- and
cost-saving profitable tools.
Keywords: Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Con-
struction Industry, Construction Management, Advance
Throughout the twentieth century and beyond, the
world has seen huge modifications in extensive types
and variety of aspects in the construction sector. In our
regard, there has been a massive transformation and
advancement within the construction industry all over
the world. Through constructing larger and better things,
the construction industry has revolutionized approaches,
methods, techniques and strategies. Similarly, in order to
overcome the shortage of fit workforce, long-time duration
and defective work, the construction industry has taken
advantage of technologies to better recruit and preserve
new workers and methods in the construction profession
(Escamilla and Ostadalimakhmalbaf 2016). One of the
technological tools used by the construction industry is
called virtual reality (VR), wherein a three-dimensional,
computer-generated environment can be explored and
interacted through a person. Augmented reality (AR) stocks
the same concept, but in place of interacting in a nonexist-
ing surrounding (digital fact), AR makes use of the exist-
ing environment at the same time as implementing virtual
elements to appear as if both are together at the same time
(Dunleavy and Dede 2014). AR is a kind of interactive,
reality-based display environment that takes the capabili-
ties of computer-generated display, sound, textual content
and effects to enhance the user’s real-world experience
(Loijens et al. 2017). AR combines real and computer-based
scenes and images to deliver a unified but enhanced view
of the world. The VR is the computer-generated simulation
of a three-dimensional image or environment that may be
interacted within an apparently real or physical manner
by a person with the use of a special digital system, which
includes a helmet with a display screen inside or gloves
outfitted with sensors (Whyte 2003a).
A variety of applicability assessment of AR and VR in
architecture, engineering and construction can be found
in Dunston and Wang (2011), Li et al. (2018), Park et al.
(2013), Sampaio et al. (2010) and Wang (2009). However,
*Corresponding author: Shakil Ahmed, Dept. of Building Engineering
and Construction Management, Khulna University of Engineering
& Technology, Khulna, Bangladesh, E-mail:
Open Access. © 2019 Ahmed, published by Sciendo. This work is
licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License.
1840 Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management
effective use of AR and VR is not easy in the construction
sector; for this, many researchers had worked hard in the
last few decades. The successful outcomes appeared in
the recent years than previous attempts. There are various
sectors in construction that show successful implementa-
tion of AR and VR as desired.
AR and VR technologies have many applications that
could benefit a project with accelerated working site train-
ing and safety, design development and communication
with involved parties from the owner all the way down
to the laborer and help to exceed owner’s expectations
and decrease project costs (Behzadi 2016). AR and VR are
being used in the world of construction engineering and
management by placing a 3D model in the front of the eyes
of the consumer, consultant and contractor and starting
up a learning experience unlike any seen before (Park et
al. 2013). In this way, it permits for an individual to inter-
act with real-world projects and deal with defects, risks
and accidents before they even occur. Through creating
exposure to a project before it physically exists, AR and
VR create a unique gaining knowledge of opportunity for
the inexperienced and construction-savvy people alike by
means of presenting the opportunity to locate and fix a
project’s flaws in a safe, hazard-free environment all in
real time (Lin et al. 2013). AR and VR are the future of con-
struction as they are used in various important parts of
projects. Worker’s safety training, defects management,
quality management, projects scheduling, information
collection, safety management, logistics management,
project progress evaluation and so on are conducted by
the AR and VR technologies in the modern construction
process. As there is no summarized information of using
opportunities of AR and VR in the construction manage-
ment available in the open access literature. To fill the
gap, this study could be valuable to the potential readers.
So the objective of this study is to find out the effective-
ness and application opportunities of AR and VR tech-
nologies in the construction management. This study
summarizes the various researchers’ efforts to use AR and
VR in construction effectively than existing methods and
models. This study could help the authorities to know and
understand the usability and effectiveness of various AR
and VR technologies to solve many managerial issues in
the construction management.
2 Research Method
AR and VR technologies are extensively used in recent
years for research purposes or experimentally in the con-
struction project management. Different researchers get
success in different sections of construction management
such as quality management, safety management, plan-
ning and scheduling, defect identification, cost and time
management and worker training. Hence, using oppor-
tunities and benefits of AR and VR in the construction
management is spread out across the literature. To know
and learn all the effective use of opportunities in various
departments of construction management is very diffi-
cult without any summarized structured of information.
In identifying the key research relating to the AR and VR
technologies in the construction management, this paper
provides a review in terms of various aspects.
As it is a literature review, for conducting this study,
comprehensive literature review was conducted through-
out the distinguish sources, such as journal papers, con-
ference papers, newspapers, websites, blogs, books and
electronic media, which related to AR and VR in the con-
struction sector. Relevant publications were identified by
searching the Web of Science, Google Scholar, Research-
Gate, Scopus and ASCE Library databases with the follow-
(1) Research topic: “construction safety management”,
“quality and defect management”, “time manage-
ment”, “cost management”, “planning and sched-
uling of project”, “worker training”, “visualization
and inspection”, “project progress tracking”, “pro-
gress assessment”, “construction communication”
and “information collection/sharing/exchange”,
“advanced construction management’, “AR in con-
struction” and “VR in construction”.
(2) Construction management: “construction”, “con-
struction management”, “BIM”, “CAD”, “VR”, “AR”,
“safety”, “quality”, “training”, “progress”, “QA/QC”
(3) Research direction and field: ‘science and technol-
ogy”, “engineering management”, “construction
management”, “civil engineering and construction”,
“automation in construction”, “building technol-
ogy”, “computer aided design in construction” and
“quality, risk and safety”.
The search words helped to identify 84 relevant papers in dis-
tributed sources. These are summarized in Figure 1 in terms
of the number of annual publications from 1997 to 2018.
3 AR in Construction
AR is used in various phases and departments of construc-
tion project. Many researchers believe that for bringing the
automation in construction, AR is the most and obvious
Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management 1841
technology to implement in the construction project. In
2018, it is undoubtable that AR has a great contribution
to change the culture of the construction industry to a
fully automated sector in near future. In this section of the
review, various using opportunities of AR technologies are
discussed through analysis of numerous research articles.
3.1 Scheduling and project progress tracking
AR has enhanced the scheduling aspect of the construc-
tion project significantly; it is able to show an as-planned
vs. an as-built form to allow visualization of progress.
From the study of Zaher et al. (2018), Figure 2 shows
the scheduling and progress tracking of the construc-
tion project by AR application. The white color portion
of the model is completed, and green portion is behind
the schedule of a residential construction project. Hence,
the green portion actually represents the delay of project.
Wang et al. (2014a) showed in their study that AR could be
used as a scheduling tool better than other existing tools
to understand and to make someone understand without
any ambiguities. Chantawit et al. (2005) also used AR
technologies effectively for the scheduling of project with
visualization feature in early twenty-first century. Zaher et
al. (2018) used the mobile AR technologies integrated with
Microsoft Project and Primavera for construction project
scheduling and schedule monitoring. Hui et al. (2017)
showed in their research that AR could be effectively used
for the safety task scheduling in a construction project.
These highlighted researches along with other researches
have changed the definition of scheduling in the construc-
tion sector in recent years.
Meža et al. (2015) stated in their study that for moni-
toring and tracking the construction project, AR on tablet
PC or mobile is the best option than other 3D models or
Gantt chart. They also pointed out that AR has been able
to represent that it is possible to visualize and estimate
the work this is performed on site in accordance with the
proposed schedule of the process. Wang et al. (Park et al.
2013) noted the use of AR for construction project progress
tracking as a way to compare the project progress to the
schedule. A visual comparison between the planned facil-
ities versus as-built facilities is easily displayed by the AR
technologies. Wang et al. (Park et al. 2013) also monitored
a step in addition and connected AR to material tracking
to make sure that the necessary materials are on site. Gol-
parvar et al. (2009), Omar and Nehdi (2016), Zhou et al.
(2008) and Turkan et al. (2012) also showed that in con-
struction progress tracking and scheduling, AR is going to
be one of the most used functions in advanced construc-
tion project management.
3.2 Communication and data acquisition
An important prerequisite to make successful construc-
tion project is underlying within the effective communi-
cation and information retrieval from the construction
site. Pejoska et al. (2016) noted in their study that access
Fig. 1: Number of reviewed publications by year.
1842 Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management
Fig. 2: Construction project scheduling and progress tracking by AR technology (Zaher et al. 2018).
Fig. 3: Construction field data and design information acquisition process using AR technologies.
to project information on-work site and effective com-
munication are significantly enhancing with the intro-
duction of different AR programs as compared to more
traditional information sources. Figure 3 shows how the
AR technologies are used for the field data collection and
distribution to the user in the construction industry. It also
represents the communication ways between project par-
ticipants and project information.
Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management 1843
AR systems allow fast and easy access to information
and helps project managers to decide on corrective actions
to minimize cost and delays due to performance incom-
patibilities (Bae et al. 2013). Yeh et al. (2012) stated that
to reduce the difficulties and complexity for on-site data
retrieval, many organizations are undertaking effort to
develop light-weight mobile devices. The study also noted
that organizations are working to develop devices that
could exchange detail drawings and related information
based on the location of the user. The added visualization
benefits of AR technologies allow for better communica-
tion between parties when commenting and making sug-
gestions for a particular project. The introduced visuali-
zation features and benefits of AR technologies allow for
better communication between different parties involved
in the construction project when commenting and making
suggestions and decisions for a specific project (Behzadi
2016). Various researchers (Klopfer et al. 2002, Golpar-
var-Fard et al. 2009, Omar and Nehdi 2016, Reddy et al.
2010, Van Krevelen and Poelman 2010, Woodward et al.
2010) indicated in their study that AR is one of the most
effective ways of collecting information from the construc-
tion site and could be a way of effective communication
between different stakeholders of the project.
3.3 Quality and defect management
Quality management and defect control are important
parts of construction management. There are many com-
pleted projects accepted by the client that are defected
or failed to meet the desired quality and after arise dis-
putes. To bring the automation in the quality and defect
management system, AR plays a significant role in global
construction. Various researches show the usability of AR
in QA/QC in significant ways. As in Figure 4, Kwon et al.
(Kwon et al. 2014) showed the process of marker-based
AR technology for defects and quality management. Their
study developed an effective tool for defect identification
and correction. The whole construction period and main-
tenance period both could be facilitated by the AR tech-
nologies in the QA/QC sector.
AR technologies facilitate construction management
to deal with defects that are probably unnoticed in the
inspection process and save time to do so. Park et al (2013)
noted that if managers realize the core control time points
and measures for works to be checked proactively through
the defect element ontology, then the worker’s perfor-
mance can be automatically checked at the appropriate
time with BIM- and AR-applied inspection equipment
without visiting the workplace. A marker-based AR tech-
nology is used for the quality improvement and defects
management of construction project, and the output is
very satisfactory (Kwon et al. 2014). The study (Kwon et
al. 2014) concluded as the AR technologies enhance the
current manual-based defect management to reduce site
managers’ workloads and prevent construction work
defects proactively by utilizing BIM and AR technologies.
AR was regarded as a way to carry exceptional additional
value and experience of concreteness, particularly in
close-to-target locations in which the shapes and volume
of the planned buildings could be visualized (Olsson
Fig. 4: Process of defect management by AR (Kwon et al. 2014).
1844 Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management
et al. 2012). An effective defectless facilities manage-
ment system is developed for the construction project in
a modern automated way that facilitates users at a more
satisfactory level than any time before (Koch et al. 2014).
AR is also mentioned as a fruitful quality and defects man-
agement technology for on-site construction project (Kim
et al. 2013). To eliminate any defects in piping assembly in
the construction project, an AR technology-based manage-
ment system is developed and the system concluded with
expected outcomes and showed hope for the future (Hou
et al. 2013). Some others’ studies (Bulearca and Tamarjan
2010; Lee et al. 2012; Rankohi and Waugh 2013; Williams
et al. 2014) also show how the AR technologies are used
in construction quality and defects management system.
3.4 Time and cost management
Time and cost are undoubtedly the major issues of con-
struction process. All the management of construction
project is to reduce the time of completion and save the
expenses of the construction. Time and cost management
of construction exists in the construction process from the
beginning of construction history but is not significantly
effective at any time. To increase the effectiveness of con-
struction management, technological changing take place
in different form with the changing in time. For the con-
tinuation of this changing, AR-based applications in con-
struction management for monitoring and controlling the
time and cost issues are appeared significantly.
Wong et al. (2014) stated that both time- and cost-
saving opportunities are available to the project managers
by using AR technologies, which precise projects at the
same time as lowering labor work/time and cost efficiencies
because of defects and construction rework. About 9–13%
time and 14–19% money are wasted because plans or draw-
ings are misinterpreted or the information is transferred
imprecisely from the plan to the real object (Kumaran
et al. 2007). The AR technologies unravel issues includ-
ing lack of manpower inside the management and cost-
efficiencies in the construction project (Behzadi 2016).
Park et al. (2013) and Kwon et al. (2014) showed in their
study that for the defects and quality management, there
is no more physical labor necessary to conducting defects
management process. Physical inspection and reporting
are very time consuming in the construction sector (Fan
et al. 2015). So the manpower is reduced along with their
associated cost and time of conducting these management
processes. For the construction site’s data acquisition, AR
technologies are used effectively with saving time, reduc-
ing labor hours and decreasing data acquisition cost in
most significant ways (Golparvar-Fard et al. 2009). The
AR technologies reduce the defects and rework of the
construction project; this means, they save time and cost
of the construction project by using AR mobile comput-
ing technologies (Kim et al. 2013). There are some other
studies (Azhar et al. 2015; Tang et al. 2003; Van Krevelen
and Poelman 2010; Wang et al. 2014b) that have explored
the opportunity of saving cost and reducing time of the
construction industry by using AR technologies.
3.5 Employee training and safety
Safety management system is a very concerning issue in
modern days in the construction industry. Thousands of
people die every year in the world in construction acci-
dents. The training of employees is another most impor-
tant thing for every construction project. These issues are
not easy at all to perform at the desired or standard level.
However, AR technologies assist both issues to give the
employees an effective training and implement the safety
management system as the specification. Figures 5 and 6
show the AR-based safety management tools. Figure 5 is
from HSE International (2017) who invented a wearable
augmented glass for construction safety. In Figure 6, “Pro-
Vis AR”, a safety management AR-based learning mobile
app, is used to train about crane safety.
Chi et al. (2013) showed in their study that AR technol-
ogies could be effectively used for the training of operators
of heavy equipment in the construction projects. Wang
and Dunston (2007) also revealed that AR technologies
are significantly used for training construction workers to
operate heavy and medium construction crane, excavator
and assembling equipment. AR technologies assist the
workers and stakeholders to understand various complex
designs and arrangements in an easy and effective way
and educate the project-involved persons about various
project issues (Lee 2012). Izkara et al. (2007) developed a
conceptual diagram of AR system for the safety at work
site in the construction industry. For safety concerns, con-
struction workers need to have and maintain a completely
clear understanding of the real objects and safety hazards
around them and the AR technologies assist the workers
effectively to clear understanding (Stricker et al. 2001).
Wang et al. (2013) developed a conceptual framework for
integrating building information modeling with AR for the
safety management system in the construction industry.
So AR technologies are the new approach for the modern
construction management, particularly in the training
and safety management system.
Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management 1845
4 VR in Construction
Human beings are immersed in a new dimension with
the feeling of the real world by the VR technologies. The
noticeable fact about VR technologies is that they furnish
the opportunity to get thrown into a new dimension with
a new depth of digitally constructed reality that resem-
bles real life. In the construction industry, dealing with
the reality of workers and consultants, construction pro-
jects often failed for arising problems directly related with
incapability, unreachability and inexperience of field
personnel and consultants. In this case, VR technologies
allow them to truly experience a project before it is built.
VR technologies are now used in an integrated department
of the construction industry. It is used as an essential tool
for worker training, safety management system, progress
tracking, labor management, defects management and
so on. In this section of the review, comprehensive use of
opportunities and benefits of these technologies is dis-
cussed through various research work analyses.
Fig. 5: AR-based wearable glass for construction safety (HSE International 2017).
Fig. 6: AR-based construction crane safety application (Pro-Vis AR mobile app).
1846 Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management
4.1 Worker training
Before starting any project, there is no other concern in
construction projects as important as workers’ training
is. The construction quality and safety of workers mostly
depend on the proper training of the workers (Demirkesen
and Arditi 2015; Rumane 2016). A construction project
can gain more profit with excellent success if the workers
of this project are highly trained in an effective manner
(Kerzner and Kerzner 2017). The traditional construction
training program is not significantly effective because
workers do not understand the work and procedures and
also do not know about the associated risks and hazards.
Figure 7 (Knutt 2017) shows that a worker gets training for
operating heavy construction excavator by VR technol-
ogies. This app is developed by a software company 3D
Repo. This VR safety training system has been adopted by
Cape, a contractor and supplier to the offshore and energy
VR technologies are used for the worker training
for the safety issue in the construction project (Le et al.
2015b; Park et al. 2015). For operating the crane, excava-
tor and other construction equipment, VR-based training
program is an effective and proven technology (Fang etal.
2014; Hilfert et al. 2016) in recent years. Peters et al. (2016)
revealed that by providing VR-based training, it is possi-
ble to enhance the working ability of workers in particular
construction work. Le et al. (2015a) developed a platform
for training the workers who are assigned to steel erection
activities in construction, and its outcome is significantly
good. Zhao and Lucas (2015) proposed a framework for a
VR training tool for design and installation of electrical
systems in the construction project. Alcinia et al. (Sampaio
and Martins 2014) developed some models that are used in
an e-learning platform and assist professional training for
construction field personnel and involved parties. Many
researchers believe that VR technologies are undoubtedly
effective training tools for the global construction indus-
try in the modern age.
4.2 Construction safety management
Construction industry is considered as one of the most haz-
ardous industries for it unique nature of risk and uncer-
tainty. Safety needs to be the top priority to each person
Fig. 7: Construction excavator operating training by VR technology (Knutt 2017)
Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management 1847
associated with our field of work in the construction
project. Every year thousands of people die due to con-
struction accidents (Rozenfeld et al. 2010). For the reduc-
tion in the accident rate in the construction site, VR tech-
nologies open wide windows for training, monitoring and
controlling safety management of construction compa-
nies. The construction industry is a complex environment
where excessive accident rates make widespread contribu-
tions to cost overruns and schedule delays. VR technolo-
gies could be playing an important role to provide safety
training, education, warning, information and a learning
platform for safety management in the construction indus-
try. Figure 8 represents the opportunity of worker training
on health safety issues through the VR technology. This
app is created by 3M Science (Science 2017) for Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE) training of worker.
Safety education is essential in promoting a safe
and healthy working environment in construction. For
this, Le at al. (2015b) developed a VR-based construction
safety education system for experiential learning. Zhao
and Lucas (2015) described a framework for construction
safety management and worker training for safety perfor-
mance by the help of VR tools. Bhoir and Esmaeili (2015)
used the VR technologies in the construction safety man-
agement program, and they significantly reduced the rate
of accident in a result. Sacks et al. (2015) showed that VR
technologies are highly beneficial for designers to appre-
ciate the implications of designs on the safety program.
These applications of VR could run numerous drills or
unique scenarios that will provide the user with a real-
life feeling of a potential threat. Numerous authors also
have a notion that tracking progress is not systematically
monitored properly, making work sites at risk of potential
dangers (Golparvar-Fard et al. 2015). A distinctive method
for the use of augmented and virtual realities is how they
could improve safety by acquiring better training and
education. A research illustrates, as an instance, how the
use of AR proves the excellent training within the short-
est time while also preserving the longest knowledge and
skill acquired through the simulator (Sekizuka et al. 2017).
There are some other researches (Chittaro et al. 2018; Guo
et al. 2017; Hilfert and König 2016; Li 2018; Li et al. 2018;
Sidani et al. 2018) who showed that various VR models,
platforms and applications could be used effectively on
construction safety issues.
4.3 Defect and quality management
Before the VR technologies in construction, the defect
management system was a costly and time-consuming
issue. Sometimes, the defect is overlooked and report is
missed or damaged. However, with the help of VR technol-
ogies, defect management becomes very easy and effec-
tive. Here, there are no chances of overlooking and report-
ing damages. No physical labor needs to proceed with
this operation. So labor, cost and time are saved by this
method of the defect and quality management. Shen et al.
(2010) showed how the VR technologies are used in the
construction defect management in an effective manner
than before. Dong et al. (2006) developed an application
for construction defect reporting using VR-based mobile
and digital workbench technologies from work site to
head office without any time and workforce loss. Gordon
et al. (2003) illustrated an automatic quality and defect
management model using VR and used it in construction
project positively. Wong et al. (2014) used VR technologies
to develop a framework for proactive construction defect
management with BIM technologies.
Some decades ago, developing a construction project
model virtually before staring the actual project was a
nightmare. But today, by using VR technologies, a virtual
project model is possible to build that give the feeling of
real-world affection before the project started physically.
Visualization of project model contains various parametric
information that is not possible before or 2D CAD model. It
works as a one-stop information booth and solution for all
departments of the whole construction team. VR technol-
ogies allow a person to visit the whole project at its entire
inside and outside peripheries with the new dimension of
real-world feeling. VR is used in the planning phase for
making effective decision with the demand of time. It also
assists the consultant and contractor to design a project
Fig. 8: Worker training on PPE by VR technology (Science 2017).
1848 Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management
with available constructability. After the construction
period, VR technologies reduce the effort and cost associ-
ated with maintenance and facilities management. Figure
9 shows a construction project model before the work is
started. The image is collected from a developed VR-based
visualization model of a study (Hilfert and König 2016).
A huge number of studies have been conducted on
construction visualization using VR technologies over
mostly the last three decades. Park and Kim (2013) used
an application of VR-based technologies to visualize the
hazards and risk of construction process. With the recent
rapid advancement of visualization technologies, recog-
nized research work for improving construction safety
management practices has been conducted for identify-
ing safety risks and worker on-site training by VR (Park
and Kim 2013). Field construction can be planned, mon-
itored and controlled more effectively by the detailed
visualization using VR technologies (Kamat et al. 2010).
Bouchlaghem et al. (2005) showed the advantages of
construction project visualization using VR. Applica-
tions of VR provided an interactive, spatial, real-time
medium for visualization of the project model that pro-
motes safety, quality and defectless construction project
(Whyte 2003b). There are some other studies (Cheng and
Teizer 2013; Huang et al. 2007; Jayaram et al. 1997; Kopp
et al. 2003; Shen et al. 2010; Woodward et al. 2010) that
described the benefits of VR technologies for visualization
of construction project at the planning, design, construc-
tion and maintenance period.
It is clear from the recent researches that AR and VR tech-
nologies are the future of automotive construction man-
agement. Now, most of the construction management tools
are integrating with AR or VR for increasing the output
rate. Huge use of opportunities of AR and VR in the con-
struction management is pointed out earlier. AR is used
in project scheduling and project progress tracking in the
modern construction process. However, the effectiveness
of progress tracking is very significant than scheduling for
both AR and VR technologies. For the effective and less
time-consuming communication between different project
participants, AR and VR are proven technologies. AR and
VR provide a great platform for the project participants
to share and exchange valuable information without any
physical medium and within a second. AR and VR are also
used for quality and defects management in the construc-
tion project. For the management of QA/QC, AR is greatly
appreciated by the researchers than VR, but both play very
important and effective role individually. The effective-
ness of AR and VR technologies in quality management
Fig. 9: Project model visualization before the actual work start (Hilfert and König 2016).
Shakil, AR and VR in construction project management 1849
is recommendable for every construction project. AR and
VR technologies are hugely used in construction safety
management and worker training for years. Many related
researches proved that in training and safety manage-
ment, AR and VR are the most effective and efficient tools
in recent years. Project parametric model visualization
and walk through into the project before the starting of the
actual project with the feeling of the real world is another
great characteristic of AR and VR technologies. For the
visualization purpose, VR has a great contribution to the
construction project from planning phase to maintenance
phase. VR and AR are already used in many construction
companies effectively, and many are preparing to adopt
these technologies to visualization, training, safety and
progress tracking of projects. Even though AR and VR
technologies seem to be a vital tool in the construction
industry, there are multiple drawbacks of these technol-
ogies too. There are some limitations and drawbacks that
appeared to implement the AR and VR technologies in the
construction industry. The high cost of AR and VR tech-
nologies, lack of AR and VR experts and technicians, una-
vailability of these technologies and maintenance are the
major limitations for any construction company to adopt
AR- and VR-based construction management system.
Many researchers believe that all the drawbacks and lim-
itations will be quickly broken by the upcoming genera-
tions. Assuming that AR and VR technologies will improve
with safety, quality, visualization, workforce management
and time management, it is far nearly sure that such tech-
nologies will play more important roles in construction for
future years. Readers and respective authorities could use
the AR and VR technologies to their construction projects
to get maximum benefits of modern construction man-
agement and also work with constraints or limitations to
overcome achieving ultimate profit by using AR and VR
technologies in construction projects.
Construction industry is one of the largest industries in the
world. Tremendous changes are going on from the begin-
ning of the history of construction industry. Among the so
many changes, the AR and VR technologies are bringing
out an unimaginable modification and advancement in
various construction management issues. The principal
purpose of this study is to explore the using opportunities
of AR and VR technologies in construction management
and also explore the contribution to overcome various
construction management issues from last three decades.
It is revealed in the study that these incredible improve-
ments in AR and VR technologies are having a great
impact on the construction industry in a couple of ways.
In this review, various uses of VR and AR technologies are
shown. This study discusses opportunities and associated
benefits of using AR and VR technologies in construction
management issues. It could be helpful to the potential
readers to know the potential fields of using AR and VR in
construction management aspects and learn how projects
have been benefited by these technologies.
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