ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Twenty years ago, Google became the first web search engine to help people find things on the Internet. Today, people use Google to help organize the infinite data found on the Internet and to find things such as logo designs, business copywriting, promotional videos, or even information on astrology. With the technological advancements of the past decade, these services are found not only at the local marketplace but also in the global marketplace — a workplace of freelancing challenges in a gig economy. The term “gig economy” is clarified in a detailed analysis of one largest freelance websites, Fiverr.com. This case study starts with valuable reviews from a variety of authors about this new economy. Fiverr is the target for analysis regarding growth of the gig economy, and with that growth, there are also opportunities for Fiverr’s competitors. This study includes a PESTLE analysis, Competitive analysis, as well as SWOT analysis of Fiverr and its competition. The results are significant, because the conclusions can better assist scholars and practitioners about how to better utilize freelance services from firms such as Fiverr, found in the gig economy.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Green et al.
Gig Economy and the Future of Work:
A Fiverr.com Case Study
HATASO, USA
E-ISSN: 2469-4339
Management and Economics Research Journal, Vol. 4, Iss./Yr. 2018, 281–288
Case Study
Management and Economics Research Journal 281
Vol. 4, Iss./Yr. 2018, 281–288 https://doi.org/10.18639/MERJ.2018.04.734348
Gig Economy and the Future of Work: A Fiverr.com Case Study
Daryl D. Green1*, Jack McCann2, Thao Vu1, Nancy Lopez1, Samuel Ouattara1
1Paul Dickinson College of Business, Oklahoma Baptist University, 500 W.
University Drive, Shawnee, OK 74804, USA.
2Union College, 310 College Street, Barbourville, KY 40906, USA.
*Correspondence: daryl.green@okbu.edu
Received: Aug 2, 2018; Accepted: Nov 6, 2018
Citation: Green DD, McCann J, Vu T, Lopez N, Ouattara S. 2018. Gig economy and the future of work: a Fiverr.com case study. Manage-
ment and Economics Research Journal 4: 281-288.
Abstract
Twenty years ago, Google became the first web search engine to help people find things on the Internet. Today, people
use Google to help organize the infinite data found on the Internet and to find things such as logo designs, business
copywriting, promotional videos, or even information on astrology. With the technological advancements of the past
decade, these services are found not only at the local marketplace but also in the global marketplace — a workplace
of freelancing challenges in a gig economy. The term “gig economy” is clarified in a detailed analysis of one larg-
est freelance websites, Fiverr.com. This case study starts with valuable reviews from a variety of authors about this
new economy. Fiverr is the target for analysis regarding growth of the gig economy, and with that growth, there are
also opportunities for Fiverr’s competitors. This study includes a PESTLE analysis, Competitive analysis, as well as
SWOT analysis of Fiverr and its competition. The results are significant, because the conclusions can better assist
scholars and practitioners about how to better utilize freelance services from firms such as Fiverr, found in the gig
economy.
Keywords: Fiverr.com; Gig economy; Business case study; Freelancer; Global marketplace.
1. INTRODUCTION
Fiverr.com is a digital platform that offers freelance services posted by lean entrepreneurs. A service offered
by Fiverr is dened as a gig. The website Fiverr.com offers an enticing proposition to users — buy (or sell)
service for $5 a gig — operating on the notion that the seller has a talent that someone else needs. Fiverr is
a global marketplace where these suppliers and freelancers can make a deal. Fiverr.com enables freelancers
from anywhere in the world to connect. It enables workers to make money easily or nd a service in need
from home. Micha Kaufman (2015), co-founder and CEO of Fiverr, stated as follows: “The platforms then
become the home of an individual’s personal brand and professional identity — a place to feature the most
experienced, professional, and creative talent.
Fiverr.com users offer services such as graphics and design, digital marketing, writing and transla-
tion, video and animation, music and audio, programming and tech, business, and fun and style. These
categories bring global clients and freelancers together, decrease unemployment rate, and improve their
lives. Being a market leader in the freelance industry, Fiverr become a major player in transforming this
new freelance enterprise across the globe. This case study will show the gig economic situation through the
marketing analysis of Fiverr.
1.1. Review of Literature
Who qualies to enter the gig economy? Workers with specialized skills, deep expertise, or in-demand
experience are the ones who win in this economy (Mulcahy, 2016). According to a study from the Metro-
politan Policy Program at the Brookings Institution, CNBC reported that over the past 20 years, the num-
ber of gig economy workers — those who operate as independent contractors, often through apps — has
282 Case Study
E-ISSN: 2469-4339 merj.scholasticahq.com
increased by about 27 percent more than payroll employees” (Wells, 2016). With the blooming of gigs
in recent years and the growth of global freelance website such as Fiverr, this new economy must face
essential issues of the U.S. labor market. In a book of Sarah Kessler (2018) — Gigged: The End of the Job
and the Future of Work, to be published on June 12, 2018 — there is a concern for freelancers who are
working without the guarantee of steady hours or benets. In addition, Mulcahy (2017) showed the gig
economy’s bad sides: “The Gig Economy is an economy of work, but our labor policies only offer benets
and protections to employees who work in traditional jobs” (p. 11). As Kotler and Keller (2012) stated, “If
technology advances or competition increases in these substitute industries, prices and prots are likely
to fall” (p. 232). Therefore, Marx (2016) stated his opinion: A world characterized by the gig economy does
not sound like a better world, but a far worse one, where distributed exploitation of workers is taken to a
new extreme, and we all have to suffer the consequences.” In a case study analysis of Fiverr, Stefano (2015)
found the following:
The terms “work” or “workers” are very scarcely used in this context, and the very same catch-
phrase “gig-economy” epitomizes this, as the term is often used to indicate a sort of parallel
dimension in which labor protection and employment regulation are summed not to apply by
default. As already said, the practical consequences of concealing the “work” nature of these
activities and their human components are also potentially detrimental. (p. 8)
Thus, the advantages of freelance market platforms such as Fiverr.com offer signicant benets to talented
people worldwide. However, the growth of this gig economy should be monitored, managed, and controlled
systematically.
According to Goldstein (2018), the gig economy is smaller than it used to be, according to a new Labor
Department report released that chronicles the jobs market in the age of Uber. In May 2017, the Labor Depart-
ment counted 5.9 M million people, or 3.8% of workers, in contingent jobs, which are those that the workers
do not expect to last or that workers call temporary. This number is down from a high of 4.1% in 2005, the
last time the government reviewed the gig economy. According to Lobel (2016), “The Gig Economy is on the
rise, but it is neither the end of work-relations-as-we-know-them nor is it problem free” (p. 12).
2. METHOD(S)
This case study uses PESTLE analysis and Competitive analysis to identify all the various macroenviron-
ment factors as well as competitors’ SWOT analysis, which affects Fiverr in the gig economy scenario. In
this research, individuals analyze the real-world business with professional marketing tools. “These theor-
etical ‘tools’ can provide you with an ‘organizing principle’ which shapes the way that you write the case
study,” stated Courtney and Du (2015, p. 164). Thus, MBA students can visualize concepts from their studies
and apply critical thinking to draw a big picture of the current gig economy. There are opportunities for MBA
students to conduct research and understand the complexities of the current economic situation as it relates
to the gig economy. They can provide an independent opinion on the problem and present alternatives or
possible solutions (Kachru, 2005, p. 86). Therefore, the following sections present the factors that Fiverr
must meet, including the pros and cons of its performance.
2.1. Organization Background
Fiverr was founded by Israeli entrepreneurs Shai Wininger and Micha Kaufman on February 1, 2010. One
month later, there were 5000 gigs on the website, and it had grown by an impressive 600% in transaction
volume at the beginning of 2011 (Pilon, 2010). As a result Fiverr was ranked among the top 100 most popular
sites in the United States and top 200 in the world since the beginning of 2013 (Wauters, 2012). In November
2015, Fiverr raised $60 M in a Series D round of funding, led by Square Peg Capital, and that brings the total
funding to date to $110 M (Kolodny, 2015). Fiverr is offering jobs for temporary work positions, and freelanc-
ers can work from a variety of workplaces, ranging from ofce to at home, from anywhere in the world.
However, recently, there are criticisms for Fiverr about unhealthy living and excesses in work behaviors
(Pershan, 2017). It is a hot issue for Fiverr, and for the gig economy in general.
Vol. 4, Iss./Yr. 2018, 281–288 https://doi.org/10.18639/MERJ.2018.04.734348
Management and Economics Research Journal 283
3. RESULTS
To master the management system, PESTLE must be utilized to bring a detailed analysis for a real-world
business. The PESTLE analysis shows several environment factors inuencing how Fiverr.com operates in
the gig economy (see Table 1).
Political: Workers in the gig economy lack the benets enjoyed by employed workers. For example,
they may not have access to health insurance, retirement plans, sick leave, or paid time off (Hogan, 2017).
Currently, there is a proposal for a tax bill that may help increase protability of self-employed workers.
The proposal includes a reduction in corporate tax from 35 to 20%. This would result in increased prof-
itability for Individuals operating as a limited liability corporation (LLC) or sole proprietorship (S-Corp)
(Tankersley, Kaplan, & Rappeport, 2017). If the net neutrality bill is repealed, experts theorize that it will
result in unregulated up-charges for Internet access of adequate speed. The resulting impact could cause
reduction in access to Internet due to price increases and could impact the number of users both providing
and using the service. “Roger L. Kay, an independent technology analyst, predicted that larger bills — not
content blocking — would be the most likely result. If the big internet and media companies will have to
pay their carriers more for high-speed services, the expenses will trickle-down to households” (Lohr, 2017).
Sara Horowitz, founder of the Freelancer’s Union, believes there are no protections for freelance workers
in America. Sara is pushing for a bill in New York City to improve worker protections. “For people who are
feeling forced into this it can be difcult for them” (Gillespie, 2017).
Table 1. PESTLE Analysis.
P
Political
E
Economic
S
Social
T
Technological
L
Legal
E
Environmental
The current Tax
Bill decreases the
amount of tax paid
to the government
from 35 to 20%
by corporations.
This could result
in an increase in
profitability.
National
unemployment
levels increased
the number of
service providers
using the app.
Social media
usage has
influenced and
encouraged the
concept of the
sharing economy
and peer-to-peer
purchasing.
Innovations
in technology
could have
an impact on
the operations
of Fiverr. For
example,
advances in
online payments
may increase
access to users.
Gig economy
workers face
the question of
classification
as workers or
independent
contractors.
Should “gig
economy
workers” have
benefits?
Although Fiverr
deals with
online users,
environmental
impacts such as
flood, fire, and
hurricane could
prevent a wide
swath of users
from accessing the
platform.
If the Net Neutrality
bill is reversed, it
may reduce the
number of available
users through
reduction of access
to adequate Internet
service.
Alternative
income sources
for sharing
economy
workers
would reduce
the number
of service
providers.
Users enjoy
value, quality,
and variety
without having
to incur the cost
of long-term
investment.
Fiverr has
become a
freelance
marketplace
expanding
beyond the
original concept.
Liability shifts
from Fiverr to
the gig worker if
a service is not
completed.
Digitization of
media such
as books and
periodicals review
a reduction in
manufacturing
No access to
employer benefits
such as health and
life insurance.
Projected dip
in inflation can
put pressure
on pricing of
services.
Platforms such
as Fiverr may
reduce the
number of IT
professionals
employed
full- time.
Collaborative
consumption
did not exist on
the scale it does
today due to the
Internet.
Fewer people
driving to a job as
well as reduction
in delivery of real
goods could result
in the reduction of
vehicle emissions.
284 Case Study
E-ISSN: 2469-4339 merj.scholasticahq.com
Economic: The gig economy may be larger than anyone imagined. According to Intuit (INTU) CEO
Brad Smith, “The gig economy...is now estimated to be about 34% of the workforce and expected to be 43%
by the year 2020” (Gillespie, CNN Money, 2017). Surveys by Upwork, Freelancer’s union, and EIWA agree
that 35–36% of the labor force also engages in freelance work (Brainard, 2016). Unfortunately, 30% of these
workers would prefer a full-time job (Gillespie, CNN Money, 2017). There is speculation that gig workers are
forced into working freelance due to lack of good paying jobs elsewhere. According to the global consult-
ing rm McKinsey, “signs are growing along with the independent workforce. Nearly 20M gig workers do
the work because they can’t nd better pay or jobs elsewhere” (Gillespie, CNN Money, 2017). Should these
workers nd full-time jobs of adequate pay, it would cause a reduction in gig workers. A dip in the ina-
tion rate in 2018 could put pressure on pricing because the supply of goods and services is higher than the
demand (Statista, 2017).
Social: Typically, workers in lower paying jobs are supported by social norms regarding pay equity and
benets. This helps to equalize opportunity and access for all workers, no matter their level. Unfortunately,
independent workers do not have access to these same traditional values, harming access to benets and
fair wages (Brainard, 2016). Social media usage has inuenced and encouraged the concept of the sharing
economy and peer-to-peer purchasing. Social media users have become accustomed to sharing ratings and
reviews on everything from local businesses to brands. A fundamental key in the sharing economy market-
place is ratings and reviews (Torben, 2013). Gig workers depend on positive reviews to drive more people
to use their services. One of the benets to the sharing economy is that it enables users to take advantage
of value, quality, and variety without having to incur the cost of long-term investment in hiring an employee
or purchasing a piece of software to acquire the service needed. Platforms such as Fiverr may reduce the
number of IT professionals employed full time. Companies are opting to use a consultant versus paying
someone for full-time employment with benets. According to Vize (n.d.), “High-end Tech specialists may
come with higher bill rates, but these bill rates are lower than those of full-time workers once fringe benets,
overhead costs, and other hidden costs of full-time workers are taken into account.
Technological: The Fiverr platform is designed to bring freelancers and clients together. Specically,
it is a marketplace where digital technology service providers working in the gig economy create a pro-
fessional brand identity and conduct business (Kaufman, 2015). Fiverr owes its success to the fact that a
demand existed for small–medium businesses needing access to professional quality services at a lower
rate. According to Alexa.com, Fiverr has a global trafc rank of 412 and 39.76 M daily unique visitors per day.
Fiverr processed more than 25 M transactions on the platform as of since 2010 and has over a million service
providers. Sellers on the platform created 4.2 M gigs in the past 5 years (verr.com, 2015). Collaborative
consumption did not exist on the scale it does today due to the Internet. Ten years ago, it was unimaginable
to think that you could acquire goods and services from someone online. Now, there are platforms such as
Etsy, Fiverr, and others enabling just that. The concept of collaborative consumption has grown leaps and
bounds. “In 2014, PricewaterhouseCoopers found that the global sharing economy has produced $15 billion
in total revenue and could produce up to $335 billion by 2025” (Duverge, 2016).
Legal: Gig economy workers face the question of classication as workers or independent contract-
ors. In fact, the topic of worker classication has been a point of contention for those in the gig economy.
There are questions as to whether they are employees or independent contractors. There is controversy
over whether they desire this status or if it is abused. There is a mandate to push for more portable benets
so nontraditional workers can have comparable benets to traditional employees. Freedom to organize and
collectively bargain (Oyer, 2017). Liability shifts from Fiverr to the gig worker if a service is not completed.
Given the legal ramications, gig workers are increasingly taking more risks including their own personal
health and nances with work operations outside of their controls (Lobel, 2016).
Environmental: Although Fiverr deals with online users, environmental impacts such as ood, re,
and hurricane could prevent a wide swath of users from accessing the platform. Oracle reports that storm
impacted areas “experienced signicant availability issues due to the high winds, excessive rain, and other
havoc wreaked by these recent hurricanes. This was especially the case among some of the hardest hit
Caribbean islands, although networks in Florida and Texas were impacted as well” (Belson, 2017). Digitiza-
tion of media such as books and periodicals contribute to a reduction in manufacturing. A benet to this
is that more people have access (fewer barriers to acquisition) and can consume more information. Even
more signicantly, digitization changes the locations where costs are incurred so that they are no longer
Vol. 4, Iss./Yr. 2018, 281–288 https://doi.org/10.18639/MERJ.2018.04.734348
Management and Economics Research Journal 285
associated with the distribution platform and are invested primarily in content production itself (Yaseen,
2014).
To run a business and avoid bad decision making, companies need to analyze their environment. This
analysis implied using marketing analysis tools such as SWOT to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of
the company. It also helps to identify possible threats and opportunities the business might encounter due
to external factors such as direct competitors. Considering to perform this rst step will help companies to
elaborate a good marketing strategy, which they will look to run their business.
Operating in the gig economy, Fiverr.com provides an environment in which temporary positions are
common and organizations contract with independent workers for short-term engagements. A comparison
of Fiverr to two other competitors, Freelancer and Upwork, reveals both similarities and differences (see
Tables 2 and 3).
Fiverr is the ultimate microjobs platform on the Internet. It is a place where millions of buyers and
sellers meet and exchange services, products, goods, and whatever else you could imagine for $5. Because
Table 2. Competitive Analysis.
Critical elements Fiverr Freelancer (competitor) Upwork (competitor)
Product selling Freelance platform Freelance platform Freelance platform
Value to customers Customers have many ways
to fulfill their needs
Customers have options to
select specific needs
Customers get
professional services
Positioning market Top Middle To p
Marketing mix
Product
Price
Place
Promotion
Variety of services
$5 start
Online
Ads and freelancer
Variety of services
$3
Online
Ads and employee
Variety of services
$500
Online
Ads and designer
Overall impressions
in a market
The company is considered
as a leader in the freelance
due to its low-cost strategy,
and offers a large choice of
services
The company is considered
as one of the industry leaders
but not the best in budget
management. Otherwise, they
remain a strong competitor
The company is also
considered as a leader in
the freelance field due to
its professionalism.
Table 3. SWOT Analysis.
Fiverr.com Freelancer (competitor) Upwork.com (competitor)
Strengths
Accessible (online), affordable,
networking, service variety,
simple to use, convenient for
buyers
Online, many services,
freelancer can leave reviews of
those who hire them
Online, services closely
related to your skills
Weaknesses
Competitive market, hard for new
business, commission charge,
scams, entry of competition
Technological problem on the
website, freelancer support
not helpful
Only 10% of freelancers
on the site are really
experts
Opportunities
People can start their own
business, creativity, easy
promotion, entrepreneur
People can start their own
business, creativity, easy
promotion, entrepreneur
People can start their own
business, creativity, easy
promotion, entrepreneur
Threats New competitors offering a better
same service, Amazon, eBay
New competitors offering a
better same service
New competitors offering
a better same service
286 Case Study
E-ISSN: 2469-4339 merj.scholasticahq.com
of this low-cost strategy, Fiverr.com allows entrepreneurs to access a space where they can afford services
such as logo design, writing and translation, video animation, and infographics. As strengths, Fiverr has an
experimented business unit that allows them to reduced labor costs. The gig economy where Fiverr evolves
is a market with low barriers. This particularity is a strength for high protability and revenue. As a weak-
ness, Fiverr does charge a commission to sellers who seek a service. A 20% commission is charged on every
order. Generally, people use those platforms to earn money. However, by taking huge commission, Fiverr
leaves a negative impact on the purse of the sellers.
Freelancer.com is one of the world’s largest outsourcing marketplaces. In business since 2004, the
company claims to be the world’s largest outsourcing marketplace, with 4.5 M projects posted and nearly
8 M veried users. Freelancer.com focuses on many different elds, including web and software develop-
ment, design, writing, marketing, data entry, and according to the company, “anything else you could think
of, all for the fraction of the cost.” However, even if Freelancer offers the highest numbers of online jobs
on the market, there are some noticeable weaknesses in Freelancer.com. One of this weakness is how the
website struggle with its interface. Indeed, users have complained of lengthy payment delays. In addition,
their customer service faces a bad reputation for being slow to offer assistance. Nevertheless, Freelance.
com remains a robust freelancer search. Job posting in Freelancer.com is free.
Upwork.com was ofcially established in 2015 after the merge of Elance and oDesk in December 2013.
Today, Upwork is considered as one of the most popular freelance platforms that connects a database of
millions of freelance professionals with jobs from around the world. This global platform represents a sig-
nicant opportunity for independent contractors who are looking for a job, and for companies or individuals
who are looking for talented freelancers. As a strength, Upwork offers $0 fees when you are signing up.
With a smooth website to navigate in, Upwork offers to its members the freedom to work when they want,
and from where they want. One particularity of this website is prociency. In contrast, the business’ major
weakness is 10% of the seller’s total earnings per job that they take and the endless time it takes to set up
your prole (Carboni, 2016). Overall, Upwork is an excellent value for most buyers.
4. STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS
Flexible jobs mean different things to different people, but they can include the following: working remotely
from home, working nonstandard hours, job sharing, contract and freelance work, part-time and temporary
jobs, self-employment, and the newly prominent gig jobs (Smykal, 2016). The technological era has caused
a major shift in all aspects of life, including the way we work. As such, online consumer-driven services, free
communication channels, and globalized networks have created a more prominent space than ever before
for outsourcing, contracting, tempting, and freelancing. According to Laudon and Laudon (2017), the case of
study analysis in this process involved selecting the best course of action and providing a detailed explanation
of the recommended solutions. This research produced several strategic implications in this academic article.
4.1. The Stakes for Fiverr in This New Environment
The current market environment presents signicant business opportunities for the organization. Similar to
Fivver.com, many competitors are available in the marketplace, and they are offering better prices or bet-
ter services. The SWOT Analysis of Fiverr provides a deep understanding of the competitors. As a company
offering services, one of the big challenge is to attract clients. Without price regulation in this eld, the door
is open for any competitors to lower its prices to grab new customers. Our on-demand culture is chang-
ing how people want to earn a living (Dunning, 2017). The freedom of being able to make our own choices
on how, where, and for whom we want to work is a huge benet for the gig worker. Although the change
in technology impacts the industry, Fiverr should take advantage of all opportunities such as creating new
products and services, and new technologies at a reasonable cost.
5. CONCLUSION
Given the erce competition from all industry, businesses are looking for advantages. If senior managers
understand the value of navigating in the gig economy, they have a good chance for sustainable success.
Vol. 4, Iss./Yr. 2018, 281–288 https://doi.org/10.18639/MERJ.2018.04.734348
Management and Economics Research Journal 287
According to Torpey and Hogan (2016), gigs are more likely to be found in some occupations versus others
because work that requires a single task, like writing a business plan, is probably a better t to this type of
work. Furthermore, any occupation in which workers may be employed for on-demand jobs has the poten-
tial to be a gig employment arrangement.
This case study exposes issues that Fiverr must face within this economy. The hottest point is freelanc-
ers’ health benets compared with traditional nine-to-ve employees. Although the gig economy reduces
the environmental problems that are analyzed in PESTLE, its main problem is about humanity. The strategy
of Fiverr is the low cost that became one of its weaknesses compared with professional competitors such
as Upwork. There are potential solutions to help Fiverr solving these problems after we accomplished this
case study. Fiverr should create a new system in freelancers’ benets management. In the current scenario
of this issue, focusing on freelancers’ benets can impress the global online market. Otherwise, selection of
expert gigs should be considered. This solution helps to reduce a signicant number of scams or unskillful
gigs. It does not only increase the quality of works, it also gains the trust between clients and freelancers.
To perform the reform in management is a long-run plan that Fiverr must fully consider by itself. As these
solutions are solved in smart ways, Fiverr and the other global online markets can continue their business
without any criticism in the gig economy. This case study is a detailed analysis of Fiverr; then, it suggests
some possible solutions for their vital problems recently.
References
Belson D. 2017, September 25. Internet impacts of hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Available at: https://blogs.oracle.
com/internetintelligence/internet-impacts-of-hurricanes-harvey-irma-and-maria [26th November 2017].
Brainard G. 2016, November 17. The “gig” economy: implications of the growth of contingent work. Available at: https://
www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/brainard20161117a.htm [26th November 2017].
Carboni M. 2016. A New Class of Workers for the Sharing Economy. Retrieved December 2, 2018, from: https://scholarship.
richmond.edu/jolt/vol22/iss4/2
Courtney M, Du X. 2015. Study Skills for Chinese Students. Sage: Los Angeles, CA.
Dunning J. 2017. Gig economy: what exactly is it? Available at: https://www.hrzone.com/lead/future/gig-economy-
what-exactly-is-it
Duverge G. 2016, January 27. Collaborative consumption: the explosive rise of the sharing economy. Available at: http://
online.pointpark.edu/business/collaborative-consumption-rise-of-the-sharing-economy/ [26th November 2017].
Fiverr. 2017. Fiverr | 2015 | Year in review [online]. Available at: https://www.verr.com/yearinreview/ [26th November 2017].
Freelancer.com. Available at: https://www.freelancer.com [8th December 2017].
Gillespie P. 2017. Millions in gig economy can’t nd better jobs or pay [online]. CNNMoney. Available at: http://money.
cnn.com/2016/10/27/news/economy/gig-economy-workers/?iid=EL [26th November 2017].
Goldstein S. 2018, June 7. The gig economy is actually smaller than it used to be, Labor Department says. Market
Watch. Available at: https://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-gig-economy-is-actually-smaller-than-it-used-to-be-labor-
department-says-2018-06-07
Hogan E. 2017. Working in a gig economy: career Outlook: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics [online]. Bls.gov. Available at:
https://www.bls.gov/careeroutlook/2016/article/what-is-the-gig-economy.htm [26th November 2017].
Kachru U. 2005. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. Excel Books: New Delhi.
Kaufman FM. 2015, August 6. The gig economy: the force that could save the American worker? Available at: https://
www.wired.com/insights/2013/09/the-gig-economy-the-force-that-could-save-the-american-worker/ [2nd December
2017].
Kessler S. 2018. Gigged: The End of the Job and The Future of Work. St. Martin’s Press: New York.
Kolodny L. 2015, November 11. Fiverr Pockets $60M to become go-to freelance marketplace. Available at: https://www.
wsj.com/articles/DJFVW00120151111ebbbayark?mod=undened [2nd December 2017].
Kotler P, Keller KL. 2012. Marketing Management. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Laudon K, Laudon J. 2017. Essentials of Management Information Systems, 12th ed. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Lobel O. 2016, October 14. The gig economy & the future of employment and labor law. SSRN Electronic Journal. Avail-
able at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2848456
Lohr S. 2017, November 21. Net neutrality repeal: what could happen and how it could affect you. The New York
Times. Available at: Technology: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/21/technology/net-neutrality-repeal-questions.
html [26th November 2017].
Marx P. 2016, October 26. The gig economy has grown big, fast – and that’s a problem for workers. Available at: https://
www.recode.net/2016/10/26/13349498/gig-economy-prots-workers-desperate-services-labor [2nd December 2017].
288 Case Study
E-ISSN: 2469-4339 merj.scholasticahq.com
Mulcahy D. 2016, October 27. Who wins in the gig economy, and who loses. Available at: https://hbr.org/2016/10/who-
wins-in-the-gig-economy-and-who-loses [2nd December 2017].
Mulcahy D. 2017. The Gig Economy: The Complete Guide to Getting Better Work, Taking More Time Off, and Financing the
Life You Want. AMACOM: New York.
Oyer P. 2017, April. Labor and employment issues in the gig economy. Analysis Group. Available at: http://www.analysis-
group.com/labor-and-employment-issues-in-the-gig-economy/ [26th November 2017].
Pershan C. 2017, March 23. Tragic ads attempt to glorify desperate hell of gig economy. Available at: https://web.archive.
org/web/20170325213136/http://sst.com/2017/03/23/verr_ads_trash_re.php [8th December 2017].
Phys.org. 2017. Workers are taking on more risk in the gig economy [online]. Available at: https://phys.org/news/2016-
07-workers-gig-economy.html [26th November 2017].
Pilon M. 2010, March 16. What will people do for $5? Fiverr lets you nd out. Available at: https://blogs.wsj.com/dig-
its/2010/03/16/what-will-people-do-for-5-verr-lets-you-nd-out/ [8th December 2017].
Smykal E. 2016, March. Flexible Jobs: how the gig economy is impacting recruiting. Talent Acquisition Excellence Essen-
tials; Aurora.
Statista. 2017. Projected annual ination rate in the United States from 2010 to 2022. Statista. Available at: https://www.
statista.com/statistics/244983/projected-ination-rate-in-the-united-states/ [26th November 2017].
Stefano V. 2015, October 28. The rise of the “just-in-time workforce”: on-demand work, crowd work and labour protec-
tion in the “gig-economy.” SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2682602
Tankersley J, Kaplan T, Rappeport A. 2017, November 2. The Gig Economy & The Future of Employment and Labor Law.
Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/02/us/politics/tax-plan-republicans.html (2nd December, 2018).
Torben R. 2013, April 8. No sharing economy without social media.” Strategy. Meliorate. Available at: https://www.
torbenrick.eu/blog/strategy/no-sharing-economy-without-social-media/ [26th November 2017].
Torpey E, Hogan A. 2016, May. Working in a gig economy. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Available at: https://www.bls.gov/
careeroutlook/2016/article/what-is-the-gig-economy.htm/ [2nd December 2017].
Vize S. n.d. Is the gig economy the end of full-time tech employees? Mondo. Available at: https://www.mondo.com/blog-
gig-economy-blended-workforce/ [30th November 2017].
Wauters R. 2012, May 3. Fiverr helps get things done for as little as $5, raises $15m from Accel and Bessemer. Available
at: https://thenextweb.com/insider/2012/05/03/verr-helps-get-things-done-for-as-little-as-5-raises-15m-from-accel-
and-bessemer/ [8th December 2017].
Wells N. 2016, October 13. The “gig economy” is growing — and now we know by how much. Available at: https://www.
cnbc.com/2016/10/13/gig-economy-is-growing-heres-how-much.html [2nd December 2017].
Yaseen SY. 2014, January 13. Digitization effects on media production and consumption. Academia.edu. Available at: http://
www.academia.edu/6224870/Digitization_Effects_on_Media_Production_and_Consumption [26th November 2017].
AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL NOTE
Dr. Daryl D. Green is an assistant professor in the College of Business at Oklahoma Baptist University. He is a
former US Department of Energy program manager with over 25 years of professional management experi-
ence. He is a nationally syndicated columnist, where he writes in the areas of leadership, decision making,
and culture. He has a doctoral degree in Strategic Leadership from Regent University.
Dr. Jack McCann currently serves an appointment with Union College at Barbourville, KY, as associate pro-
fessor in marketing and business. He teaches courses in management, marketing, and strategy. Prior to
joining Union College in August of 2018, he was the dean of the School of Business at Lincoln Memorial
University in Harrogate, TN, from 2008 to 2014, and associate professor of management and marketing at
Tusculum University. He has over 25 years of management experience. He has an active publishing record
in leadership, management, marketing, emerging markets, and strategy. He earned the PhD in organization
and management with a specialization in leadership from Capella University.
Nancy Lopez is an MBA student at Oklahoma Baptist University in international business. She received her
BA in business marketing from Florida Institute of Technology. She has been employed as a manager of inter-
national partnerships for the last 6 years and has over 15 years of experience in digital marketing and advertising.
Samuel Ouattara is an MBA Student at Oklahoma Baptist University.
Thao Vu is an MBA student in project management at Oklahoma Baptist University. She is also working as a
professional graphic designer with almost four years’ experience in marketing and advertising.
... Using online platforms [2,5,15,31,40,41] Social network site (SNS) [2,8,11,15,32] Personal consumption [3,15,20,22,36] Sustainable consumption [19,28,35] Share time and resources [13,15,21,25,34,39,42] The popularity of sharing platform [1,2,12,13,28,29,34,38] Consumer behaviour [1][2][3]9,15,17,19,22,26,28,31,33,35,37] Collaborative consumption [4,13,16,20,26,29,35,[38][39][40]43] Social, consumer trust [3,5,24,33] 3. Business ...
... Using online platforms [2,5,15,31,40,41] Social network site (SNS) [2,8,11,15,32] Personal consumption [3,15,20,22,36] Sustainable consumption [19,28,35] Share time and resources [13,15,21,25,34,39,42] The popularity of sharing platform [1,2,12,13,28,29,34,38] Consumer behaviour [1][2][3]9,15,17,19,22,26,28,31,33,35,37] Collaborative consumption [4,13,16,20,26,29,35,[38][39][40]43] Social, consumer trust [3,5,24,33] 3. Business ...
... Business activities, models [12][13][14][15]23,25,27,30,31,[37][38][39][40]43] The amount the transaction costs [14,21,24,26,31,34] Consumer purchasing power [2,8,19,25,32,40] Pre-purchase search motivation [8] Focus on sustainability in business [2,9,10,27,32,37] Flexible jobs [14] 4. Technologies ...
Article
Full-text available
The new phenomenon called sharing or collaborative consumption emerged a decade ago and is continuously growing. It creates new possibilities for society, and especially for business, is beneficial for the environment, makes more efficient use of resources, and presents a new competitive business model. The scientific literature lacks a more in-depth analysis of the factors influencing sharing activity growth; therefore, the paper’s authors attempt to fill this gap. The authors aim to identify the factors affecting the use of sharing platforms. To reach the goal, the authors developed a regression model and constructed a list of 71 variables. The study used monthly United States data from January 2017 to June 2020 from the publicly available Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED)and Google trends databases. The comparison to other indexes proves that the proposed index, representing the number of visits to sharing platforms (SEP), is a unique one. The first index allowed us to revise the sharing activity monthly. The authors identified that variables such as wage level, social network users, import level, and personal consumption are critical in affecting the number of visits to sharing platforms. The presented framework could be helpful for practitioners and policymakers analysing the stimulation of sharing or collaborative consumption. It includes indicators representing different areas, such as society, technology, and country, and allows for monthly investigations. Such activity was evident for a long time when online platforms contributed to its wider accessibility. The results help to forecast the number of visits monthly. Sharing is still an emerging area for research; thus, the authors tried to explore the phenomenon of sharing to expand the conceptual level of knowledge.
... Because of universal access for all, and at the same time fewer barriers, it is also said to create more equal opportunities for everybody (Green et al. 2018). By profiting from new technological possibilities, workers can find an endless variety of jobs and firms easily find reachable affordable digital workers that perform tasks on demand (Durward et al. 2016). ...
... Besides the hard-and software needed for working digitally, it reduces the consumption of paper and other materials, which might be a positive environmental aspect (Green et al. 2018). Moreover, digital work has the ability to decrease traffic congestions as the number of commuters could decline. ...
... From an economical perspective, with growing supplies offered in the sharing economy and people working from home, cafes, or coworking spaces, not only costs can be reduced but also the overall amount of office spaces, thereby freeing those spaces for other public purposes (e.g., parks for recreational use). Working from home or in coworking places, can reduce vehicle emission, save money, and increase sustainability (Green et al. 2018), thereby enhancing the overall livability of local areas. ...
Chapter
During the last two decades, the labour market of the advanced economies has changed, with the increased use of short-term contracts and higher flexibility in terms of working spaces and work organization. Due to ongoing processes of the globalization and the Industry 4.0 Revolution, distance, location, and time are often no longer considered necessary conditions to make business. In this context, we have witnessed the development and diffusion of coworking spaces (hereinafter CSs). This chapter aims to investigate and compare development, typology, and dynamics of spatial distribution of CSs in two alpha global cities, Prague and Milan, between 2015 and 2019. Using two original geo-referenced databases, the chapter firstly proposes two metrics for quantitative mapping of CSs within basic settlement units in Prague and local identity units in Milan. Local spatial autocorrelation is used to identify spatial clusters in given years, and local spatio-temporal analysis investigated by differential spatial autocorrelation is applied to identify whether changes in spatial patterns over time are spatially clustered. Based on these findings, the chapter highlights similarities and differences in spatial patterns, spatial diffusion, and evolution of CSs in the two cities. Secondly, the chapter provides a discussion on micro-location of CSs in relation to the internal urban spatial structure and its transformation (urban core commercialization, inner city urban regeneration, and gentrification) and thereby the transition to the polycentric city model.
... Because of universal access for all, and at the same time fewer barriers, it is also said to create more equal opportunities for everybody (Green et al. 2018). By profiting from new technological possibilities, workers can find an endless variety of jobs and firms easily find reachable affordable digital workers that perform tasks on demand (Durward et al. 2016). ...
... Besides the hard-and software needed for working digitally, it reduces the consumption of paper and other materials, which might be a positive environmental aspect (Green et al. 2018). Moreover, digital work has the ability to decrease traffic congestions as the number of commuters could decline. ...
... From an economical perspective, with growing supplies offered in the sharing economy and people working from home, cafes, or coworking spaces, not only costs can be reduced but also the overall amount of office spaces, thereby freeing those spaces for other public purposes (e.g., parks for recreational use). Working from home or in coworking places, can reduce vehicle emission, save money, and increase sustainability (Green et al. 2018), thereby enhancing the overall livability of local areas. ...
Chapter
By earning a living through skillful use of location-independent digital technologies while on the move, the concept of digital nomadism has become increasingly popular. Under the influence of digitalization and globalization, people – including entrepreneurs, freelancers, and employees – have started to leave the regular “9-to-5” work structures behind and change their expectations of work, particularly in terms of their balance between work and private life, thereby extending the concept of work-life balance to work-leisure balance. Due to this changing perspective, work is increasingly seen as a part of a lifestyle that encourages workers to choose their environment based on leisure preferences rather than professional circumstances. Within this chapter, we review the existing but still fragmented literature on the phenomenon of digital nomadism, which constitutes an “extreme” form of flexible work. In doing so, we aim to contribute in two ways. First, we provide a comprehensive overview and definition comprising four recurring elements of digital nomadism (i.e., digital work, flexibility, mobility, and identity and community). Second, we analyze the opportunities and risks associated with each of these four elements of digital nomadism in order to spur future research in these directions. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... The administrator then invites the relevant stakeholders to give their opinion on the effectiveness for each indicator for each step along the FSM service chain. The tool has a user guide video developed at fiverr.com: a freelance platform offering digital services (Green et al. 2018). Figure 1 shows a flow chart for FSMPLI-Scorecard. ...
Article
Full-text available
Expeditious situational analysis of the enabling regulatory environment (ERE) of faecal sludge management (FSM) is vital for strengthening sanitation systems. However, existing diagnostic tools employ broad indicators, neglecting the detailed assessment of the policy, legal and institutional frameworks for each step along the FSM chain. This paper presents a web-based integrated diagnostic tool for evaluating the quality and adequacy of policy in guiding equity, targeting of resources, quality of service, financial considerations and institutional roles and responsibilities. The tool evaluates the legal framework based on laws, standards and regulations emphasizing on means of enforcement. It evaluates the institutional framework based on investors, service providers, regulators and consumers as guided by the literature. Each indicator is assigned a score of 1: green (effective), 0.5: yellow (limited) and 0: red (poor) for the user interface, containment, emptying, transport, treatment, disposal and reuse of faecal sludge. Built on Laravel Framework Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), the tool links the scores into a single index averaged into terciles as 0–0.33 (poor), 0.34–0.66 (limited) and 0.67–1 (effective). This helps to identify areas of priority in a given context. The tool successfully facilitated a participatory pilot study in Kenya based on individual stakeholders' opinion. However, the tool does not provide the specific details leading to a given score. Therefore, its application should precede a detailed evaluation of each indicator in order to generate specific details per indicator per step of FSM.
... According to Green et al. (2018), the gig economy will be the future career in the market particularly for young people who are employed to work at flexible working hours for a specific period. This also applies to freelancers with short-term contracts with independent organizations. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter first briefly discusses the expected learning outcomes (i.e., skills and competencies) in entrepreneurship education, including creativity, innovation, industry-specific knowledge, decision-making, risk-taking, problem-solving, leadership qualities, ethics, and social responsibility. Next, the chapter examines whether the conventional entrepreneurial curriculum successfully contributes to the academic and social goals and meets the needs and expectations of students and society at large. It also presents a discussion on why the recent socio-cultural, technological, pandemic-related changes, including mass digitalization, working remotely or working from home, asynchronicity and global communities of practice, demand new approaches to enhance learners’ experience and maximize the achievement of learning outcomes in post-secondary entrepreneurship education. Then the chapter explores artificial intelligence (AI), such as the virtual classroom, AI Tutor, interactive smart boards, augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), simulation, and big data systems, as a disruptive technology in education. While computer systems with ‘intelligence’ are already performing many tasks that were commonly associated with humans, there are growing interests, concerns and uncertainty regarding the wider application of AI in education. Accordingly, the chapter includes a discussion on the trends in AI adoption in education and how AI is likely to reshape curriculums, teaching and assessment, as well as its positive and negative impacts on teaching and learning. Further, this chapter explores the enormous potential of AI specifically in entrepreneurship education. A rich discussion is presented on the possibilities and conditions for an effective instructor-AI collaboration that can make an important contribution to all the key areas of teaching and learning in entrepreneurship education, such as the curriculum, instruction, assessment and feedback. An instructor-AI collaboration has the potential to improve curriculums, pedagogical practices, learner motivation and engagement, which are critical to achieving learning outcomes. The chapter concludes with the argument that while integrating AI in entrepreneurship education is capital intensive, it is worth investing in instructor-AI collaboration as it facilitates the progress of learners by providing them with customized learning support without unduly limiting individual choice.
... Despite the massive interest in the gig economy, a widely accepted definition is still lacking among academics, policymakers, and practitioners. Some scholars avoid a general definition, instead focusing on a specific platform (Birgillito & Birgillito, 2018;De Groen et al., 2016;Green et al., 2018;Hara et al., 2018) or a specific sector (Cramer & Krueger, 2016). Others refer to the gig economy as "digital labor markets" without further definition (Burtch et al., 2018;De Stefano, 2015;Eichhorst et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
enThe advent of online platforms has been considered to be one of the most significant economic changes of the last decade, with their emergence reflecting a longer trend of increasing contingent work, labor market flexibility, and outsourcing work to independent contractors. In this article, we conceptualize the so‐called gig economy along four dimensions, namely, online intermediation, independent contractors, paid tasks, and personal services. Using this framework, it is possible to derive both a narrow definition of the gig economy, as ex ante specified, paid tasks carried out by independent contractors mediated by online platforms, and broader definitions that include offline alongside online intermediation, employees alongside independent contractors, unpaid tasks alongside paid tasks, and asset sharing alongside performing gigs. The four dimensions also span four key regulatory questions: How should online platforms be classified and regulated; how should gig workers be classified and regulated; what should count as paid and unpaid work; and should we treat earnings from performing gigs differently than earnings from sharing assets? We conclude that the positions taken on these regulatory issues are essentially contingent upon political choices and will determine how the gig economy evolves in the future. Abstract zh 网络平台的出现已被视为过去十年里最显著的经济变化之一, 它反映了一个有关零工增长、劳动力市场灵活性增加、以及更多工作外包给独立承包商的更长期的趋势。本文中, 我们将所谓的零工经济从四个维度进行概念化: 网络中介、独立承包商、付费任务和个人服务。通过使用这一框架, 则有可能对零工经济进行狭义的定义, 即上述提到的在网络平台的作用下由独立承包商开展的付费工作, 而广义的定义则包括除网络中介之外的线下中介, 除独立承包商之外的在职员工, 除付费任务之外的待付费任务, 以及除零工之外的资产共享。这四个维度也涵盖了四个关键的监管疑问: 网络平台应如何被归类和监管; 零工人员应被如何归类和监管; 付费和待付费工作的区别是什么; 以及我们是否应把从零工中赚取的报酬与共享资产所获的报酬加以区分?我们的结论认为, 对这些监管问题所持的立场关键取决于政治选择, 且这些立场将决定未来零工经济的发展。 Abstract esEl advenimiento de las plataformas en línea se ha considerado como uno de los cambios económicos más importantes de la última década, y su aparición refleja una tendencia más larga de aumentar el trabajo contingente, la flexibilidad del mercado laboral y el trabajo de subcontratación a contratistas independientes. En este artículo, conceptualizamos la llamada economía del concierto en cuatro dimensiones: intermediación en línea, contratistas independientes, tareas remuneradas y servicios personales. Usando este marco, es posible derivar tanto una definición estrecha de la economía del concierto, como las tareas remuneradas especificadas ex ante, realizadas por contratistas independientes mediadas por plataformas en línea, y definiciones más amplias que incluyen la desconexión junto con la intermediación en línea, los empleados junto con los contratistas independientes, tareas no remuneradas junto con tareas pagas, y compartir activos junto con actuaciones. Las cuatro dimensiones también abarcan cuatro preguntas regulatorias clave: ¿Cómo se deben clasificar y regular las plataformas en línea? ¿Cómo deben clasificarse y regularse los trabajadores de concierto? lo que debe considerarse trabajo remunerado y no remunerado; ¿Deberíamos tratar las ganancias de realizar conciertos de manera diferente a las ganancias de compartir activos? Llegamos a la conclusión de que las posiciones tomadas en estos temas regulatorios dependen esencialmente de las elecciones políticas y determinarán cómo evolucionará la economía del concierto en el futuro.
Chapter
Universities and colleges are faced with the duty of responding to changes in the future employment market by adjusting their teaching modules or curriculum to meet the various demands. Students will obtain skills, information, and abilities that are relevant to contemporary market needs as a result of these improvements in the teaching module. In every area, such as digital advertising, digital marketing, and e-commerce, the new digital trend is moving toward a concentration on digital capabilities. This has an impact on the future employment market and increases the demand for new skills. With the increasing trend toward digitalization, graduates must equip themselves with the most up-to-date skill sets in order to meet future job market demands. The purpose of this research is to determine the factors that influence teaching delivery effectiveness in the Digital Marketing subject, to investigate the effects of studying digital marketing, and to determine the relationship between teaching delivery effectiveness and the factors that influence teaching delivery effectiveness in digital marketing. The research uses a quantitative methodology and is best suited for studies that require a high number of respondents during data collection, such as hypothesis testing. The findings reveal that student characteristics have little bearing on the efficiency of digital marketing training in the classroom. Other aspects that influence the success of the teaching delivery of the digital marketing course include teaching style, teaching model, and classroom climate. This study’s contribution allows university coordinators to collaborate directly with professional agencies by incorporating a digital marketing certification program within the course syllabus to improve students’ abilities.KeywordsDigital marketingMarket needsMalaysian UniversityKnowledgee-commerce
Article
Gig economy is very attractive due to its alluring factors of flexibility, control work–life balance and entrepreneurial activities, but is it enough to bring them back to the same platform companies. Stickiness and gig economy are opposites as stickiness defies the core principle of gig economy, which is temporariness. But stickiness needs focus as more gig workers are dependent on it as a steady source of primary income. Companies also look at them for getting highly skilled workers at lower costs. This article delves into the factors which bring repeat business from the same gig worker to the platform company.
Article
The so-called “gig-economy” has been growing exponentially in numbers and importance in recent years but its impact on labour rights has been largely overlooked. Forms of work in the “gig-economy” include “crowd work”, and “work-on-demand via apps”, under which the demand and supply of working activities is matched online or via mobile apps. These forms of work can provide a good match of job opportunities and allow flexible working schedules. However, they can also pave the way to a severe commodification of work. This paper discusses the implications of this commodification and advocates the full recognition of activities in the gig-economy as “work”. It shows how the gig-economy is not a separate silo of the economy and that is part of broader phenomena such as casualization and informalisation of work and the spread of non-standard forms of employment. It then addresses the issue of misclassification of the employment status of workers in the gig-economy. Current relevant trends are thus examined, such as the emergence of forms of self-organisation of workers. Finally, some policy proposals are critically analysed, such as the possibility of creating an intermediate category of worker between “employee” and “independent contractor” to classify work in the gig-economy, and other tentative proposals are put forward such extension of fundamental labour rights to all workers irrespective of employment status, and recognition of the role of social partners in this respect, whilst avoiding temptations of hastened deregulation.
Internet impacts of hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria
  • D Belson
Belson D. 2017, September 25. Internet impacts of hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Available at: https://blogs.oracle. com/internetintelligence/internet-impacts-of-hurricanes-harvey-irma-and-maria [26th November 2017].
The "gig" economy: implications of the growth of contingent work
  • G Brainard
Brainard G. 2016, November 17. The "gig" economy: implications of the growth of contingent work. Available at: https:// www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/brainard20161117a.htm [26th November 2017].
A New Class of Workers for the Sharing Economy
  • M Carboni
Carboni M. 2016. A New Class of Workers for the Sharing Economy. Retrieved December 2, 2018, from: https://scholarship. richmond.edu/jolt/vol22/iss4/2
Study Skills for Chinese Students
  • M Courtney
  • X Du
Courtney M, Du X. 2015. Study Skills for Chinese Students. Sage: Los Angeles, CA.
Gig economy: what exactly is it? Available at
  • J Dunning
Dunning J. 2017. Gig economy: what exactly is it? Available at: https://www.hrzone.com/lead/future/gig-economywhat-exactly-is-it
Collaborative consumption: the explosive rise of the sharing economy
  • G Duverge
Duverge G. 2016, January 27. Collaborative consumption: the explosive rise of the sharing economy. Available at: http:// online.pointpark.edu/business/collaborative-consumption-rise-of-the-sharing-economy/ [26th November 2017].
Fiverr | 2015 | Year in review
  • Fiverr
Fiverr. 2017. Fiverr | 2015 | Year in review [online]. Available at: https://www.fiverr.com/yearinreview/ [26th November 2017].