Article

The status of waste management and waste to energy for district heating in South Korea

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This paper focuses on waste management and waste to energy (WTE) for district heating in S. Korea. The chemical formula for the materials disposed of in volume base waste fee (VBWF) bags that are processed in WTE plants was calculated as: C 6 H 9.9 O 2.3 , with a heat of formation of 27.6 MJ/kg. The average heating value for the 35 WTE plants was 9.7 MJ/kg, and the average amount of energy recovered was calculated at 1.5 MWh/ton waste processed. 22 of the 35 WTE plants comply with the limits of the R1 formula for energy recovery plants (R1 > 0.61), as introduced by the EU. It was estimated that 8% of the district heating demand is provided by WTE in S. Korea. WTE plants can contribute to about 0.6% to the total electricity demand of S. Korea and aid the efforts of the nation to phase out the dependence on fossil fuels. The average dioxin emissions of all WTE plants were 0.005 ng TEQ/Nm 3 (limit:0.1 ng TEQ/Nm 3), and most of the other pollutants examined indicated a tenfold to hundred-fold lower emissions than the national and the EU standards. S. Korea indicated an improved performance in sustainable waste management, with combined recycling/ composting and WTE rates of about 80%, as compared to the average of the EU-28 with 65%, and the US with 36.5%, even if the EU and the US had higher GDP/capita (PPP) than S. Korea.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Because of the improved lifestyle and urbanization, the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) is increasing all over the globe [6]. A recent report from the World Bank shows that around 2.2 billion tons of MSW will be generated by the year 2025, which is almost twice the amount produced in 2010 [7]. ...
... Tar concentration (g/Nm 3 ) = {(Mass of activated carbon before the experiment − Mass of activated carbon after the experiment) ÷ Total gas flow} (6) In this study, gas pollutants were measured in accordance with the Korean standard method for air pollution measurement titled measurement of inorganic materials in emission gases [30]. This method traps pollutants in suitable cold organic solvents or adsorbents. ...
Article
Full-text available
Solid recovered fuel (SRF) residue, which is leftovers from the SRF manufacturing process, usually is discarded in landfill because of its low heating value and high ash and moisture content. However, it could be used as a fuel after mechanical and biological treatment. Gasification experiments were conducted on treated SRF residue (TSRFR) to assess the viability of syngas production. Efforts were also made to improve the gasification performance by adding low-cost natural minerals such as dolomite and lime as bed material, and by blending with biomass waste. In the case of additive mineral tests, dolomite showed better performance compared to lime, and in the case of biomass blends, a 25 wt% pine sawdust blend with TSRFR showed the best performance. Finally, as an appropriate condition, a combined experiment was conducted at an equivalence ratio (ER) of 0.2 using a 25 wt% pine sawdust blend with TSRFR as a feedstock and dolomite as the bed material. The highest dry gas yield (1.81 Nm3/kg), with the highest amount of syngas (56.72 vol%) and highest lower heating value (9.55 MJ/Nm3) was obtained in this condition. Furthermore, the highest cold gas efficiency (48.64%) and carbon conversion rate (98.87%), and the lowest residue yield (11.56%), tar (0.95 g/Nm3), and gas pollutants content was observed.
... The heterogeneity of solid fuel, health and environmental constraints, profitability, among other limitations, make the design and operations of the WTE plant considerably complex. For instance, the complexity of thermal treatment-based WTE plants can be attributed to the application of more efficient pyrolysis, gasification, combustion and flue gas cleaning technologies [34]. ...
... In East Asia, thermal WTE plants are also becoming popular, particularly in countries like China, Japan and South Korea [31]. For instance, according to Bourtsalas et al. [34], in South Korea, a total of 35 WTE plants contribute about 8% and potentially 0.6% of the country's district heating and electricity demands, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) technologies are rapidly fueling data and software solutions driven digitalization in many fields notably in industrial automation and manufacturing systems. Among the several benefits offered by these technologies, is the infrastructure for harnessing big-data, machine learning (ML) and cloud computing software tools, for instance in designing advanced data analytics platforms. Although, this is an area of increased interest, the information concerning the implementation of data analytics in the context of Industry 4.0 is scarcely available in scientific literature. Therefore, this work presents a process data analytics platform built around the concept of industry 4.0. The platform utilizes the state-of-the-art IIoT platforms, ML algorithms and big-data software tools. The platform emphasizes the use of ML methods for process data analytics while leveraging big-data processing tools and taking advantage of the currently available industrial grade cloud computing platforms. The industrial applicability of the platform was demonstrated by the development of soft sensors for use in a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant. In the case study, the work studied data-driven soft sensors to predict syngas heating value and hot flue gas temperature. Among the studied data-driven methods, the neural network-based NARX model demonstrated better performance in the prediction of both syngas heating value and flue gas temperature. The modeling results showed that, in cases where process knowledge about the process phenomena at hand is limited, data-driven soft sensors are useful tools for predictive data analytics.
... An interesting recenet application has been the use of the 3T method for the assessment of Landfill Mining (plus Landfill Gas) [31] and it would be interesting to investigate the further the potential of the method on industrial processes that focus solely on metal separation and recovery [32]. Finally, the R1 formula showed high sensitivity to the thermal efficiency and future work that would focus on the case of WtE for district heating [33] would be interesting. ...
Article
Managing the municipal solid waste (MSW) is a task that requires the combination of multiple strategies in order to follow the concept of circular economy. Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are producing electricity and heat but also have other byproducts that need to be disposed or can be reused. The standard method for assessing the WtE plants is the utilization of the R1 formula. The R1 formula has several limitations and is not able to integrate more parameters like the recovery of metals. The integration of the climate correction factor can improve the R1 up to 1.25 times but this factor is related to the Heating Degree Days, which is a rapidly declining value due to climate change. Contrary to the R1 Formula, the 3T Method is a novel method that can take into consideration all the range of products like syngas and biooil in a thermodynamically consistent way. These two methods were used to analyze three characteristic incineration plants and two gasification plants and this is the first time that this comparison is being presented. The results showed that the two methods have different ranges of returned values, with the R1 returning values (usually) between 0.5 and 1.1 and the 3T method returning values between 0.2 and 0.3. The 3T method on the one hand promotes high electrical efficiencies, i.e. 3T values approach the 0.3 mark for 30% electrical efficiency, and on the other hand promotes polygeneration where the recovery of char and metals can elevate the 3T value well above the 0.3 level for only 15% electrical efficiency and 70% metal recovery.
... The technology in the form of Energy Recovery Facility (ERF) generates heat by burning MSW in a specially controlled environment; the heat is turned into steam for generation of electricity and heat for large-, medium-and small-scale applications. This technology is widely utilised in different countries, and it is proven to be economical and safer to the environment, though the most challenging issue with this system is the emission control [17,18]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter highlighted conventional and advanced waste treatment technologies in details, for sustainable wastes management. The chapter also reviewed Supercritical Water Biomass Gasification (SCWBG) from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) at the temperature and pressure of 700°C and 350 bar, respectively. The findings show that gasification of organics from MSW using Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) technology can be a potential solution to the increasing biodegradables in the municipal solid wastes. However, with the ability of the system to allow the complete gasification of biomass below the working temperatures, this makes it even more attractive technology for sustainable wastes to wealth. With the wide varieties of sustainable fuels and chemicals that can be generated in the process, Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) technology can be a candid sustainable and economical energy solution for power generation and transport renewable fuel for automobiles (methane and hydrogen gas).
... Bourtsalas et al. [13] studied utilizing waste energy in district heating of South Korea. They considered waste with the chemical formula of C 6 H 9.9 O 2.3 and the heating value of 27600 kJ/kg and calculated the average heat recovery from this waste to energy plant as 1.5 MWh per ton of waste. ...
Article
District energy systems, i.e. district heating and cooling systems, will be extremely important in the future energy systems in which a 100% sustainable supply and high synergies of different energy sectors are crucial. Therefore, finding efficient and sustainable solutions for the integration of power, cold and heat sectors is significantly important. In this study, a conventional waste-driven combined heat and power cycle, which is the key component of many energy systems in Europe for baseload coverage of heat and electricity networks, is combined with a large-scale absorption chiller to not only create a strong yet reliable synergy between the three energy sectors of cold, heat and power, but also to improve the plant performance in terms of energy and sustainability indices. The proposed scheme is designed and thermodynamically assessed for the energy market of Denmark as the case study of this work. The results showed that the thermal and electrical efficiencies of the proposed hybrid system are better than the conventional configuration for 12% and 1.3%, respectively. In addition, the exergy efficiency, sustainability index and emission reduction of 28.58%, 1.4 and 445.935 kg-CO2/GJ are obtained for the system operating with a third-generation district heating system.
... The main stages of downdraft gasification are drying, pyrolysis, combustion, and reduction. Firstly, the moisture contained in sewage sludge cake is removed from the drying zone below 200 • C. Thereafter, the pyrolysis step proceeds slowly until it reaches 350 • C, and most of the reaction is performed at 700 • C. The pyrolysis step is an endothermic reaction, and thermal cracking and condensation take place [27]. The combustion reaction is an exothermic reaction, and all of the heat that causes drying, pyrolysis, and reduction is either directly generated from combustion or indirectly recovered from combustion by the heat exchange process of the gasifier. ...
Article
Full-text available
Proper treatment and careful management of sewage sludge are essential because its disposal can lead to adverse environmental impacts such as public health hazards, as well as air, soil, and water pollution. Several efforts are being made currently not only to safely dispose of sewage sludge but also to utilize it as an energy source. Therefore, in this study, initiatives were taken to valorize sewage sludge cake by reducing the moisture content and increasing the calorific value by applying a hydrothermal treatment technique for efficient energy recovery. The sludge cake treated at 200 °C for 1 h was found to be the optimum condition for hydrothermal carbonization, as, in this condition, the caloric value of the treated sludge increased by 10% and the moisture content removed was 20 wt.%. To recover energy from the hydrothermally treated sludge, a gasification technology was applied at 900 °C. The results showed that the product gas from hydrothermally treated sludge cake had a higher lower heating value (0.98 MJ/Nm 3) and higher cold gas efficiency (5.8%). Furthermore, compared with raw sludge cake, less tar was generated during the gasification of hydrothermally treated sludge cake. The removal efficiency was 28.2%. Overall results depict that hydrothermally treated sewage sludge cake could be a good source of energy recovery via the gasification process.
... The heat load profiles obtained here may be used as input for a simulation of a DH substation, including a heat pump [19] and a tank for thermal energy storage [6]. It should also be mentioned that a DH operator may also vary this temperature on an annual level [20], but it is expected to be close to the suggested value [21]. The different deviation values may be accomplished by changing the ratio of loads between only-heated and DHW-supplied buildings [22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Proper adjustment of domestic hot water (DHW) load structure can balance energy demand with the supply. Inefficiency in primary energy use prompted Omsk DH company to be a strong proponent of a flow controller at each substation. Here the return temperature is fixed to the lowest possible value and the supply temperature is solved. Thirty-five design scenarios are defined for each load deviation index with equally distributed outdoor temperature ranging from +8 for the start of a heating season towards extreme load at temperature of -26°C. All the calculation results are listed. If a flow controller is installed, the customers might find it suitable to switch to this type of DHW supply. Considering an option with direct hot water extraction as usual and a flow controller installed, the result indicates that the annual heat consumption will be lower once network temperatures during the fall or spring months are higher. The heat load profiles obtained here may be used as input for a simulation of a DH substation, including a heat pump and a tank for thermal energy storage. This design approach offers a quantitative way of sizing temperature levels in each DH system according to the listed methodology and the designer's preference.
... Some alternative WtE technologies such as pyrolysis, gasification and plasma arc gasification are a relatively new, which can contribute to reducing carbon emissions, but these processes are still very limited at the global level because these required a high initial investment (GMI, 2016a). Further research into increasing the energy efficiency of the WtE plants along with treating outputs pollutants such as the desulfurization of flue gas is expected to benefit the market growth (Bourtsalas et al., 2019). AD prospects are also consistently improving, and continuous capacity expansion is predicted. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Due to the increasing population and prosperity, the generation rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) has increased significantly, resulting in serious problems on public health and the environment. Every single person in the world is affected by the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) issue. MSWM is reaching a critical level in almost all areas of the world and seeking the development of MSW strategies for a sustainable environment. This paper aims to present the existing global status of MSW generation, composition, management and related problems. Design/methodology/approach A total of 59 developed and developing countries have been grouped based on their gross national income to compare the status of various MSWM technologies among them. A total of 19 selection criteria have been discussed to select appropriate MSWM technology(s) for a city/town, which affects their applicability, operational suitability and performance. All risks and challenges arising during the life cycle of the waste to energy (WtE) project have also been discussed. This paper also gives a comparative overview of different globally accepted MSWM technologies and the present market growth of all WtE technologies. Findings It was found that most developed countries have effectively implemented the solid waste management (SWM) hierarchy and are now focusing heavily on reducing, reusing and recycling of MSW. On the other hand, SWM has become very serious in low-income and low-middle-income countries because most of the MSW openly dumps and most countries are dependent on inadequate waste infrastructure and the informal sector. There are also some other major challenges related to effective waste policies, availability of funds, appropriate technology selection and adequacy of trained people. This study clears the picture of MSW generation, composition, management strategies and policies at the worldwide context. This manuscript could be valuable for all nations around the world where effective MSWM has not yet been implemented. Originality/value This study clears the picture of solid waste generation, composition, management strategies and policies at the worldwide context. This manuscript could be valuable for all nations around the world where effective MSWM has not yet been implemented. In this study, no data was generated. All supporting data were obtained from previously published papers in journals, the outcomes of the international conferences and published reports by government organizations.
... Sadi and Arabkoohsar [5][6][7] combined a solar-concentrating CHP plant with an MSW incineration unit to remove the need for any thermal battery and to obtain stable power and heat outputs, and studied this in various technical, economic and environmental aspects. Bourtsalas et al. [8] investigated the feasibility of an MSW incineration plant for district heating supply in South Korea and concluded that about 1.5 MWh/tonne of MSW net thermal energy could be provided for their case study. Rudra and Tesfagaber [9] analyzed an MSW gasifier plant for cogenerating heat and hydrogen based on a variety of gasification designs/agents. ...
Article
Full-text available
District heating-connected waste incineration plants face a serious operating challenge during the warmer months of the year when the heating load is quite low. The challenge is the difficulty of managing the extra municipal solid waste to be disposed of, exposing great pressure and cost on the plant. Conventionally, the solution is either burning the surplus waste and providing the extra cooling required for the condenser with a summer chiller and paying the tax of the total heat generation of the plant, or paying other industries to burn the waste for their specific applications. Both of these solutions are, however, costly. In this study, to address this challenge the utilization of the extra available resources of waste incineration plants for district cooling supply is proposed. Then, the proposed solution is analyzed from the thermodynamic and economic points of view. The feasibility of the proposal is investigated for a real waste incineration plant in Denmark and its 50 neighboring office/service buildings as the case study. The simulations are done based on real hourly data of the plant and economic parameters. The results show that for the case study for a plant with a thermal capacity of 73 MW, a district cooling with a peak load of over 20 MW could be perfectly supplied. The payback period of the proposed solution, including the cost of piping, absorption chiller, etc., can be as short as five years.
... Processes 2020, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 15 recyclable due to its systematic separation, collection and volume-rate waste disposal system [4]. In the case of energy recovery from MSW, there is strong evidence that high-quality fuel can be produced from it [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gaining energy independence by utilizing new and renewable energy resources has become imperative for Korea. Energy recovery from Korean municipal solid waste (MSW) could be a promising option to resolve the issue, as Korean MSW is highly recyclable due to its systematic separation, collection and volume-based waste disposal system. In this study, gasification experiments were conducted on Korean municipal waste-derived solid fuel (SRF) using a fixed bed reactor by varying the equivalence ratio (ER) to assess the viability of syngas production. Experiments were also conducted on coal and biomass under similar conditions to compare the experimental results, as the gasification applicability of coal and biomass are long-established. Experimental results showed that Korean SRF could be used to recover energy in form of syngas. In particular, 50.94% cold gas efficiency and 54.66% carbon conversion ratio with a lower heating value of 12.57 MJ/Nm 3 can be achieved by gasifying the SRF at 0.4 ER and 900 • C. However, compared to coal and biomass, the syngas efficiency of Korean SRF was less, which can be resolved by operating the gasification processes at high temperatures. If proper research and development activities are conducted on Korean SRF, it could be a good substitute for fossil fuels in the future.
... FAHP has been used for decision making and analysis in the fields of waste management (Che, 2010;Ho, 2011;Kuznichenko et al., 2018;Khoshand et al., 2019;Ocampo, 2019). So far, many studies have been conducted on the conditions of waste generation and management in various locations (Beigl et al., 2008;Saeed et al., 2009;Thi et al., 2015;Mian et al., 2017;Omran et al., 2018;Bourtsalas et al., 2019). However, reviewing the literature did not show any research being conducted on the weaknesses of waste management. ...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Establishing a good sound waste management system for a community requires a comprehensive knowledge of the current status and issues involved in the present waste management system. This research was conducted to identify and prioritize waste management weaknesses in Saravan village of Guilan province, Iran. METHODS: Data were gathered through a descriptive-analytical approach using a purposive sampling and researcher-made questionnaire method. Waste management weaknesses were prioritized by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), and Analytic Network Process (ANP). FINDINGS: The most important weakness of rural waste management in the study area was waste management structure, equipment, and infrastructures weakness (index C) with relative importance values of 38.1% in AHP, 37.3% in FAHP, and 38.2% in ANP approaches. The village inhabitants' weakness (index B) with relative importance values of 16.5% in AHP, 17.2% in FAHP, and 1.4% in ANP had the lowest priority among studied weaknesses. Workforce weakness (index A), and educational and cultural weakness (index D) were the second and third important weaknesses, respectively. The most important sub-indices weakness of these weakness indices were non-compliance of Rural Municipality Manager (RMM) with waste management standards, rules, and regulations; Waste disposal by the village inhabitants at the nearest site; failure to establish a solid waste fix station in the village; and lack of training and awareness of villagers about waste management. CONCLUSION: In order to establish a successful waste management system in rural areas, it is recommended to develop a comprehensive strategy that involves aspects such as; establishing proper waste management infrastructures, employment of skilled staff, and conducting training plans and motivational programs for staff and inhabitants.
... Bourtsalas et al. [3] found that 63% of the WtE plants based on MSWP in South Korea fit with the limits of energy recovery relation as introduced by the EU [4] and estimated that 8% of the DH demand in the country might be provided by WtE facilities coupled to MSWPs. ...
Article
In this paper, municipal solid waste (MSW) based electricity production and district heating (DH) potential of Turkey are considered. Three MSW based waste-to-energy (WtE) scenarios is developed: (i) Scenario-I, a DH system integrated into a gas turbine power plant (GTPP), (ii) Scenario-II, a DH system integrated into an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), and (iii) Scenario-III, which is based solely on a DH system. As a result of the thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyzes of these developed scenarios using an existing MSW-based cogeneration facility's actual operating data, the system with the most extended payback period (about 5 years) is found as the GTPP-DH system developed in Scenario-I, which also has the highest investment cost. On the other hand, the system with the shortest payback period (about 2 years) is found as the DH system developed in Scenario-III, which also has the lowest investment cost. Overall exergy efficiencies of the GTTP-DH, ORC-DH, and DH systems are found to be 41.86%, 16.15%, and 31.87%, respectively. When the developed WtE scenarios adapted to the pilot provinces selected from each geographical region of Turkey, it is found that the GTPP system developed in Scenario-I can increase the power generation capacity of MSW plants for each province by about 20%.
... WTE is a growing technique to efficiently recycle organic waste for energy production, which has been put into use in many areas and countries. Most WTE facilities utilize the incineration technology to burn the waste and collect lowpressure steam for electricity production, district heating, cooling, and other industrial uses (Bourtsalas et al., 2019). After incineration treatment, the volume of MSW waste can be significantly reduced by approximately 85%À90%, the mass by 60%À90%, and the organic matter by approximately 100% (Leckner, 2015). ...
Chapter
Hazardous waste management is one of the most significant sectors in utility services. In view of the growing amount of waste and the shortage of energy and resources, the conventional waste treatment approaches could hardly fulfill the need of sustainable development, and would cause various concerns to the environment, ecological systems, and public health. The current environmental challenges highlight the demands to achieve sustainable development goals (SDG) by means of state-of-the-art technologies to evolve from a linear economy to a circular model. This chapter provides an overview on the current situations and emerging approaches on hazardous waste treatment and remediation. The concept and cutting-edge technologies of sustainable waste management for achieving SDG are discussed. Current waste treatment including landfilling, waste-to-energy technique, hydrothermal treatment, washing and extraction, phytoremediation, bioremediation, sintering and melting, and cement rotary kilns coprocessing, and advanced oxidation and photocatalysis are discussed. As a cost-efficient and promising technology, stabilization/solidification is demonstrated in terms of efficiently treating soil/sediment, industrial waste, and radioactive waste. The work summarizes the state-of-art advances and frontiers on green chemistry, sustainable development, and the circular economy.
Chapter
Solid waste is the unseen side of the circular economy. Governments need innovative policy to create functional markets to keep waste generated within the supply chain. Transitioning to minimal or no net waste requires innovation to avoid compromising quality of life. This means transfer from the current linear thinking model with large expensive centralized infrastructure to discrete distributed chains of infrastructure and using the circular economy principles. Most developed countries have already initiated prevention of waste. The waste management hierarchy (reuse, recovery, recycling, thermal recycling and disposal) can be optimized by innovation. By creating smaller circular waste pathways closer to the source of waste generation, more expensive end of life solutions can be rightsized due to higher resource recovery rates (from 10% up to 80%). The best-case scenario for National level waste resource waste management is 67% material recycling, 25% thermal recycling, and 8% to sanitary landfills. Through further innovation in product design and business delivery models, the thermal destruction and landfill can be further reduced. Extended producer responsibility (EPR) schemes create higher resource recovery efficiency and can be revenue positive to Governments. Through public-private partnership models, these EPR schemes can be digitized to improve the efficiency of circular economy.
Article
Full-text available
Solid waste management is needed by each region as a response to population growth. Nevertheless, there are still many areas that have not been able to provide ideal facilities for good solid waste management. One solution that can be done is to create a solid waste treatment model that is suitable to be applied in Indonesia. By benchmarking in other countries, doing mathematical calculations using life cycle cost analysis, and validating experts. The step resulted in a suitable model applied in Indonesia, namely Waste to Energy with a financing scheme of 60% for the government and 40% for the private sector, an internal rate of return (IRR) of 33.11% and an assumed repayment period of 5 years 122 days.
Article
Despite remarkable progress in catalytic fast pyrolysis, bio-oil production is far from commercialization because of multi-scale challenges, and major constraints lie with catalysts. This review aims to introduce major constraints of acid catalysts and simultaneously to find out possible solutions for the production of fuel-grade bio-oil in biomass catalytic fast pyrolysis. The catalytic activities of several materials which act as acid catalysts and the impacts of Bronsted and Lewis acid site on the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons are discussed. Considering the complexity of catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass with acid catalysts, in-depth understandings of cracking, deoxygenation, carbon-carbon coupling, and aromatization for both in-situ and ex-situ configurations are emphasized. The limitation of diffusion along with coke formation, active site poisoning, thermal/hydrothermal deactivation, sintering, and low aromatics in bio-oil are process complexities with solid acid catalysts. The economic viability of large-scale bio-oil production demands progress in catalyst modification or/and developing new catalysts. The potential of different catalyst modification strategies for an adequate amount of acid sites and pore size confinement is discussed. By critically evaluating the challenges and potential of catalyst modification techniques, multi-functional catalysts may be an effective approach for selective conversion of biomass to bio-oil and chemicals through catalytic fast pyrolysis. This review offers a scientific reference for the research and development of catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass.
Article
Pyrolysis is a waste conversion technology to solve an increasing plastic waste issue worldwide. Waste plastic pyrolysis fuel from a commercial-scale pyrolysis plant (10 ton/day) was comprehensively investigated using distillation methods by separating the crude pyrolysis fuel to isolate the diesel-like pyrolysis fuel fraction (C9–C25 for fraction 2 + fraction 3, middle distillate). Other fractions were C5–C10 for the light distillate (fraction 1), and >C25 for the heavy distillate (fraction 4). The relationship between the fuel boiling point and liquid vapor temperature were found for designing a scaled-up oil separation process. The diesel grade pyrolysis fuel fraction comprised approximately 70–80% of the crude pyrolysis fuel, wherein it had values of 43–45 MJ/kg, 1–6 cSt, and 12–42 mgKOH/goil. Meanwhile, the elemental ratios of the crude pyrolysis oil improved to 0.1 for O/C and 1.9 for H/C after separation, close to petroleum fuels (0.0 O/C and 1.95 H/C). The highest relative chemical composition was the olefins (46% in fraction 1 and 41% in fraction 2), whereas the paraffin was approximately 15–20% in the light fraction. Finally, the potential CO2 reduction for the plastic waste-to-energy process was evaluated, revealing that a total of 0.26 tCO2/tonwaste of emissions could be avoided during the waste plastic pyrolysis process.
Article
To realize the thermal detoxification of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in a relatively mild environment, molten salts thermal treatment technology was proposed in our previous research, which showed good effects. To investigate the properties of molten salts (NaCl-CaCl2) during cycling reusing, the change of the main components and the physical properties of the used molten salts were estimated. Results showed that the salts in fly ash would dissolve into molten salts. During this process, the concentration of K⁺, SO4²⁻ kept increasing while Cl⁻ was decreased. The changing trend of Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ was dependent on the ratio of Ca/Na in raw fly ash. Ca(OH)2 in fly ash would react with CaCl2 to form CaClOH. Moreover, the introduction of the salt components on the thermal properties of molten salts were also studied. The melting point hardly changed by NaCl, CaSO4, and SiO2. Nevertheless, it was lowered to 431 oC with 15% CaCO3 addition, while increased to 523 oC with 20% KCl. Besides, there were no significant influences on the viscosity, stability, and thermal diffusivity of molten salts. KCl had the greatest influence on the specific heat capacity of molten salt, with an increase of about 20%.
Article
Management of solid recovered fuel (SRF) in South Korea is unique from most other countries in that it is based on a single standard. All SRFs are distributed at the same price irrespective of their performance, resulting in utilization problems and a low degree of acceptance among consumers. Moreover, the difficulty of temperature maintenance during transportation, excessive ash content, and the use of inappropriate microwave acid digestion methods pose challenges to SRF reliability. To address these issues, we compared the relevant management statuses in South Korea with those of the international community and reviewed the effects of the transportation temperature, ash content, and microwave acid digestion technique. The moisture, ash, sulfur, and chlorine contents as well as the lower heating values (LHVs) of all the samples from South Korea were found to be below the standard [international] thresholds, and they were barely influenced by the transportation temperature. In addition, 5 g samples were found to be more appropriate for ash content analysis than the 20 g samples used in South Korea, with the former producing smaller standard deviations. The optimal microwave acid digestion conditions were also determined to be a reaction time with nitric acid of >10 min, temperature of 180 °C, and microwave power of 600 W. The results of this study highlight the need for revising the SRF test methods used in South Korea, to boost the market and enhance quality reliability.
Article
This study aimed to examine the government’s cost efficiency considering the high-risk/high-return mechanism of PPP. Faced with increasing demand but with limited budget, the Korean government has relied on the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) to provide waste treatment services for the last couple of decades to expand fiscal space. However, most of waste treatment facilities projects have been promoted using the BTO (Build-Transfer-Operate) method with high rate of return due to the demand risk that is transferred to the private. We performed a conversion analysis of a BTO to a BTL (Build-Transfer-Lease) method, in which demand risk is borne by the government, for 18 PPP waste treatment cases with actual operation records. The result of comparing the life-cycle costs of government in employing each project method shows that the BTL can provide 5.26% of Value for Money (VfM) compared to the BTO as the government takes the demand risk and lowers the required rate of return of the private. This implies that transferring the demand risk to the private sector may not always be the best option for the government. From the government’s perspective, instead of transferring the demand risk to the private and providing a high rate of return, the government can retain the demand risk and reduce the rate of return, and it can be fiscally more advantageous considering the cost structure of each PPP method. Through Korean PPP waste treatment cases, this study suggests that policy makers who implement PPP should consider the government’s strategic risk sharing by understanding the predictability of demand and the nature of cost structure of each PPP method.
Article
Electrification in energy supply-demand plays a critical role in domestic heating and road transport, delivering an electrified community to reduce carbon emissions. This solution, however, places a significant power demand increase on the distribution networks. To ensure the security of electricity supply, an efficient energy system and energy demand reduction are essential. In this paper, a multi-vector community energy system, applying an electrified heating network, electric vehicle smart charging, community-scale peak shaving and photovoltaic (PV) generation, is demonstrated in three models to manage an electrified community. Firstly, a heating network model, comprising a central ground source heat pump, low-temperature district heating system, electric heaters and thermal storage, is established to measure the optimum distribution temperature. Next, an electrified community model illustrates hourly electricity demands and performances of a community energy system, which is then used to identify the required degree of housing thermal efficiency improvement (i.e., heating demand reduction). The third model evaluates decentralised PV/storage units to maintain the power demand below a targeted power. Modelling results show that the demand ratio of domestic hot water to space heating determines the distribution temperature, which indicates the temperature is increasing with growing housing thermal efficiency. Moreover, the electrification of a community could increase the peak power demand on the highest demand day by over five times, converting heating demands into electricity directly. This significant peak demand can be possibly reduced to only a 33% increase by employing a community energy system. The model of PV/storage units is validated through a 12-week assessment. Ultimately, a modelling tool is developed by assembling the mentioned models, providing four pathways to attain electrification. Users can adjust specific parameters and database to align with the local conditions. The results indicate the requirements of building a community energy system and electricity demands in the highest consumption period.
Article
The advancement of Circular Economy practices has accelerated the development of recovery operations in waste management. Moreover, novel Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants go well beyond the conventional framework of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production and have also focused on the recovery of metals or the secondary production of other products. Thus, an integrated methodology needs to be utilised for the holistic assessment of novel WtE plants. The previously introduced 3T Method is a thermodynamic approach that assesses not only the CHP efficiency but also the quality of the recovered materials/products. Nonetheless, this method operates optimally in net energy producing facilities. This study introduces an outranking multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) method that incorporates the 3T method and can be used for the assessment of WtE plants that produce valuable materials (like gasification plants) and biorefineries. The thermodynamic parameters that are used in the 3T Method were integrated in a MCDA tool based on the PROMETHEE-GAIA methods and five WtE plants were analysed. The proposed tool successfully assessed the production of materials from Plant D with Phi flows of 0.4583 and 0.3682 for scenarios 1 & 2, while also evaluating positively the high CHP efficiency of Plant C with Phi flows of 0.0417 and 0.0864, respectively. Overall, the PROMETHEE-GAIA MCDA tool kept most of the positive attributes of the 3T Method, while enhancing at the same time the role of materials in the assessment process. This proposed tool can develop to be a useful method for assessment for biorefineries.
Article
Full-text available
In 2006, the U.S. EPA published an inventory of dioxin emissions for the U.S. covering the period from 1987-2000. This paper is an updated inventory of all U.S. dioxin emissions to the atmosphere in the year 2012. The sources of emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), collectively referred to in this paper as "dioxins", were separated into two classes: controlled industrial and open burning sources. Controlled source emissions decreased 95.5% from 14.0kgTEQ in 1987 to 0.6kg in 2012. Open burning source emissions increased 44% from 2.3kgTEQ in 1987 to 3.3kg in 2012. The 2012 dioxin emissions from 53 U.S. waste-to-energy (WTE) power plants were compiled on the basis of detailed data obtained from the two major U.S. WTE companies, representing 84% of the total MSW combusted (27.4million metric tons). The dioxin emissions of all U.S. WTE plants in 2012 were 3.4gTEQ and represented 0.54% of the controlled industrial dioxin emissions, and 0.09% of all dioxin emissions from controlled and open burning sources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Article
Full-text available
The statistical entropy (SE) function has been applied to waste treatment systems to account for dilution or concentration effects on metals. We later extended it to account for carbon flows, especially in waste management systems involving thermal treatment. Now, a simple lifecycle "net energy" metric - encompassing the "lost energy" that would have been gained when high-calorific materials are landfilled rather than combusted with energy recovery - is introduced to account for additional influxes of carbon when using landfilling as the primary disposal method. When combining net energy calculations and long terms effects of landfilling, waste to energy (WTE) becomes a more attractive option for dealing with non-recycled municipal solid waste (MSW). A greenhouse gas- forcing factor is also introduced to account for the entropy generating effects of methane. When incorporating forcing and lost energy, WTE performs notably better than landfills with respect to entropy generation and carbon.
Article
Full-text available
In low- and middle-income developing countries, the informal (collection and) recycling sector (here abbreviated IRS) is an important, but often unrecognised, part of a city's solid waste and resources management system. Recent evidence shows recycling rates of 20-30% achieved by IRS systems, reducing collection and disposal costs. They play a vital role in the value chain by reprocessing waste into secondary raw materials, providing a livelihood to around 0.5% of urban populations. However, persisting factual and perceived problems are associated with IRS (waste-picking): occupational and public health and safety (H&S), child labour, uncontrolled pollution, untaxed activities, crime and political collusion. Increasingly, incorporating IRS as a legitimate stakeholder and functional part of solid waste management (SWM) is attempted, further building recycling rates in an affordable way while also addressing the negatives. Based on a literature review and a practitioner's workshop, here we develop a systematic framework-or typology-for classifying and analysing possible interventions to promote the integration of IRS in a city's SWM system. Three primary interfaces are identified: between the IRS and the SWM system, the materials and value chain, and society as a whole; underlain by a fourth, which is focused on organisation and empowerment. To maximise the potential for success, IRS integration/inclusion/formalisation initiatives should consider all four categories in a balanced way and pay increased attention to their interdependencies, which are central to success, including specific actions, such as the IRS having access to source separated waste. A novel rapid evaluation and visualisation tool is presented-integration radar (diagram) or InterRa-aimed at illustrating the degree to which a planned or existing intervention considers each of the four categories. The tool is further demonstrated by application to 10 cases around the world, including a step-by-step guide.
Article
Full-text available
Many thousands of people in developing country cities depend on recycling materials from waste for their livelihoods. With the focus of the Millennium Development Goals on poverty reduction, and of waste strategies on improving recycling rates, one of the major challenges in solid waste management in developing countries is how best to work with this informal sector to improve their livelihoods, working conditions and efficiency in recycling. The general characteristics of informal recycling are reviewed, highlighting both positive and negative aspects. Despite the health and social problems associated with informal recycling, it provides significant economic benefits that need to be retained. Experience shows that it can be highly counterproductive to establish new formal waste recycling systems without taking into account informal systems that already exist. The preferred option is to integrate the informal sector into waste management planning, building on their practices and experience, while working to improve efficiency and the living and working conditions of those involved. Issues associated with integrating informal recycling into the formal waste management sector are discussed
Article
Full-text available
Energy from waste (EfW) for nonrecyclable wastes is a suitable method of waste management and is important for renewable energy production. South Korea currently recycles 57% of household waste and landfills 26%. The remaining 17% is incinerated, mainly for heat production. In this study, the potential for energy production and reduction of corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) in Korea was estimated without accounting for the lifecycle impact of waste management. The properties of the MSW were established from data available in national-scale waste surveys and reports. The potential of EfW for GHG emission reduction was calculated considering (1) the direct release of anthropogenic carbon, nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4); and (2) the reduction in indirect GHG emissions by fossil fuel displacement. CH4 emissions from landfilling were also estimated from biogenic carbon in waste. Applying the resulting emission factors to various EfW cases suggests that the current level of GHG emissions is significant but can be substantially reduced by increased use of EfW. A net reduction in GHG emissions can be achieved only by EfW with combined heat and power (CHP).
Article
Full-text available
This work was part of a major study that examined the policy and technology implications of alternatives for managing the municipal solid wastes (MSW) of New York City. At this time, of the 4.1 million metric tons of MSW collected by the City annually, 16.6% are recycled, 12.4% are combusted in Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants, and the remaining 71% are landfilled. Despite the heterogeneity of organic materials in MSW, the composite molecular structure can be approximated by the organic compound C6H10O4. A formula was derived that allows the prediction of the heating value of MSW as a function of moisture and glass/metal content and compares well with experimentally derived values. The performance of a leading Waste-to-Energy plant that utilises suspension firing of shredded MSW, processes one million tons of MSW per year, and generates a net of 610 kWh/metric ton was examined. The results of this study showed that WTE processing of the MSW reduces fossil fuel consumption and is environmentally superior to landfilling.
Article
The management of infrastructure in Korea has been restricted to simple history management and manual post-maintenance activities after construction. Thus, there has been a lack of an optimum managerial and economic approaches, such as the minimization of the total cost of assets from a life-cycle perspective. Moreover, as Korea׳s National Accounting Standards obligate the reporting of national asset assessment to the National Assembly every year in order to improve management performance measurement of public institutions and transparency of government accounting, the importance of asset management in infrastructures is expected to become increasingly pronounced. Therefore, this study examined the current institutional status on sustainable infrastructure asset management in Korea and focused on the country׳s future policy directivity regarding this subject. The methodology in this study is as follows. First, since the concept and systems of asset management in domestic infrastructures are insufficient, the concept of asset management, subjects of asset management, and systems in developed nations were examined along with those of Korea. Second, the current status of asset management in domestic and overseas infrastructures was analyzed in order to determine the justification for legal legislation of asset management in developed nations and to inspect the current status and challenges of infrastructure asset management in Korea. Third, sustainable policy directivity for settlement and encouragement of infrastructure asset management was proposed, such as the preparation of the legal basis for an asset management guidance system, the development of a general asset management manual for infrastructures, and the development of an indicator for practical price reassessments.
Article
For more than a decade, South Korea has been ranked first among the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) members in their municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling rate. One of the major contributing factors for its outstanding MSW recycling performance is the volume-based waste fee (VWF) system implemented in 1995. Despite the perceived success of VWF, there has been few research conducted that has sought to demonstrate the success of the policy in an empirical manner. Research conducted currently on VWF in South Korea tends to have limitations in empirical approaches and identifying the intervention effect of VWF on recycling performance. This study attempts to empirically test whether the adoption of VWF positively affected recycling performance in Korea over time. The findings suggest that although there was a dramatic increase of the recycling rate with the introduction of VWF in 1995, Korea's MSW recycling performance settled back again and showed the constant pace after the intervention. No significant differences in recycling rate were found between before and after 1995 period. In conclusion, implications and suggestions for both research and practice are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
In the history of waste management in Korea, systematic and integrated management started in the middle of the 1980s with the establishment of the Waste Management Law. By enforcing several specialized, discrete acts under this basic law and imposing extended producer responsibility as well as a volume-based garbage rate system based on the concept of polluter payment, waste management has become more effective for both general household waste and industrial hazardous/massive waste. The management mainly involves not only a reduction in waste generation, but also appropriate treatment and maximum recycling of the waste. Recent policy trends have focused on converting wastes into resources, and these have led to the implementation of “waste to energy and resources” and a “sustainable and circulation society” in the present and future plans for waste management. A new law called “Promotion Law for Achieving a Resource Circulation Society” meant to replace the basic law and to create a platform of resource circulation, is currently under review. This law integrates all the existing laws and acts to utilize waste more efficiently as a resource, and it has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of wastes landfilled. Details of the history and background of previous waste management efforts, recent movements and current status, and future pathways for achieving a resource circulation society are introduced. This could promote the establishment of a zero waste society and also extend the life of waste landfill facilities in Korea.
Article
A technical analysis has been completed for a commercial-scale two-stage gasification-combustion system. The CLEERGAS (Covanta Low Emissions Energy Recovery GASification) process consists of partial combustion and gasification of as-received municipal solid waste (MSW) on a moving grate producing syngas followed by full combustion of the generated syngas in an adjoining chamber and boiler. This process has been in operation since 2009 on a modified 330-tonne day(-1) waste-to-energy (WTE) line in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Material balances determined that the syngas composition is 12.8% H2 and 11.4% CO, the heating value of the gas in the gasifier section is 4098 kJ Nm(-3), and an aggregate molecular formula for the waste is C6H14.5O5. The analysis of gas measurements sampled from the Tulsa unit showed that the gasification-combustion mode fully processed the MSW at an excess air input of only 20% as compared to the 80-100% typically found in conventional WTE moving grate plants. Other important attributes of the CLEERGAS gasification-combustion process are that it has operated on a commercial scale for a period of over two years with 93% availability and utilizes a moving grate technology that is currently used in hundreds of WTE plants around the world.
Article
The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management.
Article
The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N(2)O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N(2)O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N(2)O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N(2)O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153g-N(2)O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N(2)O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N(2)O emissions.
Waste Management in Korea. MBA White Paper, University of North Carolina. Available at: extranet. kenan-flagler
  • H Ahn
  • S Hwang
  • K Kim
  • H Lee
  • S Park
  • K Suk
Ahn, H., Hwang, S., Kim, K., Lee, H., Park, S. & Suk, K., 2007. Waste Management in Korea. MBA White Paper, University of North Carolina. Available at: extranet. kenan-flagler.unc.edu/kicse/ORIG%20Shared%20Documents/Waste% 20Management%20in%20Korea.pdf (accessed: November 2017)
3R Portfolio: good practices to promote the 3Rs (Republic of Korea)
  • D Y Ju
Ju, D.Y., 2005. 3R Portfolio: good practices to promote the 3Rs (Republic of Korea). In: In ministerial conference on the 3R initiative, pp. 28-30. Available at: www. env.go.jp/recycle/3r/en/info/05_12.pdf (accessed: November 2017).
Performance of Waste Management Policy in Korea
  • K Kim
Kim, K., 2008. Performance of Waste Management Policy in Korea. Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea.
Current status of waste generation and treatment (in Korean)
  • Ministry
  • Environment
Ministry of Environment, Government of the Republic of Korea. 1997 to 2015. Current status of waste generation and treatment (in Korean). Available at: http://eng.me.go.kr/eng/web/index.do?menuId=394 (accessed: November 2017)
Municipal solid waste management in Asia and the Pacific Islands
  • A Pariatamby
  • M Tanaka
Pariatamby, A., Tanaka, M., 2014. Municipal solid waste management in Asia and the Pacific Islands. Environmental Science. Springer, Singapore.
The effective policy of extended producer responsibility
  • G S Park
Park, G.S., 2008. The effective policy of extended producer responsibility. The Monthly Packaging World 177, 70-78.
3R policies of Korea. Ministry of Environment, Seoul
  • J W Park
Park, J. W.,2009. 3R policies of Korea. Ministry of Environment, Seoul. (accessed: November 2017)
Current MSW Management and Waste-to-Energy Status in the Republic of Korea
  • Y Seo
Seo, Y., 2013. Current MSW Management and Waste-to-Energy Status in the Republic of Korea. Master's dissertation, Department of Earth and Environmental. Engineering, Columbia University. Available at: www.seas.columbia.edu/ earth/wtert/sofos/YS%20Thesis_final_Nov3.pdf.
A study on The Extended Producer Responsibility System as a Waste Management Policy
  • C J Son
Son, C.J., 2012. A study on The Extended Producer Responsibility System as a Waste Management Policy. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Seokyeong.
Guidebook for the application of Waste to Energy Technologies in Latin America and the Caribbean, EEC-Columbia sponsored by the Interamerican Development Bank
  • N J Themelis
  • M E Barriga
  • P Estevez
  • M G Velasco
Themelis, N.J., Barriga, M.E., Estevez, P., Velasco M.G., 2013: Guidebook for the application of Waste to Energy Technologies in Latin America and the Caribbean, EEC-Columbia sponsored by the Interamerican Development Bank. Available at: http://www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/wtert/pressreleases/ Guidebook_WTE_v5_July25_2013.pdf