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Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning –Competence-based ProfessionalDevelopment for Vocational Teachers (Doctoral Dissertation)

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Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning – Competence-based Professional Development for Vocational Teachers Rovaniemi: University of Lapland 2019, 175 p. Acta Universitas Lapponiensis 380 Thesis: University of Lapland, Faculty of Education ISBN 978-952-337-109-5 ISSN 0788-7604 In the digital era, institutions of vocational education and training (VET) have emerged as transformational and flexible development environments; consequently, it is important to develop digital professional learning opportunities for vocational teachers who need to meet the requirements of their working lives. More research regarding such opportunities is needed in order to find new tools for planning and conducting studies on continuing professional development and to achieve and maintain the versatile competences required in vocational teachers’ demanding careers. This study aims to fill a research gap regarding advanced competence-based professional development by investigating the process of digital open badge-driven learning in the context of professional teacher education (vocational teacher education). The research question considers how digital open badges structure the gamified competence-based learning process in the continuing professional development of vocational pre- and in-service teachers. Theoretically, this study draws attention to the motivational effects of digital badging, gamification and the competence-based approach. The research aimed to explore vocational teachers’ different ideas, views and experiences of the competence-based approach to professional development of digital pedagogical competences; it also sought to investigate the structure and process of digital open badge-driven learning. The data were collected from Finnish pre- and in-service vocational teachers (n=29) in 2016 via group online interviews (n=6) and via online questionnaires in 2017 (n=329). The study draws on descriptive mixed research methodologies: qualitative content analysis, constrained correspondence analysis (CCA) and phenomenography. All of these approaches provide researchers with deep conceptual understandings and opportunities to draw new concepts and derive implications for novel educational practices. Further, the latter two studies provide a strong underpinning for further research related to the descriptive quantitative methodology and CCA. 8 • Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning – Competence-based Professional Development for Vocational Teachers The aim of the first sub-study was to reveal what motivates students in the badge-driven learning process. The study focused on mapping students’ experiences of stimulating and supportive digital open badge-driven learning, ultimately determining motivational factors affecting the digital open badge-driven learning process. The findings present a multifaceted model of recognising competence and embracing gamified learning to encourage students’ achievement orientation and intrinsic motivation. In the second sub-study, we viewed the process from the perspective of guidance and scaffolding, asking how students experience scaffolding in badge-driven learning. The results indicate that a stage model of scaffolding and instructional badging holds value in structuring the badge-driven learning process. The third study aimed to identify students who were particularly motivated by digital open badge-driven learning. The research question sought to explore what triggers learning in the badge-driven process, with results indicating similarities and differences in experiences based on the achieved skill-set level and competence-development continuum for vocational teachers. The findings also suggest the value of applying gamification and digital badging in the professional development of both pre- and in-service teachers. Based on our findings, we propose digital open badge-driven learning triggered by flexible study options that include customising studies and learning new and up-to-date competences. The final and fourth study further describes vocational pre- and in-service teachers’ experiences of the competence-based approach in digital open badge-driven learning. By explaining different aspects of the phenomenon, the study employed both constrained correspondence analysis and phenomenography to deepen our existing knowledge of digital open badge-driven learning. The results describe the impact of the competence-based approach on teachers’ professional development during the digital open badge-driven learning process. Each of the four sub-studies contribute to answering the study’s overarching research question: how do digital open badges structure the gamified competence-based learning process in the continuing professional development of vocational pre- and in-service teachers? The primary results from the various sub-studies and theoretical approaches culminate in defining digital open badge-driven learning process grounded on the badge constellation of competences. The entity of digital open badge-driven learning includes learning materials, badge criteria, instructional badging, scaffolding and peer support. This study offers insights into the process structure and layered design for applying the competence-based approach, digital open badges and gamification in professional development. Further, the process approach embodies the ideal of study path customisation and personalisation in order to meet teachers’ personal needs for their working lives. Keywords: Digital Open Badges, Competence-based Approach, Motivation, Gamification, Professional Development, Vocational Teachers
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... Koulutuksen järjestäjiä osaamismerkit auttavat kestävien toimintamallien rakentamisessa jäsentäen ja järjestäen pienempiä osaamiskokonaisuuksia eli "micro-credentiaaleja" tavoitteellisen jatkuvan oppimisen tarjonnaksi. Osaamismerkein ohjautuva oppiminen (Brauer, 2019) tarkasteleekin osaamisen kehittämistä jatkumona, jossa osaamismerkit dokumentoivat myös henkilökohtaisen kehittymissuunnitelman. Osaamismerkit ja ePortfoliot tekevät näkyväksi osaamista, jolla on merkitystä myös ammatti-identiteetin kehittymisen sekä työllistymisen näkökulmasta (Brauer & Korhonen, 2022). ...
... Ammatilliset opettajakorkeakoulut ovat olleet ensimmäisten joukossa kehittämässä digitaalisia osaamismerkkejä sekä niitä hyödyntäviä oppimisprosesseja ja soveltavaa tutkimusta. Osaamismerkein ohjautuvan oppimisen malli (Brauer, 2019) pohjautuu Oppiminen Online -osaamisen kehittämisohjelmasta (2014-) saatuihin hyviin kokemuksiin. Oppiminen online (http://www.oppiminenonline.com/) on pelillistetty osaamisen kehittämisohjelma, jossa merkit haetaan ja myönnetään Open Badge Factory -järjestelmässä. ...
... Osaamisen osoittamisen tapa, siihen liittyvä ohjeistus ja merkkihakemukseen liitettävä todiste saavutetusta osaamisesta ovat konkreettisia välineitä kontekstoida opittavaa sisältöä sekä ottaa aidosti käyttöön saavutettu osaaminen autenttisessa tai sitä simuloivassa kontekstissa. Eri elementtejä painottamalla voidaan vaikuttaa niin opiskelijan motivaatioon kuin oppimisprosessin toiminnallisuuteen (Brauer, 2019). Osaamismerkkien avulla laajasti määriteltyjen osaamistavoitteiden tiettyjä osa-alueita voidaan tarkentaa tai niitä voidaan painottaa esimerkiksi paikallisesti tärkeillä sisällöillä ja näkökulmilla. ...
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Tässä artikkelissa tarkastelemme laajemmalla makrotasolla osaamisperustaisen opetussuunnitelman kontekstointia korkeakoulutuksessa ja erityisesti osaamismerkkien hyödyntämistä tässä työssä. Lähestymme aihetta konkreettisin esimerkein. Kuvaamme, mitä osaamismerkit ovat ja miten korkeakoulupedagogista kehittämistä voidaan hahmottaa niiden avulla. Pohdimme ja arvioimme kontekstoinnin mahdollisuuksia ja haasteita korkeakoulutuksen opetussuunnitelmatyössä huomioiden korkeakoulupedagogiikan moninaisuuden. Lopuksi kuvaamme, miten osaamismerkkejä voidaan tarkastella korkeakoulupedagogisena työkaluna.
... Osaamismerkit edistävät opiskelijoiden etenemistä opinnoissa ja tukevat edelleen heidän työllistymistään [3] [4]. Osaamismerkkien kehittäminen vaatii osaamista ja hyväksi havaittujen mallien soveltamista edelleen. ...
... Osaamismerkin avulla opiskelija voi osoittaa opintojen aikana syntynyttä osaamista, joka ei tule näkyviin tutkintotodistuksessa [3]. Myös epävirallinen ja arkioppiminen jää usein työelämässä todentamatta ja koulutuksessa hyödyntämättä. ...
... Osaamismerkit ovat kriteeriperusteinen tapa kehittää [6] [7] ja todentaa eri tavoin hankittua osaamista [3] [8]. Lisäksi ne tukevat vuoropuhelua merkinsaajan, työelämän, oppilaitoksen ja koulutuksen kehittäjien välillä [9]. ...
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... When searching answers to these questions the main question relates to the audience: to whom the achieved competences are informed. If we think about the relationship between ePortfolios and open badges we may consider the Barrett's (2010) two faces of ePortfolios combined with open badge-driven learning structure (Brauer, 2019). Barrett (2010) pointed out that individuals should consider what work they are so proud of that it might be shared. ...
... Barrett (2010) pointed out that individuals should consider what work they are so proud of that it might be shared. Badges offer to inform learning outcomes, but also support collaboration, creating new learning communities and shared practices (Brauer, 2019). Digital open badges are electronic microcredentials that can be used to identify and promote excellence and mastery with a detailed knowledge and expertise criteria as well as a description of the evidence. ...
... Digital open badges are electronic microcredentials that can be used to identify and promote excellence and mastery with a detailed knowledge and expertise criteria as well as a description of the evidence. Brauer (2019) suggests digital open badges as a tool for individuals seeking to identify personal competences or to comprehend the needs of development in practice. Digital open badges offer to inform and improve both professional development and professional knowledge constructions to develop different competences. ...
Conference Paper
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The fundamental changes in the world of work increase the need for effective competence development to meet local challenges and unique professional needs. Creating workspace ePortfolios is relevant for learning and professional growth. When using ePortfolios for career purposes, showcases are used. These two phases of ePortfolios are recognised and the assessment of showcase ePortfolios is discussed in this paper through the digital open badge concept. Both ePortfolios and open badges offer to make competences visible in digital format such as by text, photos, figures, and videos. Thus, open badges have become a modern approach in educational practices as a way to demonstrate and assess competences in authentic contexts. The badge concept gives opportunities also to create so called mini portfolios. The aim is to make individuals' competences visible during the studies, at the moment of employment and in the continuous development of professional expertise. This conference paper summarises the latest research concerning ePortfolios and digital open badges as showcases. We discuss the relationship between ePortfolios and open badges, and the principles for designing thematically organised and retrospective showcase ePortfolios for different purposes.
... At the time when research was conducted, it was revealed that the tutorials from u-tubes were concrete and interactive platforms for learners get accessed to "learning by doing" indeed by own self. Visual aids normally create an effective implementation of psychomotor domain which is easily captured through the use of 'touch training' what was also said by Brauer (2019). It is through use of visual media what enhances simulation studies, the embarkation over effective learning by doing. ...
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The study aimed at assessing the factors for effective implementation of competence Based Education and Training (CBET) where Information and Communication Technology (ICT) was a mediating variable. The study was carried out in Mbeya from four selected VET and NACTE Colleges including Kyela Polytechnic College; VET and NACTE College; VET-Mbeya Zonal Office; and KAP’S Community Development Institute. The causal-effect design was applied while cluster sampling was used to drive to 300 sample of Tutors, Principals, Deputy Principal- Academic, Registrars and management from a total of 1,200. Data from the obtained sample frame was collected using questionnaire. The collected data were subjected to data cleaning and normality testing. Moreover the cleaned data were subjected for factor analysis, reliability and validity testing through SEM employment. From the analysis, it was found that ICT positively and significantly moderate students’ centered teaching curriculum, learning by doing and discoveries in effective and quick adoption and implementation of CBET. It is from this innovation what this study recommends that VET and NACTE Colleges have to adopt and use ICT technologies for quick and effective implementation of CBET.
... The Digital open badge-driven learning process encourages students to assess their recent performance as well as their acquired skills and prior learning (Brauer, 2019). Open badges have grown in popularity in recent years and have become a standard feature of many learning management systems (Liyanagunawardena et al., 2017). ...
Conference Paper
In vocational education, digital badges can supplement a student's achievement by helping them connect their on-campus experiences to those outside of the classroom as internship attachments, encouraging them to think and apply the knowledge gained through learning to real-life situations. This article discusses the perceptions of participants in a digital badge pilot system developed to support vocational education with internship attachment to identify user experience satisfaction that is critical to the design of a digital badge initiative. The purpose of this exploratory case study was to understand how students, employers, and teachers perceived the use of a digital badge pilot system to track student portfolios for internship attachment. Data collection included an online survey of students, employers, and teachers after the launch of the pilot system. Results were satisfactory from all stakeholders who have used the pilot system which will also be used to further develop a successful digital badge initiative to customize the system to support the internship attachment scheme.
... Se edellyttää uutta, työelämälähtöistä ja monimuotoista koulutustarjontaa. Osaamista tulee voida hankkia ja kerryttää yhä useammasta lähteestä opintojen sekä myöhemmin työuran aikana [17]. Jatkuvan oppimisen tulisi olla työpaikoilla strateginen osa toimintaa ja toimintatapoja [18]. ...
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Työelämäpedagogiikalla tavoitellaan toimintamalleja, joissa korkeakoulut ja työelämä luovat yhdessä teoriaa ja käytäntöä yhdistäviä oppimisympäristöjä. Oamkin hybridiympäristöjen kokonaisuus yksi monialaisimmista suomalaisessa korkeakoulutuksessa. Kehittyvien oppimisympäristöjen lisäksi jatkuvan oppimisen tueksi tarvitaan uutta, työelämälähtöistä ja monimuotoista koulutustarjontaa. Kun toimintaympäristöt digitalisoituvat, asettaa se osaamiselle kasvavia vaatimuksia. Uuden tiedon löytäminen ja hyödyntäminen on tärkeä osa myös opetussuunnitelmatyötä, opetuksen pedagogista suunnittelua, tiedon työpaikkasovellusten pohdintaa ja lopulta opitun soveltamista yksilötasolla. Integratiivisessa pedagogiikassa on kyse erilaisten asiantuntijuuden elementtien yhdistämisestä oppimisen ja työskentelyn aikana, esimerkiksi käytännön harjoitusten avulla tai soveltamalla teoreettista tietoa käytäntöön. Integratiivinen pedagogiikka ei itsessään ole menetelmä, vaan pedagoginen malli, jota sovellettaessa voidaan hyödyntää monenlaisia eri menetelmiä. Integratiivinen malli auttaa suunnittelemaan teoriaa ja käytäntöä yhdistäviä opintoja esimerkiksi työelämäprojektien avulla.
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Chapter
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Full text of this item is not currently available on the LRA. The final published version is available from http://www.uk.sagepub.com.
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"Digital open badges describe in detail the expertise and professional competencies achieved in digital environments. “Learning Online” is a Finnish national professional development programme (PDP) of digital pedagogical competencies for vocational teachers. This study aims to identify the students who are particularly motivated by digital open badge-driven learning. The research question asks what triggers learning in such a badge-driven process." Read more https://www.abdn.ac.uk/eitn/journal/545/
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Background: Digital open badges support competence-based professional development and criteria-based assessment of competences in digital environments. As the use of digital badges is growing rapidly, there is a need for in-depth pedagogical understanding to enable effective classroom application. Purpose: This study seeks to examine the stages of online scaffolding and instructional badging in the digital open badge-driven learning process. We researched students’ experiences of scaffolding in badge-driven learning. Sample: Data were collected from group online interviews (n = 6) with trained Finnish vocational teachers (n = 17) and students of vocational teacher education (n = 12) who earned badges of digital pedagogical competences in the national Professional Development (PD) programme called ‘Learning Online’. Design and methods: This qualitative study was conducted via data-driven content analysis. Hierarchically inclusive relationships were analysed in an ongoing comparison to examine the stages of scaffolding in the digital open badge-driven learning process. The findings were mapped against Salmon’s five-stage-model to represent individual and group thinking regarding a specific concept at a particular time. Findings: The findings reflect students’ experiences and provide insights regarding the optimal form of assessments and scaffolding. They further illustrate the challenges and opportunities involved in badge-driven learning from the perspective of professional development. Conclusions: Based on the findings, we raise questions for further research and suggest a practical approach to help teachers to plan and conduct scaffolding and instructional badging in the digital open badge-driven learning environment. KEYWORDS: Competence-based-approach, digital open badges, professional development, scaffolding, vocational teachers, lifelong learning
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Full paper avaible from http://jied.org/proceedings/iED_EUROPE_2013.pdf#page=129 Abstract. This paper discusses the changes required in the future physical and virtual learning environments. The paper briefly introduces the preliminary findings of the case study of changing physical spaces towards more immersive and user-friendly learning environments. This paper provides information for facilitating a development of teacher training, and how to change traditional physical learning environments towards future learning spaces taking into account immersive environments. It is important to develop learning environments for the 21st century learners by taking into account pedagogy, architecture and technology approaches and being able to change school working culture including changes in teaching, leadership, technologies and physical school infrastructure. Keywords. immersive, collaboration, physical learning environment, virtual learning environment, virtual worlds, vocational education
Chapter
Avointen osaamismerkkien (Open Badges) suosio ja käyttöönotto on kasvussa. Suosio on lähtenyt liikkeelle Amerikasta ja on juurtunut hiljalleen Eurooppaan. Osaamismerkit ovat saaneet alkunsa osana massiivisia verkkokursseja (MOOC) ja tulevaisuudessa nähdäänkin niiden kulkevan toisiaan tukien. Kyseessä on digitaalinen merkki, joka visuaalisesti osoittaa henkilön osaamista.