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Nutritional and Health Benefits of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.): A Review


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Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., which is commonly known as jackfruit is a tropical climacteric fruit, belonging to Moraceae family, is native to Western Ghats of India and common in Asia, Africa, and some regions in South America. It is known to be the largest edible fruit in the world. Jackfruit is rich in nutrients including carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Both the seeds and the flesh of jackfruit are consumed as curries and boiled forms, while the flesh in fully ripen stage can be eaten directly as a fruit. Several countries have developed different food products such as jam, jellies, marmalades, and ice creams using pureed jackfruit. The several parts of jack tree including fruits, leaves, and barks have been extensively used in traditional medicine due to its anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and hypoglycemic effects. Despite all these benefits, unfortunately, the fruit is underutilized in commercial scale processing in regions where it is grown. The aim of this review is to disseminate the knowledge on nutritional and health benefits of jackfruit, in order to promote utilization of jackfruit for commercial scale food production.
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Review Article
Nutritional and Health Benefits of Jackfruit (Artocarpus
heterophyllus Lam.): A Review
R. A. S. N. Ranasinghe ,S.D.T.Maduwanthi , and R. A. U. J. Marapana
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
Received 27 July 2018; Revised 19 November 2018; Accepted 2 December 2018; Published 6 January 2019
Academic Editor: Amy Simonne
Copyright ©  R. A. S. N. Ranasinghe et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., which is commonly known as jackfruit is a tropical climactericfruit, belonging to Moraceae family,
is native to Western Ghats of India and common in Asia, Africa, and some regions in South America. It is known to be the largest
edible fruit in the world. Jackfruit is rich in nutrients including carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals.
Both the seeds and the esh of jackfruit are consumed as curries and boiled forms, while the esh in fully ripen stage can be eaten
directly as a fruit. Several countries have developed dierent food products such as jam, jellies, marmalades, and ice creams using
pureed jackfruit. e several parts of jack tree including fruits, leaves, and barks have been extensively used in traditional medicine
due to its anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inammatory, wound healing, and hypoglycemic eects. Despite all
these benets, unfortunately, the fruit is underutilized in commercial scale processing in regions where it is grown. e aim of this
review is to disseminate the knowledge on nutritional and health benets of jackfruit, in order to promote utilization of jackfruit
for commercial scale food production.
1. Introduction
Jackfruit is one of the commonly consumed foods in Sri
Lanka from the ancient time. It is a nonseasonal fruit and
had a major contribution to the food supply of the people and
their livestock when there were short supplies of staple food
grains [, ]. erefore, it is referred to as poorman’s food [].
It is a monoecious tree and both male and female ino-
rescences are found on the same tree [, ]. e fertilization
is by cross-pollination and the propagation is mostly through
seeds. e complete fruit development process takes about
three to seven months from the pollination, varying in
dierent countries. [].
1.1. Origin and Distribution. Jackfruit is considered to be
originated in the rain forests of the Western Ghats in the
Southwestern part of India, but some authors argue that
Malaysia could be the possible centre of origin []. It is found
Jacktree grows in warm and moist regions [, ].
1.2. Jacktree and the Fruits. Jacktree is a medium-sized ever-
green tree, and typically reaches - m in height []. e
tree grows rapidly in early years, up to . m/year ( /year)
in height, slowing to about . m/year ( in/year) as the tree
reaches maturity []. It has a straight rough stem and a green
exuding milky latex [].
e leaves are broad, elliptic, dark green in colour and
alternate. ey are oen deeply lobed when juvenile on young
shoots. Male heads are usually sessile or on short peduncles
receptacles and sometimes born on the ultimate twing, while
female heads are oblong ovoid receptacle [–].
Jackfruit has a relatively high productivity, about .
t/ha []. e fruits are borne in the main and side branches
hundred fruits [–].
ey are dicotyledonous compound fruits [], which
are oblong cylindrical in shape, and the length of the fruits
ranges from  to  centimeters with the diameter -
centimeters. e weight of individual fruits may vary between
International Journal of Food Science
Volume 2019, Article ID 4327183, 12 pages
International Journal of Food Science
(b) (c) (d)
(e) (f) (g)
F : (a) Jackfruit tree with the fruits of dierent sizes; (b) jackfruit tree with the fruits in dierent stages of fruiting; (c) the jackfruit
with conical carpel apices; (d) raw jackfruit pieces used for curries; (e) the interior of a ripe jackfruit with the seed; (f) the ripe eatable esh
of jackfruit; and (g) the jackfruit seed (source: []).
and  kilo grams, and larger fruits of about  kilograms
have been recorded [, , ].
Jackfruit has a green to yellow brown exterior rind that
is composed of hexagonal, bluntly conical carpel apices that
cover a thick, rubbery, and whitish to yellowish wall []. It
is a multiple aggregate fruit which is formed by the fusion of
multiple owers in an inorescence []. About % of the
fruit weight is occupied by the esh [, , , , ]. ere
are large number of bulbs inside the fruit, which have high
nutritional value.
e fruit is made up of three main regions. ey are
() the fruit axis;
() the persistent perianth;
() the true fruit.
Due to the presence of laticiferous cells that produce latex,
which helps to hold the fruits together, the axis and the core
of the fruit are inedible.
e perianth is made up of three regions:
() the bulb (the lower eshy edible region);
() the middle-fused region that forms the rind of the
() horny nonedible region commonly known as the
spikes [, ].
e fruit colour changes from yellowish green to yellow due
to the conversion of chlorophylls, anthocyanins, and caro-
tenoids like pigments during ripening []. Dep ending on the
variety, the colour of the bulb can be cream, white, light yel-
low, yellow, deep yellow, lemon yellow light saron, saron,
deep saron, or orange [].
Jackfruit seeds are light brown, rounded, - cm in length
by -. cm in diameter []. ey are surrounded by the esh
moderm, which covers the eshy white cotyledon. It has been
found that these are rich in carbohydrates and proteins [,
Jackfruits in dierent maturity stages and jackfruit seeds
are shown in the Figure .
ere is a widespread belief that excessive consumption
of jackfruit akes can lead to certain digestive disorders. e
utilization of jackfruit as a commercial crop is limited due to
its wide variations in fruit quality and long seed dormancy
e fruits must be utilized as early as possible when
it reached the maturity as very sharp o avours can be
developed. erefore, it is practiced to harvest the fruit when
it is rm and in a semiripen condition before ripening on the
tree and then store until becoming so and t for processing
1.3. Varieties of Jackfruit. Several studies including Hossain
[]; Saha et al. []; and Jagadeesh et al.[]havereported
diversity in jackfruit, based mainly on morphological, phe-
notypic, and organoleptic characteristics like the size of the
tree, structure of the leaf, fruit form, age of fruit bearing,
quality of the fruit esh, their size, shape, density of spines,
According to Singh [] and Vinning and Moody [], there
are at least  strains of jackfruit in the Indian subcontinent
and  more types in Malaysia. In Sri Lanka, several jack-
fruit cultivars such as ‘Vela, ‘Varaka (Waraka)’, ‘Peniwaraka,
International Journal of Food Science
T : Composition of jackfruit ( g edible portion).
Composition Young fruit Ripe fruit
Water (g) . - . . - .
Protein (g) . - . . - .
Fat (g) . - . . - .
Carbohydrate (g) . - . . - .
Fibre (g) . - . . - .
Tot al su ga r s (g ) - .
Total minerals (g) . . - .
Calcium (mg) . - . . - .
Magnesium (mg) - .
Phosphorus (mg) . - . . - .
Potassium (mg) - -
Sodium (mg) .-. .-.
Iron (mg) .-. .-.
Vitami n A (IU)   -
iamine (mg) .-. .-.
Riboavin (mg) .-. .-.
Vitamin C (mg) .-. .-.
Energy (KJ) - -
Sources: [, , –].
‘Kuruwaraka, Singapore, or the Ceylon Jack are distributed
However, there are two main varieties of jackfruit: rm
and so. In the rm variety, the perianth remains rm even
at full ripeness, while in the so variety the perianths become
so and eshy on ripening []. e so variety has fruits with
small, brous, so, and spongy akes with very sweet carpels,
whereas the rm variety is crunchy with crisp carpels and not
sweet as the so variety. e rm variety is considered to be
of high quality []. Some studies have reported variations in
the starch, total sugar, and reducing sugar contents of so and
rm types [, ].
1.4. Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value. e chem-
ical composition of jackfruit varies depending on the variety.
When compared with other tropical fruits jackfruit esh and
seeds contain more protein, calcium, iron, and iamine
[, , ].
A study has explored that the ripe jackfruit is richer than
apple, apricot, avocado, and banana in some minerals and
vitamins [].
e caloric content of jackfruit is low, where  g of
jackfruit only contains  calories [].
Table depicts the composition of jackfruit according to
the ndings of several studies [, , –].
Several studies have found that there is a variation in
chemical composition of jackfruit in dierent maturity stages
1.5. Carbohydrates. Rahman et al.[]havereportedthe
presence of a high percentage of starch in jackfruit perianth
and seed according to various chemical and histological
studies. e starch and dietary ber content of the esh
increase with the maturity [].
AccordingtoastudycarriedoutbyChripset al.[],the
carbohydrate concentration of dierent varieties of jackfruit
seed may vary from .% to .%.
1.6. Proteins. Jackfruit contains amino acids like arginine,
cystine, histidine, leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, and
tryptophan []. e esh of ripe jackfruit contains . g
proteins per g. e protein concentration of the jackfruit
et al. [], the protein content of the esh of dierent varieties
of ripen jackfruit has ranged from . to .%.
1.7. Vitamins. Jackfruit is rich in vitamin C []. Moreover,
it is one of the rare fruits that is rich in B-complex group
of vitamins and contains very good amounts of vitamin B
(pyridoxine), niacin, riboavin, and folic acid [].
e changes of vitamin contents in dierent maturity
stages of jackfruit have been evaluated by Tiwari and Vid-
yarthi []. e amounts of vitamins according to the study
are presented in the Table .
1.8. Minerals. Samaddar [] has recorded that the akes of
ripe jackfruits are high in nutritive value. Further he stated
that every  g of ripe akes contains - mg potassium,
.-. mg calcium, and - g carbohydrates. e ripen
jackfruit contains minerals such as calcium, magnesium and
vitamins, and organic acids [].
e mineral composition of the edible jackfruit esh at
dierent maturity levels is shown in Table , as reported in
Tiwari and Vidyarthi [].
1.9. Fiber Content. A study has found the ber content of
jackfruit to be .-.% with no signicant changes in
dierent portions of the fruitat dierent ripening stages [].
International Journal of Food Science
T : Changes in vitamins in jackfruit esh.
Age of the fruit (in days) Vitamin c ontent in es h (mg/10 0g )
B1 B2 C
 . . .
 . . .
 . . .
 Trace  .
 trace . .
Source: [].
T : Mineral composition of the edible fruit esh at dierent maturity levels.
Age of the fruit (in days) Macro element (mg/100g) Micro element (mg/100g)
Ca Mg Cd Co Cr Cu Fe Mn Ni Pb
 . . . . - . . . - .
 . . . . - . . . - .
 . . . . - . . . - .
 . . . . - . . . - .
 . . . . - . . . - .
Source: [].
In Coronel [], it has been reported that the ber content of
immature and ripe jackfruit is .% and .%, respectively.
Another study has found slight variations in ber content
among the jackfruit eshes in dierent varieties, ranging from
. to . % []. Rahman et al. [] indicated that the total
dietary ber of the perianths was almost similar in so and
rm varieties, but in Hasan [], the ber content of the
jackfruit esh varied from . to .%, depending on the
variety and the season.
1.10. Phytochemical Content in Jackfruit. Studies including
Arung et al.[];Chandrikaet al.[];LinandLu[];
Ong et al. []; Venkataraman []; and Wong et al.[]have
shown that jackfruit contains many classes of phytochemicals
such as carotenoids, avonoids, volatile acids sterols, and tan-
nins, with varying concentrations depending on the variety.
According to Wongsa and Zamaluddien [], total phenolic
content in jackfruit is . mg GAE/g DW (milligrams of
gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight).
Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments present in
plants, animals, algae, and microorganisms which impart
yellow-reddish colours. In addition to their colourant prop-
erties, they have provitamin A activity and are known to
have benecial eects on several chronic degenerative dis-
eases, such as cancer, inammation, cardiovascular disease,
cataract, and age-related macular degeneration [, –].
e jackfruit kernel is reported to contain 𝛽-carotene, 𝛼-
carotene, 𝛽-zeacarotene, 𝛼-zeacarotene and 𝛽-carotene-,𝛼-
epoxide, and a dicarboxylic carotenoid and crocetin [],
according to recent studies the key carotenoids present in
jackfruit are all-trans-lutein, all-trans-𝛽-carotene, all-trans-
neoxanthin, -cis-neoxanthin, and -cis-vio-laxanthin [].
Singh [] has observed that the carotene content of
jackfruit increased gradually with the progress of ripening.
T : Concentration (𝜇g/ g fresh weight) of carotenoids of
jackfruit and their vitamin A values (𝜇gRAE/gfreshweight).
Carotenoids Concentration (𝜇g/100 g fresh weight)
All-trans-neoxanthin .
-cis-Neoxanthin .
All-trans-neochrome .
All-trans-luteoxanthin .
cis-Antheraxanthin .
-cis-Violaxanthin .
cis-Luteoxanthin .
All-trans-lutein .
All-trans-zeaxanthin .
All-trans-zeinoxanthin .
cis-Zeinoxanthin .
All-trans-𝛼-cryptoxanthin .
All-trans-𝛽-cryptoxanthin .
-cis-𝛽-Carotene .
-cis-𝛽-Carotene .
All-trans-𝛼-carotene .
All-trans-𝛽-carotene .
-cis-𝛽-Carotene .
Total carotenoids .
Vitami n A value .
(Source: [])
Table demonstrates the concentrations of dierent types
of carotenoids present in jackfruit according to a study
conducted by Faria et al.[].
Wong et al. [] have found  novel volatile components
in jackfruit. According to the study, the esters, which impart
International Journal of Food Science
the desired avour to the fruit, are found in high concentra-
tions in jackfruit.
1.11. Maturity Signs and Harvesting of Jackfruit. According to
Palipane and Rolle [] and Ramli [], the maturity indices
of jackfruit are as follows:
() e fruit matures in about - weeks aer ower
() Fruit colour changes from green to green yellowish.
() A dull, hollow sound is produced when the fruit is
tapped by the nger.
() Fruit spinel becomes well developed and wide spaced.
() e last leaf of the peduncle yellows.
() An aromatic odor develops.
and spikes become atter.
() Fruit length and girt are increased.
Fruit should be harvested by cutting from the stalk using
a sack should be tied around the fruit with a rope, the stalk
should be cut, and the fruit should be gently lowered to the
ground [].
Accurate determination of maturity and best harvesting
time and correct harvesting practices allows minimum loss
of fruits [].
1.12. Uses of Jacktree. Dierent maturity stages of jackfruit
esh are consumed fresh or as canned slices, fruit juice,
and dried chips. Fully ripen stage produce fruit juice of
good eating quality with suitable aroma, texture, sweetness,
and taste []. In some countries, pureed jackfruit has been
processed into baby food, juice, jam, jelly, base for cordials,
candies, fruit-rolls, marmalades, jackfruit leather, and ice
cream [, , ]. e unripe stage is also used to prepare
pickles, when the fruit is tender []. e seeds are also
consumed aer boiling and roasting or added to our for
baking and cooked in dishes []. Jacktree is used for its
durable timber, which acquire reddish orange colour when
aging. e timber also has antitermite properties [] and
used for the preparation of furniture []. e chips are used to
extract an orange-red dye, which is used to colour the robes
of Buddhist monks. e leaves and fruit wastes of the jacktree
are used produce fodder for cattle, pigs, and goats []. Many
parts of the plant, including the bark, roots, leaves, and fruits,
are known for their medicinal properties in traditional and
folk medicine [, , ].
1.13. Benecial Eects of Jackfruit on Human Health. “Jack-
fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) is a rich source of several
high-value compounds with potential benecial physiolog-
ical activities” []. It is well known for its antibacterial,
antifungal, antidiabetic, anti-inammatory, and antioxidant
activities [].
Elevation of blood LDL: HDL ratio is one of the major
risk factors for the development of coronary heart diseases
[]. Oxidation of LDL contributes to atherosclerosis which
involves a series of inammatory and oxidative modications
within the arterial wall [, ]. Free radicals also promote
tissue injury, protein oxidation, DNA damage, and induce
proinammatory responses [].
Antioxidants are the compounds that are able to delay,
retard or prevent oxidation process []. ey protect the
body and biomolecules from the damage caused by genera-
tion of excess free radicals. Jackfruit contains a wide range
of phytonutrients such as carotenoids that can act as antioxi-
dants [, ]. Jagtap et al. [] state that the antioxidant activ-
ities of jackfruit esh extracts are correlated with the total
phenolic and avonoids content. According to Soong and
Barlow [], fresh seed and esh possess substantial ascorbic
acid equivalent antioxidant eects and . and . gallic
acid equivalent phenolic contents, which are believed to have
contributed to about % of the total antioxidant activ-
Jackfruit contains functional compounds that have capa-
bility to reduce various diseases such as high blood pressure,
heart diseases, strokes, and bone loss. It is also capable of
improving muscle and nerve function, reducing homocys-
teine levels in the blood [].
Jackfruit is also rich in potassium which aids in lowering
blood pressure and reversing the eects of sodium that causes
a rise in blood pressure that aects the heart and blood
vessels. is in turn prevents heart disease, strokes and bone
loss and improves muscle and nerve function []. Vitamin
B present in jackfruit helps to reduce homocysteine levels
in the blood, consequently lowering the risk of heart disease
Jackfruit is also a good source of vitamin C, which pro-
tects the skin from the damage that occurs as a consequence
of the natural aging process and prolonged exposure to
sun []. Vitamin C is also essential for the production of
collagen, gives rmness and strength to the skin [], and
maintains oral health.
Some studies have also reported the anti-inammatory
eects of isolated bioactive compounds from the fruits of
Artocarpus heterophyllus []. Jackfruit contains avonoids
which are eective in inhibiting the release of inammatory
mediators from the mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages
Phytonutrients such as lignans, isoavones, and saponins
in jackfruit contribute to its anticancer, antihypertensive,
antiulcer, and antiaging properties. ey prevent the forma-
tion of cancer cells in the body and ght against stomach
ulcers []. e results of a study carried out by Ruiz-Montanez
et al. [] suggested that the jackfruit possesses compounds
with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity
of aatoxin B (AFB) and proliferation of cancer cells and the
jackfruit esh contains compounds that may be an eective
aid to prevent or treat lymphoma cancer.
Niacin in jackfruit is necessary for energy metabolism,
nerve function, and the synthesis of certain hormones [].
Dietary ber present in jackfruit makes it a good bulk
laxative. is decreases the exposure time and binds to cancer
causing chemicals, as well as mineral and vitamins in the
colon, and helps to protect the colon mucous membrane [].
International Journal of Food Science
High ber content also maintains smooth bowel movements
and prevents constipation [].
e esh and seeds of jackfruit are considered as a cooling
and nutritious tonic [].
Jackfruit has abundance of important minerals []. It is
rich in magnesium, which is important for the absorption of
calcium and helps strengthen the bones and prevents bone-
related disorders such as osteoporosis. Iron in jackfruit helps
to prevent anemia and aids in proper blood circulation and
copper plays an important role in thyroid gland metabolism
According to Prakash et al. [] and Rama Rao and Ven-
kataraman [], jackfruit possesses compounds like morin,
dihydromorin, cynomacurin, artocarpin, isoartocarpin, cy-
loartocarpin, artocarpesin, oxydihydroartocarpesin, artocar-
petin, norartocarpetin, cycloartinone, betulinic acid, arto-
carpanone, and heterophylol which are useful in fever, boils,
wounds, skin diseases, convulsions, diuretic, constipation,
ophthalmic disorders, snake bite, etc.
Jackfruit is also known for its antifungal properties.
Trindade et al. [] found a chitin-binding lectin named
jackin, which has the ability to inhibit the growth of Fusarium
moniliforme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Italsoexhibited
hemagglutination activity against human and rabbit erythro-
cytes [].
According to a study carried out by Fernando et al.[],
the hot water extract of jackfruit leaves signicantly improved
glucose tolerance in the normal subjects and the diabetic
patients when investigated at oral doses equivalent to  g/kg.
Methanolic extracts of the stem and root, barks, heart-
wood, leaves, fruits, and seeds of jackfruit have exhibited
a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity []. Nematicidal
activity against various nematodes including Rotylenchulus
reniformis,Tylenchorhynchus brassicae,Tylenc hus lifofmis,
and Meloidogyne incognita also has been revealed by the
jackfruit shoots [].
Jackfruit wood extract is also known for inhibition of
melanin biosynthesis. Some prenylated, avones-based pol-
yphenols, isolated from the jackfruit wood, have been shown
to inhibit in vivo melanin biosynthesis in B melanoma cells,
with little or no cytotoxicity [].
Due to all these numerous health benets the consump-
tion of jackfruit esh has increased in recent years [].
1.14. Reasons for Underutilization of Jackfruit. Despite its
nutritional values and enormous health benets, the jackfruit
is underutilized and not classied as a commercial crop and is
rarely grown on regular plantation scale due to its short shelf
life and insucient processing facilities in the regions where
they are grown [].
About % of the whole jackfruit consists of inedible
parts such as outer prickly rind, inner perigones, and central
core [] and only around % of the whole fruit consist of
edible esh [].
e jackfruit esh is highly perishable and oen under-
goes avour loss, tissue soening, and cut surface browning
[]. e soening of the fruit makes it more susceptible
for bruising and mechanical injury []. In ripe fruits, the
spoilage is commonly observed in localized pockets of the
large fruit [, ]. Following the harvesting, large quantities
of ripe jackfruits undergo rapid deterioration due to lack
of proper knowledge on postharvest practices which result
in poor handling and inadequacy of sanitary practices and
storage facilities in areas where they are processed and
marketed [, ].
Due to its high perishability, jackfruits are usually
exported as whole fruits and more than half of the fruit
consists of inedible waste materials, which make it less cost
eective. e inconsistency of the size and shape of the
fruit make the design of packaging very complicated and
rough and thick skin and the latex makes diculties in
preparation []. Jackfruit is a large fruit and the peeling is
rather dicult []. Also, the separation of jackfruit edible
bulbs from jackfruit rind is a dicult and more labour
intensive task [] and consumes more time, which makes it
unattractive to urban population where most of them have
a busy life style. Also, the intense avour of the fresh fruit
makes it unacceptable to some consumers [] and there is
a widespread belief that excessive consumption of jackfruit
can lead to problems of digestion [].
Also, the vast variations in the physical properties and
biochemical compositions of fruits in dierent plant types
make it dicult for the use of jackfruits from dierent trees
for variety of products [].
e jackfruit seeds contain around % moisture content,
thereby lessening the possibility of being kept for a long
time []. Usually jackfruit seeds are consumed in boiled or
In jackfruit processing industries, a huge amount of
inedible parts such as peel are generated as waste, and usually
they are used as animal feed. However, a limited number
of researches have been devoted for the investigation of
possibilities for conversion of these wastes into value-added
products. Hence, a signicant amount of jackfruit waste is
discarded [], creating serious waste disposal and environ-
mental problems [].
erefore, advanced processing technologies and sustain-
able waste management strategies should be considered when
processing jackfruits in commercial scale.
1.14.1. Solutions to Increase the Use of Jackfruit and Research
and Developments Based on Increasing the Utilization of
Jackfruit. Introduction of high yielding jackfruit varieties,
adhering to proper harvesting and postharvest practices
such as appropriate handling, transportation and storage,
development of novel processing technologies, and searching
for new applications to minimize postharvest and production
losses as well as conversion of jackfruit waste into value-
added products would be better options for popularizing
the jackfruit cultivation and consumption along with waste
management of jackfruit processing industries.
Harvesting of jackfruit in green mature stage can pre-
vent the mechanical damage. Also, adaption to appropriate
postharvest practices may facilitate the exportation through
extended shelf life. Storage of whole jackfruit at Cand
-% humidity can extend the shelf life of the crop
approximately by two weeks [].
International Journal of Food Science
At present, there is a growing consumer demand for
wholesome, nutritional, and convenient food products.
erefore, in recent years, there is a growing market for
minimally processed fruits and thereby increasing the con-
cern for minimizing the damage to the fruits through correct
handling and storage methods []. Processing of jackfruit
into value-added products such as precut or ready to eat
bulbs may remove the diculty in separating the bulbs from
the rind and conserve time and thereby may commercialize
it among the urban population. It also enhances the crop’s
potential both locally and internationally through reducing
the packaging and transportation costs, maintaining the
quality and the freshness, and minimizing the quarantine
barriers in some importing countries [, ]. However,
once the fruit is cut, it can undergo rapid deterioration
due to the physiological stress caused by physical damage
[]. Hence, appropriate techniques for the minimization
of the quality loss should be investigated. e Modied
Atmospheric Packaging along with low temperature storage
can successfully extend the shelf life of minimally processed
jackfruit []. Vargas-Torres et al.[]havediscoveredthe
ability of pretreatment with -methylcyclopropene and the
application of edible coatings (xanthan, sodium alginate, or
gellan) to extend the shelf life of precut jackfruit up to  days,
while preserving the original quality attributes when stored at
C. e ndings of the study revealed that the pretreatment
and application of edible coating were able to reduce the
weight loss, respiration, and ripening rates while maintaining
the desired sensory and nutritional attributes such as colour,
rmness, pH, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity of
the products. Saxena et al. [] have tested for the eects of
calcium treatment, osmo-blanching and drying methods on
physicochemical and sensory attributes of jackfruit slices. e
study revealed that optimization of pretreatment conditions
together with combination of freeze-drying and hot-air
drying can result in jackfruit bulb slices with better sensory
attributes, discovering the possibility for commercial scale
processing. Also, the dehydrated jackfruit bulbs in its powder
form can be incorporated into other food products [].
According to Ramli [] there was a slower texture loss
in calcium treated jackfruit bulbs, compared to untreated
bulbs, and they had a shelf life up to  days when stored at
Production of salty snacks such as chips from jackfruit
esh may attract the consumers for consumption of jackfruit
as it may impart variety to their diet. Jagadeesh et al.[]
have conducted a study with the aim of determining the ideal
physicochemical quality parameters for chips purpose jack-
fruit. e study revealed that the dry matter content, starch
content, total soluble solids, and reducing sugar content have
a major inuence on the yield and quality of the product. e
morphological characteristics and physical parameters such
as thickness and size of jackfruit bulbs have a greater impact
on the appearance, suitability for processing, and uniformity
of frying operations. Hence, selecting the jackfruit genotypes
with suitable characteristics is crucial for the sustainability of
the production [].
Mondal et al. [] have taken an attempt for the devel-
opment of products such as jam, jelly, pickle, and squash
by processing dierent parts of jackfruit and to assess their
nutritional quality. It was found that the products including
jam, jelly, and squash could retain desirable quality up to six
months and started to deteriorate aer - months, while the
quality of pickles remained unchanged even aer  months
of storage.
Fermentation of surplus or over-ripe jackfruit for the
production of wine would be an interesting alternative for
the eective utilization of the fruit. Jackfruit wine is reported
to possess good antioxidant properties and protective eects
against radiation induced DNA damage [].
Furthermore, advanced processing technologies includ-
ing freeze-drying, vacuum frying and cryogenic freezing have
been used to develop new jackfruit-based food products [,
In recent years, the interest towards the utilization of
alternative sources of starch in industrial applications is being
increased. Hence, many researchers have paid their attention
on jackfruit seeds as a potent source of starch []. Jackfruit
seeds contains a considerable amount of starch, which is
around % (dry basis) and as revealed by Tulyathan et al.,
[], the recovery yield of starch extracted from jackfruit
seeds was about %, which implies its possibility of being
used as a potent source of starch in food and pharmaceutical
industries [], as a stabilizer, thickener, and a binding agent
[]. Conversion of fresh seeds into our can be considered
as an eective way of enhancing its utilization [].
ere are few recent studies which have emphasized the
properties and utilization of jackfruit seed starch. According
to Kittipongpatana and Kittipongpatana [], the amylose
content of jackfruit starch is around -%, which is similar
to potato starch. However, Tran et al.[]havereported
ahigheramylosecontent(%) in jackfruit seed starch,
which were cultivated in Vietnam.
e water and oil absorption capacities of jackfruit seed
our have found to be % and %, respectively, which
provide its desirable functional properties for food industrial
applications []. e gelatinization temperature of jackfruit
seed starch was higher compared to starch from other sources
[], and the stability of jackfruit seed starch granules against
thermal and mechanical shear has found to be high, enabling
its application in products that require starch with such
properties []. Santos et al.[]havefoundjackfruitstarch
to be acid-resistance in solution and paste form.
e modication of jackfruit seed starch by physical
and chemical means results in modied jackfruit starches
with altered or improved properties including gelatinization
temperature, water solubility, solution viscosity, swelling
ability, and water uptake as well as resistance to enzymatic
degradation []. Dutta et al. [] have conducted a study
on the eect of dierent extraction conditions on properties
of acid-alcohol modied jackfruit seed starch, which can
have possible applications in confectioneries, paper, and
textile industries. e study revealed that jackfruit starch gels
possess high degree of freeze stability.
e possibility of incorporating jackfruit seed starch as a
thickener and stabilizer in chili sauce has been investigated by
Rengsutthi and Charoenrein []. e ability of jackfr uit seed
starch to maintain the pH, titratable acidity, and total soluble
International Journal of Food Science
solids in chili sauce has been found when incorporated in
% level. As revealed by the study, jackfruit seed starch
incorporated chili sauce has exhibited a superior quality
when compared to chili sauce which was incorporated with
corn starch. Cereals bars with good sensory and nutritional
properties have been developed by the incorporation of %
jackfruit seed our and % of dehydrated jackfruit pulp
ducing sugars which makes it suitable to be utilized as prebi-
otics []. Several studies have successfully utilized jackfruit
seed as a source of carbon for the extracellular production
of pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans MTCC []
and polyhydroxybutyrate using Bacillus sphaericus NCIM
 []. Nair et al. [] have utilized jackfruit seed
powder as a substrate for the production of L-lactic acid
using Streptococcus equinus with the aim of value addition
of an agro waste material by biotechnological interven-
e possibility of utilization of jackfruit seed starch
powder as a novel natural superdisintegrant in irbesartan fast
dissolving tablets has been investigated by []. Nagala et
al. [] have extracted oils with essential fatty acids and
antioxidant activities from the seeds of ve dierent jackfruit
Jackfruit seeds also have been tested for its potent appli-
cations as a raw material for ethanol production, which can
be considered as a renewable source of energy [] and as a
protein source in food industry due to its high protein content
e outer peel of jackfruit is rich in brous compounds,
calcium, and pectin and utilization of jackfruit peel for
the production of pectin can contribute to the economic
development of the regions where they are grown by creating
more income for farmers and processors as well as reducing
the environmental impacts of waste []. Begum et al.[]
have conducted a study to determine the impact of dierent
extraction conditions on the yield and physicochemical and
structural properties of pectin derived from jackfruit waste.
e extracted pectin was of low quality with regard to its
poor solubility and high ash content, compared to commer-
cial pectin, raising the need for more advanced researches
focusing on production of high-quality pectin from jackfruit
waste with improved solubility. Hence, several studies have
focused on extraction of pectin from jackfruit peel by
the use of more advanced techniques including ultrasound
assisted extraction [] and ultrasonic-microwave assisted
extraction [], which were able to result in higher pectin
yield compared to conventional methods. Govindaraj et al.
[] have revealed the possible utilization of jackfruit peel
derived pectin in bone healing applications.
Jackfruit peel also has been tested for its suitability to be
used as an ecient raw precursor for the production of acti-
vated carbon using dierent techniques such as phosphoric
acid activation [] and microwave induced NaOH activation
[], with the purpose of increasing the economic value,
reduction of the cost of waste disposal and providing a poten-
tially inexpensive raw material for commercial scale activated
carbon production which in turn prevent deforestation since
the utilization of wood for activated carbon production can
be minimized []. Also, jackfruit peel can be used for the
production of biooil, which can be used as an alternative for
nonrenewable fossil fuel resources [].
Ashok et al. [] have conducted a study on development
of a natural photo-sensitizer from jackfruit rags for dye sensi-
tized solar cells, with the aim of exploring ways for upcycling
the waste materials for energy harvesting.
Renuka Prasad and Virupaksha [] have puried a
protease named artocarpin’, from jackfruit latex which has
showed proteolytic activity against casein. e jackfruit latex
also can be used as an adhesive [].
A study focusing on the investigation of nutritional qual-
ity of jackfruit stalk has been conducted by the Department
of Food Science and Technology, University of Sri Jayewar-
denepura, Sri Lanka (unpublished data).
All these research eorts exhibit the possibility of uti-
lization of jackfruit in commercial scale, with the aim of
promoting its consumption.
2. Conclusion
Jackfruit is a tropical tree, which is a rich source of nutri-
ents such as carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals,
dietary ber, and phytochemicals. Previous studies have
revealed numerous health benets of jackfruit including anti-
carcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inammatory,
wound healing, and hypoglycemic properties. However, it
is considered as an underutilized fruit in commercial scale,
mainly due to higher percentage of inedible portion which
leads to more waste generation, diculty in peeling and
separation of edible bulbs from the rind, lack of knowledge
on proper postharvest practices, and inadequate processing
facilities in regions where they are grown. Hence, adhering
to correct postharvest practices and conversion of jackfruit
into minimally processed products, such as precut jackfruit,
may encourage more population towards the consumption
of jackfruit, and conversion of jackfruit waste materials into
valuable products may aid in waste management. ere are
only a few recent studies that have focused on the extending
shelf life of jackfruit and value addition of jackfruit waste
by converting them to dierent products and renewable
energy sources. us, more researches should be devoted
for discovering possible industrial applications of jackfruit
and proper management of waste generated in jackfruit
Data Availability
e numerical data supporting this review article are from
previously reported studies and datasets, which have been
cited, and are available from the corresponding author upon
Conflicts of Interest
e authors declare that there are no conicts of interest
regarding the publication of this paper.
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... It is common practise to sell fresh jackfruit in the markets as a whole fruit or separate them in fruitlets packed in polyethylene bags. Transporting a whole jackfruit is relatively a difficult process, mainly because of its irregular shape and size, which can weigh up to 45 or 50kg [12][13][14]. Selling of whole jackfruit seems to be uneconomical since only 30% to 35% of the whole fruit is edible [15]. Jackfruit cutting is labour intensive, which is inconvenient for urban consumers. ...
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Minimally processed jackfruit is gaining popularity for its economic importance to the fruit industry, but its high susceptibility to enzymatic browning has been its limitation. This study determines the effects of applying ascorbic acid (AA) and kelulut honey (KH) on the shelf life of minimally processed jackfruit (MPJ) stored at chill and ambient temperature for 12 days. The quality of treated and untreated minimally processed jackfruit was evaluated by weight loss, firmness, colour (L* and b*), ascorbic acid content and browning inhibition. A microbiological analysis was performed to estimate the shelf-life. The MPJs dipped in 3% ascorbic acid and 3% kelulut honey and stored at 4°C showed the least weight loss of 0.75% and 0.42%, respectively, and the significantly least reduction in firmness of 67.93% and 65.24%, respectively. Ascorbic acid was found to be more efficient in reducing the discolouration of MPJ compared to kelulut honey. Depending on the temperature, the 3% KH dipping solution is more efficient than ascorbic acid in inhibiting the browning activity of MPJ with an inhibition of 9.29%, retaining ascorbic acid content (16.45 mg/100 g) and inhibiting microbial growth (6.20 log CFU/g) of MPJ up to 9 days of storage.
... One of the primary uses of jackfruit is its role as a meat substitute for vegetarians and vegans. The flesh of unripe jackfruit has a fibrous, meat-like texture, making it an excellent ingredient for plant-based dishes, particularly as a replacement for pulled pork or shredded chicken [49]. Jackfruit is also known for its sustainability. ...
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Subtropical climates offer unique opportunities for the cultivation of underutilized fruit crops, which are often overlooked but possess great potential for enhancing biodiversity, promoting sustainability, and improving food security. Subtropical climates, characterized by their moderate to warm temperatures, diverse landscapes, and distinct precipitation patterns, are ideal for cultivating a wide range of fruit crops. In these regions, a plethora of underutilized fruit species thrive, offering a valuable alternative to more commonly grown fruits. Examples of underutilized fruit crops that have found a place in subtropical climates include the loquat, carambola, Barbados cherry, kiwifruit, jackfruit, persimmon etc. The introduction of these underutilized fruits into subtropical climates not only expands the diversity of available fruits but also fosters resilience in agriculture. These crops are often hardier, requiring fewer synthetic inputs, and can contribute to sustainable and organic farming practices. Their cultivation aids in preserving biodiversity and ensures a steady food supply in regions susceptible to climate fluctuations. The utilization of underutilized fruit crops in subtropical climates holds promise for enhancing agricultural diversity, resilience, and sustainability. These fruits provide unique flavors, nutritional benefits, and adaptability to local conditions. By recognizing and promoting underutilized crops, we can harness their potential to address the challenges of food security and promote sustainable, resilient agriculture in subtropical regions.