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Sandalwood oil has been utilizing for a variety of purposes throughout history, with its integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. It’s now being increasingly recognized for effects on wrinkle skin. In this review article, a brief analyze has been discussed on various skin disorders especially skin ageing, skin appearance and wrinkle skin & description of sandalwood oil and use of sandalwood oil by topical skin applications. Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of sandalwood oil according to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, it is to describe the Nitric Oxide (NO) scavenging activities and cell regulatory properties on wrinkle skin.
Dulal et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
Dr. Md. Shahinoor Rahman Dulal1*, Mohammad Abu Taher2 and Hasib Sheikh2
1HamdardGıda, İthalat, İhracatveDışTicaret Ltd. Şirketi. GüneşliBağlarMah. KoçmanCaddesi, GülSokak No: 27, K: 3
Bağcılar - Istanbul, Turkey.
2Faculty of Unani and Ayurvedic Medicine, Hamdard University Bangladesh. Hamdard City of Science, Education &
Culture, Gazaria, Munshiganj-1510, Bangladesh.
Article Received on 07/11/2018 Article Revised on 28/11/2018 Article Accepted on 19/12/2018
Skin aging is a part of a natural human “aging mosaic”
which becomes evident and follows different trajectories
in different organs, tissues and cells with time. While the
aging signs of internal organs are masked from the
ambient “eyes,” the skin provides the first obvious marks
of the passing time.[1]
The skin is well known to be the first element
influencing human socio-cultural relationship. How we
exteriorly look is very important for self-accepting and
for the social life. The skin is where emotions take place
and the expression of health and wellness status. The
color, the opacity and the hydration levels give a signal
of the psychophysical status. The wrinkle is a furrow on
the skin surface. It is due to a progressive collagen loss,
causing a low elasticity of the tissue and to a lower
cellular reproduction.[2]
The aging of our skin can be discussed as two entities:
chronological and environmentally influenced ageing.[3]
Clinically, chronological and environmentally-influenced
ageing show skin changes including thinning, loss of
elasticity, roughness, wrinkling, increased dryness, and
impairment of the skin barrier. Chronological aging
depends on a decrease in cellular replacement
(senescence) of the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis,
but also from Impairment in the remodeling of the
extracellular matrix (e.g., collagen bundles and elastic
fibers).[4] The second type of skin aging is mediated by
extrinsic factors such as UV radiation, air pollution,
smoking, changes in external temperature, and other
agents of skin aging exposome.[5]
Santalum album L. (Santalaceae) commonly known as
Indian Sandalwood is one of the oldest and precious
sources of natural fragrance with immense medicinal and
commercial significance. S. album has been grown in
India for the last 25 centuries and esteemed all over the
world for its sweet, long-lasting and medicinally valued
fragrant oil. Sandalwood and the essential oil derived
from sandal heartwood have been used in various
traditional systems of medicine, like Ayurveda, Siddha
and Unani medicine in the treatment and prevention of
wide range of ailments. The versatile therapeutic and
healthcare importance of sandalwood is attributed to the
rich source of phytochemicals particularly
Sandalwood oil is obtained from the heartwood of the
plant. This volatile oil contains about 90% alpha- and
betasantalols with a variety of minor components
including sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (about 6%). The
santalols are responsible for the pleasant odor of
sandalwood, although 2-furfuryl pyrrole also may
contribute an effect. The seeds yield about 50% of a
viscid, dark red, fixed oil. This oil contains stearolic acid
and santalbic acid. Gas chromatography fingerprinting of
wjpmr, 2019, 5(1), 51-55
SJIF Impact Factor: 4.639
Review Article
ISSN 2455-3301
*Corresponding Author: Dr. Md. Shahinoor Rahman Dulal
HamdardGıda, İthalat, İhracatveDışTicaret Ltd. Şirketi. GüneşliBağlarMah. KoçmanCaddesi, GülSokak No: 27, K: 3 Bağcılar - Istanbul,
Sandalwood oil has been utilizing for a variety of purposes throughout history, with its integration into foods,
cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. It’s now being increasingly recognized for effects on wrinkle skin. In this
review article, a brief analyze has been discussed on various skin disorders especially skin ageing, skin appearance
and wrinkle skin & description of sandalwood oil and use of sandalwood oil by topical skin applications. Thus, it
focuses on the therapeutic benefits of sandalwood oil according to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, it
is to describe the Nitric Oxide (NO) scavenging activities and cell regulatory properties on wrinkle skin.
KEYWORDS: Sandalwood oil, antioxidant effects, anti-inflammatory properties, Nitric Oxide (NO) scavenging
activities, Skin aging and wrinkle skin.
Dulal et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
sandalwood oils has been used successfully in light of
the complex nature of the components of the oils.
Sandalwood is mainly used as coolant, and also sedative
effect and astringent activity, making it useful as
disinfectant in genitourinary and bronchial tracts,
diuretic, expectorant and stimulant. The sweet powerful
and lasting odor makes Sandalwood oil useful in
perfume industry. The same is also used as tonic for
heart, stomach liver, anti-poison, fever, and memory
improvement and as a blood purifier. Various uses
mentioned in Ayurveda system about sandalwood are in
treatment of various other ailments like diarrhea with
bleeding intrinsic hemorrhage bleeding piles, vomiting,
poisoning, hiccoughs initial phase of pox, urticaria, eye
infections and inflammation of umbilicus.[7,8]
What is skin aging?
There are two main processes that induce skin aging:
intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies
random cell damage as a result of mutations during
metabolic processes due to the production of free
radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by
environmental factors such as sun exposure, air
pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition.
Intrinsic aging reflects the genetic background and
depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging
include smooth, thinning skin with exaggerated
expression lines. Extrinsically aged skin is characterized
by photo damage as wrinkles, pigmented lesions, patchy
hypopigmentations, and actinic keratoses. Timely
protection including physical and chemical sunscreens,
as well as avoiding exposure to intense UV irradiation, is
most important.[9]
Changes in skin appearance
Dry skin
Dry, scaly skin is frequently seen in the elderly. The
degradation or loss of skin barrier function with
increasing age is partly accountable for this
manifestation. The recovery of damaged barrier function
has been demonstrated to be slower in aged skin,
resulting in greater susceptibility to developing dryness.
This is a multifactorial process due, in part, to lower lipid
levels in lamellar bodies and a decrease in epidermal
filaggrin. Increased trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL)
is also exhibited by aged skin, leaving the stratum
corneum more susceptible to becoming dry in low-
humidity environments. In addition to dryness, aged skin
is often characterized by roughness, wrinkling, skin
pallor, hyper- or hypopigmentations, laxity, fragility,
easy bruising and benign neoplasms.[10]
Benign neoplasms in ageing skin
With age, the appearance and surface texture of skin can
change dramatically, as represented by the development
of acrochordons (skin tags), cherry angiomas, seborrheic
keratoses, lentigos (sun spots) and sebaceous
hyperplasias, among other lesions and cutaneous
alterations. Patients of dermatologists and plastic
surgeons often request removal of these benign
neoplasms. Various destructive treatment modalities are
available, including hyfrecation and sundry laser
Wrinkles classification[11]
The wrinkles are distinguished in
The skin, even the infants’ one, show on its surface a
texture composed by depressions or groves, which
intersecting form small rhomboid area.
These are those lines forming on the face where skin has
to adapt to the facial muscles movements. Indeed, the
facial muscles find their insertion beneath the skin.
Consequently, the skin moves together with them. These
cranes are visible at the age of 30, but they do not
increase in number during the years; instead, they
become deeper. Their direction is perpendicular to the
muscular fibers direction.
Joint lines
They are located in the scheletric articulations place and
necessary for the natural movements of the skin.
Grooves from muscular skin laxity
They normally appear as part of ageing process, due to
the loss of elasticity of collagen texture. Therefore,
dermis is no more able to contrast the gravity and the
muscle tissue is reduced. This kind of groove appears
normally on the face as the natural fall of the skin. The
treatment in this case is just surgical.
Lines from sleeping
These folds are created from the lateral position during
the sleep. They appear later on the photo damaged skin.
How Wrinkles Develop[12]
The skin is made up of multiple layers of cells that are
constantly going through self shedding and regeneration
once every 30 days or so in repeated cycles. The layers
can be broadly divided into two sections - the top
epidermis and the underlying dermis.
Histological studies of the skin show that a wrinkle is
formed following a series of major cellular changes:
During the sub-clinical phase of aging (from age 35-45),
there is a gradual and progressive slowing of cellular
turnover and regeneration. This results in the skin getting
thinner. As a result, the normally undulating ridge-like
dermal-epidermal interface (DEI) becomes flatter. This
flatness reduces the surface area of nutritional exchange
between the underlying dermis on the bottom and the
epidermis on top.
Reduced nutrition to the epidermis from aging is one
factor that causes cellular exhaustion and weakness.
Without proper nutrition to the epidermis, cellular
metabolism of the epidermal cell is slowed. Furthermore,
Dulal et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
the transportation of certain unwanted byproducts of
cellular metabolism such as free radical is reduced. The
accumulation of such free radicals within the cell can
lead to undesirable mutational damages in the cell and
ultimately cancer.
The adhesion between in the DEI is normally supplied by
collagen IV (a multi-sheet structure or basal layer) and
collagen VII (anchored to the sheets structure). The
progressive loss of nutrients to this area slows the
circulation of the messengers that serve to promote the
neo-synthesis process of such collagen. A vicious cycle
is set up. Without an optimal amount of collagen, the
skin sags even more, propagating the dearth of nutrients.
Paradoxically, matured aging skin contains more elastin,
which the body uses to fill in the empty space left by the
deficiency of collagen. Such elastin, unfortunately, is
fragmented, calcified, and contains excessive lipids.
In addition to the loss of skin thickness due to lack of
collagen support, the aging skin is looser and lacks
elasticity. These two properties are hallmarks of
This process of aging and appearance of wrinkles is
accelerated during the clinical phase of aging (age 45 and
higher). By age 50, very few women can escape
wrinkles. The difference only lies in the degree of the
Skin Anti-aging Approaches[13]
The skin anti-aging strategies attempted to reverse the
dermal and epidermal signs of photo- and chronological
aging can be grouped under the following approaches
(Table 1).
Table 1: Skin anti-aging approaches.
Daily skin care, correct sun protection, aesthetic non-invasive
Antioxidants, cell regulators
Chemical peelings, visible light devices, intense pulse light (IPL),
ablative and non ablative laser photo-rejuvenation, radiofrequency
(RF), injectable skin biostimulation and rejuvenation, prevention of
dynamic wrinkles, correction of static, anatomical wrinkles,
restoration (redistribution) of fat and volume loss, skin
augmentation and contouring.
Hormone replacement therapy, antioxidants.
Smoking, pollution, solar UV irradiation, stress, nutrition, diet
restriction and alimentary supplementation, physical activity,
control of general health.
Plant Description of Sandalwood
The plant was mainly exploited for fragrant sandalwood
oil obtained by steam distillation. A small evergreen
glabrous tree with slender drooping branches the
sapwood white and odorless. The heartwood yellowish
brown strongly scented. Leaves of dimension 3.8 6.3
by 1.6 to 3.2 cm; are elliptic lanceolate, subacute
glabrous and entire thin base acute; petioles 1 1.3 cm
long slender flowers, brownish purple induorous, in
terminal and auxiliary paniculate cymes shorter than
leaves. Perianthcampanulated limb of 4, valvate
triangular segments stamens 4, exerted, alternating with
4 rounded obtuse scales. Drupe globose 1.3 cm diameter.
Purple black; endocarp hard ribbed fruit concealed about
size of pea, spherical crowned by rim like remains of
perianth tube, smooth, rather flesh, nearly black, seed
Phytochemical Investigation of Sandalwood oil
The volatile oil extracted from Santalum album L
derived from the roots and heartwood is colorless to
yellowish, viscous (ref. index-1.499-1.506, specific
gravity 0.962-0.985 opt, rotation -19-200) liquid with
peculiar heavy sweet odor, the chief constituents of the
oil is santalol (90% or more) a mixture of two primary
sesquiterpene alcohols, C15H24O viz, α-santalol (bp-
1661670C) and β-santalol(b.p-177-1780C) in which the
α– form predominates.[1,3] More than hundred
constituents of sandalwood oil in categories of tannins,
terpenes, resins and waxes have been reported which
include such as hydrocarbons- santene (C9H14),
nortricyclo-ekasantalene (C11H18), α- and β- santalenes
(C15H24), alcohols-santenol (C9H16O), teresantalol
(C10H16O), aldehydes- nor-tricyclo-kasantalal
Sandalwood oil restores and rejuvenation of skin
aging & wrinkle skin by the following ways
Antioxidant properties
The phytochemical and pharmacological investigations
proved the presence of antioxidant principles that justify
their traditional medicinal values.[16] It has been reported
to have nitrous oxide scavenging activity and DPPH
antioxidant activity.[17] Anthocyanicpigment cyanidin-3-
glucoside from S. album was shown to be antioxidant
and nutritionally important.[18] A comparative study
shown that in vitro grown callus cells demonstrated
comparable antioxidant activities with sandalwood oil,
using nine in vitro antioxidant tests.[19]
Dulal et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
Sandalwood oil increased glutathione S-transferase
(GST) activity and acid soluble sulfhydryl (SH) levels in
the liver of adult male Swiss albino mice in oral doses of
5 and 15 µL in 10 and 20 days, respectively.[20]
Methanolic extracts of sandalwood demonstrated acetyl
cholinesterase inhibitory (180 µg mL-1) and DPPH and
super oxide free radical scavenging activities (IC50
values of 160-191 µg mL-1) in albino mice.[21]
The Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity
The extracts of Indian medicinal plants including S.
album were examined for their possible regulatory effect
on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as
an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts
demonstrated direct dose dependant scavenging on NO
and exhibited significant activity.[22]
Anti-inflammatory property
Treat dry skin conditions such as eczema with East
Indian Sandalwood, as it is an anti-inflammatory
condition, as well as an emollient so it will take the heat
and agitation away from the skin, and help produce
healthy skin cells. Sandalwood oil relieves itching and
inflammation of the skin, and is most effective in
relieving dehydrated skin, making it great for anti-ageing
skincare - and the astringent action has a great toning
effect and is also used with great results in oily skin
conditions and to prevent the skin from forming ugly
scars and for fighting dry eczema.[23]
Santalum album possessed anti-inflammatory and
antiulcer activities as evidenced by its significant
inhibition in the carrageenan induced paw edema, cotton
pellet induced granuloma, as well as pylorus ligation
induced ulcer. These findings could substantiate the
inclusion of this plant in the effective management of
inflammatory disorders like ulcer in traditional system of
medicine. The in vitro antioxidant and in vivo analgesic
and anti-inflammatory activities in mice were established
for methanolic extracts of sandalwood.[24]
Cell regulatory property
Applied to the skin, sandalwood oil is soothing, cooling
and moisturizing and primarily used for dry skin
conditions caused by loss of moisture and skin
inflammations. It may be used to relieve eczema and
psoriasis and for the treatment of oily skin and acne. The
emollient properties of sandalwood render it useful in
skin care. Sandalwood oil is soothing, cooling and
moisturizing for dry skin conditions caused by dryness
and treatment of oily skin and acne.[25-27]
Metabolic property
Sandalwood oil reported to demonstrate changes in
neonatal hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in
suckling mouse pups on trans-mammary exposure. It is
further observed that sandalwood oil and its constituents
passed through milk and modified the hepatic xenobiotic
metabolizing enzymes such as increased hepatic
glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and
glutathione peroxidase activities, with concomitant
increase in hepatic cytochrome b5 and acid soluble
sulphydryl contents and lowering of hepatic cytochrome
P 450 content.[28]
Method of uses of sandalwood oil
To reduce face wrinkle, Take a large bowl of
steaming water and add 1-2 drops of Sandalwood
oil. Keep your face over the bowl with cover head
by a towel for 10 minutes.
Massage few drops of sandalwood oil every corner
of body.
To restore silky and moisture of hair apply few
drops of sandalwood oil in hair.
Sandalwood oil can be mixed with your bath water
to help you relax and better sleep.
Add a few drop of sandalwood oil to your milk to
boost up your energy.
Add few drops of sandalwood oil with lotion or
cream to remove dry and itchy skin.
Add several drops of sandalwood oil to coconut or
other favorite oil and apply to the hair to help with
To relax body sandalwood rubbed on the skin.
Topical applications of sandalwood oil may have
different effect on the skin according to their
composition. The constituents of sandalwood oil may
restore and rejuvenate wrinkle skin by several
mechanisms: (i) antioxidative activities; (ii) anti-
inflammatory properties; (iii) Nitric Oxide (NO)
scavenging activities (iv) cell regulatory properties and
(v) metabolic properties. Further studies can be added to
allow for better understanding of sandalwood oil, with
the potential to develop dermatological treatments and
skin care products using this oil.
Conflict of interest: We have no conflict of interest.
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... It also has anti-aging and anti-tanning properties. [96,97] Alpha-santalol, one of the active constituents of sandalwood oil, has been investigated extensively for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antifungal properties. [98,99] Sandalwood's antioxidant and anti-oncogenic ability against MSC has been summarized in this article, as shown in Table 5. ...
Full-text available
Melanoma skin cancer (MSC) is considered the most aggressive among all skin cancers due to its tendency to fast growth, metastasis, and high relapse rate. Although MSC is treatable if identified early, several side effects and aesthetic issues associated with its treatment impose a psychological burden and compromise patients’ quality of life. Thus, there is a dire need for primary prevention by adopting alternative remedies, which are accessible, safe, and cost-effective. The present review emphasizes the role of selected Ayurveda herbs, viz., Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Phyllanthus emblica L., Santalum album L., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. F. and Thoms., and Withania somnifera L. Dunal, which are long being utilized in the Indian traditional system to tackle diverse health problems in preventing MSCs. PubMed and Google Scholar were used to search various research articles on the anti-oncogenic and chemopreventive roles of Ayurveda herbs. This review emphasizes the beneficial effects of Ayurveda herbs so that the ordinary public includes these herbs in their routine to prevent MSC and other cancers. The available literature clearly states that these herbs are beneficial in preventing MSCs. However, the scarcity of clinical trials on these herbs warrants extensive research in this area to obtain an efficacious drug.
... Furthermore, S. album oil inhibits the hyper-proliferation of keratinocytes, which is problematic in eczema and psoriasis [110]. Dulal et al. [111] reported that sandalwood oil restores and rejuvenates ageing and wrinkled skin. Sandalwood oil has anti-inflammatory activity as well as emollient used in skincare. ...
Full-text available
Santalum genus belongs to the family of Santalaceae, widespread in India, Australia, Hawaii, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia, and valued as traditional medicine, rituals and modern bioactivities. Sandalwood is reported to possess a plethora of bioactive compounds such as essential oil and its components (α-santalol and β-santalol), phenolic compounds and fatty acids. These bioactives play important role in contributing towards biological activities and health-promoting effects in humans. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown the role of sandalwood extract as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, neuroleptic, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and anticancer activities. Safety studies on sandalwood essential oil (EO) and its extracts have proven them as a safe ingredient to be utilized in health promotion. Phytoconstituents, bioactivities and traditional uses established sandalwood as one of the innovative materials for application in the pharma, food, and biomedical industry.
Sandalwood trees are small, evergreen, hemiparasitic plants. One of the most extensively and commonly used essential oil can be extracted from sandalwood trees known as sandalwood essential oil. Sandalwood essential oil is one of the most valuable essential oil. It is largely used in perfumery, cosmetics, and aromatherapy industries. The utilization of naturally occurring substances has been encouraged not only due to their nontoxic behavior but also due to their capability to modulate various signaling pathways involved in the growth of multiple diseases. Sandalwood essential oils are used for the treatment of fever, common colds, burns, headaches, infection of the urinary tract, bronchitis, etc. It is also used as antiseptic, antispasmodic, vaginitis, urethritis, gonorrheal recovery, antipyretic, antiscabietic, expectorant, stimulant, and diaphoretic agent. The importance of this plant is not only confined to industrial and therapeutic applications, this plant has a role in various cultural rituals of Asian households. The essential oil extracted from this plant is very costly, and researchers are still working on a daily basis to improve the quality and quantity of the essential oil so that it can meet the enormous demand of the international market. This chapter is an attempt to rediscover and rearrange all the relevant literature associated with production, method of extraction, chemical composition, properties, storage, therapeutic benefits, toxicity, regulation, potential, and future prospects of sandalwood essential oil in a single place so that it will help anyone interested in this topic to conduct future studies.
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Background: Although the scientific literature associates mature skin with dry skin and the secretion of sebum on the face decreases over the years, in tropical countries, such as Brazil, mature skin can still present oily characteristics. Thus, the knowledge of the hydrophilic characteristics of mature skin is fundamental to help the development of more effective treatments for this skin type. In this context, the study aimed to evaluate the hydrophilic characteristics and the clinical efficacy of a cosmetic formulation for mature skin added with alfalfa and lentil extracts by using biophysical and skin imaging techniques. Methods: Twenty-eight healthy females aged between 45 and 59 years were enrolled. Measurements of the stratum corneum water content, sebum content, transepidermal water loss, skin microrelief, and pores count were performed before and after the 28-day formulation application. Results: The mature skin presented as oily with wrinkles and pores. The proposed formulation significantly reduced the sebum content and the number of fine and large pores and improved skin microrelief and hydration after a 28-day period of the application when compared to the vehicle. Conclusions: The proposed formulation was effective in oily mature skin treatment, improving its general skin aging and oiliness conditions, and reducing pores count in just 28 days.
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Background Pollutants are diverse chemical entities, including gases such as ozone and particulate matter PM. PM contains toxic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Some PAHs can induce strong oxidative stress under UVA exposure. Pollution aggravates some skin diseases such as atopy or eczema, but epidemiological data also pointed to a correlation with early occurrence of (photo)-aging markers. Objective This paper aims at reviewing current literature dealing with dermatological effects of pollution, either on in vitro models or using in vivo approaches (including humans). It particularly focuses on the probable deleterious synergy between pollutants and sunlight. Results An exhaustive analysis of literature suggests that skin may be impacted by external stress through oxidation of some of its surface components. However, pollutants detected in plasma may also be provided to deep skin by the circulation of the blood. Oxidative stress, inflammation and metabolic impairments are among the most probable mechanisms of pollution- derived dermatological hazards. Moreover these stresses should be amplified by the deleterious synergy between pollution and sunlight. Some experiments from our lab identified few PAHs inducing a huge toxic stress, at nanomolar concentrations, when exposed to long UVA wavelengths. Prevention strategies should thus combine surface protection (long UVA sunscreens, antioxidants) and enhanced skin tissue resistance through stimulation of the natural antioxidation/detoxification pathway Nrf2. Conclusion In people exposed to highly polluted environments, pollutants and sunlight may synergistically damage skin, requiring a specific protection.
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The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cord folia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cord folia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 mug/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.
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Skin aging does not only occur by passing time alone but also by the exposure to different environmental factors. The skin aging process, which is induced by environmental factors, is named premature or extrinsic skin aging process and can be distinguished from the chronologically (intrinsic) skin aging process by characteristic skin aging signs. Well known environmental factors leading to extrinsic skin aging are sun exposure and smoking. Recently, an epidemiological study could further discover an association between air pollution and skin aging. First of all the skin aging inducing effect of sun exposure was discovered and an own term (photoaging) was given to this special field of extrinsic skin aging. Mechanistic studies have further increased our knowledge about the molecular pathways by which environmental factors contribute to extrinsic skin aging. In this regard, profound knowledge how sun exposure leads to extrinsic skin aging were gained in the last years, and additionally there are also indications how smoking and air pollution might contribute to this process. Moreover it was realized that extrinsic skin aging manifests differently between different populations. Thus, in this review we summarize the influence of the different environmental factors: sun exposure, smoking and air pollution on skin aging and further present ethnic-specific manifestations of extrinsic skin aging.
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Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall "well-being" and the perception of "health" in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures.
Sandalwood oil, the essential oil of Santalum album L., was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2. It was found that the replication of these viruses was inhibited in the presence of the oil. This effect was dose-dependent and more pronounced against HSV-1. A slight diminution of the effect was observed at higher multiplicity of infections. The oil was not virucidal and showed no cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested.
The phytochemical constitution and antioxidant activity of in vitro grown callus cultures of East Indian Sandalwood tree (Santalum album L.) were investigated. The extractive yield for a dichloromethane-methanolic (1:1) solvent mixture was 4.3 %. The phytochemical screening revealed the extract’s richness in phenolics (18.2 µg), terpenoids (16.4 µg), saponins (9.4 µg) and flavan-3-ols (7.4 µg) per milligram of extract, as major constituents. This extract showed antioxidant activity in ferric reducing assay power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), metal ion chelation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and in scavenging of hydroxyl radical (OH.), 2, 2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.), di (phenyl) (2, 4, 6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium (DPPH.) and nitric oxide (NO.) free radical scavenging and reducing power assays that was comparable to sandalwood oil and reference antioxidant such as quercetin, gallic acid and α-tocopherol. We conclude that in vitro propagated callus shows immense potential as a renewable resource of antioxidant constituents.
Sandalwood finds numerous mentions across diverse traditional medicinal systems in use worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of sandalwood oil and its major constituent α-santalol. The in vivo anti-hyperglycemic experiment was conducted in alloxan-induced diabetic male Swiss albino mice models. The in vivo antioxidant experiment was performed in d-galactose mediated oxidative stress induced male Swiss albino mice models. Intraperitoneal administration of α-santalol (100mg/kg BW) and sandalwood oil (1g/kg BW) for an week modulated parameters such as body weight, blood glucose, serum bilirubin, liver glycogen, and lipid peroxides contents to normoglycemic levels in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration of α-santalol (100mg/kg BW) and sandalwood oil (1g/kg BW) for two weeks modulated parameters such as serum aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, free sulfhydryl, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, liver lipid peroxide contents, and antioxidant capacity in d-galactose mediated oxidative stress induced mice. Besides, it was observed that the beneficial effects of α-santalol were well complimented, differentially by other constituents present in sandalwood oil, thus indicating synergism in biological activity of this traditionally used bioresource.