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Ectoparasitism in animals has become an issue of great concern that needs to be resolved to prevent huge economic losses occurring to livestock industry all over the world. Synthetic adrugs have been playing a major role in controlling ectoparasites, but their frequent and irrational use has resulted in drug resistance to routinely used chemicals and their residual effects on food and environment. Therefore, this approach of using chemical acaricides and insecticides is losing its popularity and effectiveness in controll ing ectoparasites. So, the development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Among alternative protocols, plants and their essential oils have played remarkable role in controlling different ectoparasites (ticks, flies, mites, lice) of veterinary importance. Essential oils have been proved to be cheaper, more effective and safer therapeautic agents against different ectoparasites of livestock importance.
17 (5): 441 - 452 (2018)
© / ISSN 0717 7917 /
Revisión | Review
Acaricidal and insecticidal effects of essential oils against
ectoparasites of veterinary importance
[Efectos acaricidas e insecticidas de los aceites esenciales contra los ectoparásitos de importancia veterinaria]
Asghar Abbas1, Rao Zahid Abbas2, Sabiqaa Masood, Zafar Iqbal2, Muhammad Kasib Khan2,
Muhammad Kashif Saleemi3, Muhammad Asif Raza1, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood4,
Junaid Ali Khan5 & Zia ud Din Sindhu2
1Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan
2Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
3Department of Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
4 Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
5Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Contactos | Contacts: Rao Zahid ABBAS - E-mail address:
Abstract: Ectoparasitism in animals has become an issue of great concern that needs to be resolved to prevent huge economic losses
occurring to livestock industry all over the world. Synthetic adrugs have been playing a major role in controlling ectoparasites, but their
frequent and irrational use has resulted in drug resistance to routinely used chemicals and their residual effects on food and environment.
Therefore, this approach of using chemical acaricides and insecticides is losing its popularity and effectiveness in controlling ectoparasites.
So, the development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Among alternative protocols, plants and
their essential oils have played remarkable role in controlling different ectoparasites (ticks, flies, mites, lice) of veterinary importance.
Essential oils have been proved to be cheaper, more effective and safer therapeautic agents against different ectoparasites of livestock
Keywords: Plants; Essential oils; Ectoparasites; Animals
Resumen: En los animales el ectoparasitismo se ha convertido en un tema de gran preocupación que debe resolverse para evitar que se
produzcan grandes pérdidas económicas para la industria ganadera en todo el mundo. Los aditivos sintéticos han desempeñado un papel
importante en el control de los ectoparásitos, pero su uso frecuente e irracional ha dado como resultado la resistencia a los fármacos
utilizados habitualmente y efectos residuales sobre los alimentos y el medio ambiente. Por lo tanto, el enfoque basado en el uso de acaricidas
e insecticidas químicos está perdiendo popularidad y efectividad en el control de los ectoparásitos. Por lo tanto, actualmente se requiere el
desarrollo de enfoques alternativos en el manejo de ectoparásitos. Entre los protocolos alternativos, las plantas y sus aceites esenciales han
jugado un papel notable en el control de diferentes ectoparásitos (garrapatas, moscas, ácaros, piojos) de importancia veterinaria. Se ha
demostrado que los aceites esenciales son agentes terapéuticos más baratos, más efectivos y más seguros contra diferentes ectoparásitos de
importancia ganadera.
Palabras clave: Plantas; Aceites Esenciales; Ectoparásitos; Animales
Recibido | Received: May 14, 2018
Aceptado | Accepted: August 6, 2018
Aceptado en versión corregida | Accepted in revised form: August 24, 2018
Publicado en línea | Published online: September 30, 2018
Este artículo puede ser citado como / This article must be cited as: A Abbas, RZ Abbas, S Masood, Z Iqbal, MK Khan, MK Saleemi, MA Raza, MS Mahmood, JA Khan, ZD
Sindhu. 2018. Acaricidal and insecticidal effects of essential oils against ectoparasites of veterinary importance. Bol Latinoam Caribe Plant Med Aromat 17 (5): 441 452
Abbas et al. Acaricidal and insecticidal effects of essential oils against ectoparasites of veterinary importance
Titulo corto)
Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas/442
Parasitic diseases account for important health hazard
in man and animal in tropical countries. Ectoparasites
cause serious threat to animalshealth and economy all
over the world. They can cause annoyance, irritation,
skin infection, anaemia, tick fever as well as act as a
vector for various devastating diseases of livestock
importance (Abbas et al., 2014; Yadav et al., 2017).
Among ectoparasites, tickborne infections are
recognized as most devastating because of causing
huge economic losses (Chen et al., 2014; Demessie
and Derso, 2015; Opara et al., 2016). Likewise,
ectoparasites are of great concern due to their
increasing prevalence, zoonotic potential and causing
lowered animal productivity (Jabbar et al., 2015;
Zahid et al., 2016; Zaman et al., 2017a; Zaman et al.,
Ectoparasites infecting various species of
animals are controlled by using synthetic insecticides
which is mostly practiced method throughout the
world in spite of several problems like development
of resistance, public concern in terms of residue in
food and environment pollution (Maxwell et al.,
2002; El-Seedi et al., 2017; Showler, 2017).
Therefore, use of insecticides has been limited due to
development of insecticidal drug resistance in ticks
(Olivares-Pérez et al., 2011; Foil et al., 2004; El-
Seedi et al., 2017), lice (Ellse et al., 2012), flies
(Showler, 2017) and mites (Beugnet et al., 1997).
Due to resistance problems alternative
options are being incorporated in strategic and
integrated parasite control programs (Masood et al.,
2013; Abbas et al., 2017a; Abbas et al., 2017b; Idris
et al., 2017; Khan et al., 2017). Among alternatives,
the use of essential oils has been an area of focused
research in several countries (Álvarez et al., 2008;
Khaliq et al., 2015; Liaqat et al., 2016).
Plants extracts and essential oils have been
extensively used in controlling diseases of parasitic,
viral and bacterial origin (Ibrahim et al., 2001; Ntalli
et al., 2010; Ellse et al., 2013; Ellse & Wall, 2014;
Aslam et al., 2016; Awaad et al., 2016; Chen et al.,
2016; Fang et al., 2016; Sands et al., 2016; Esmacily
et al., 2017; Radsetoulalova et al., 2017; Sharifi-Rad
et al., 2017).
Herbal medication has become an appealing
approach and it has gained great importance in
tropical and subtropical regions especially in Asia
and Africa (Habeeb, 2010; Fang et al., 2016; Ijaz et
al., 2016; Rehman et al., 2016; Niroumand et al.,
2016; Showler, 2017; Qureshi et al., 2017). Scientists
and researchers all over the world have proved that
the phytochemicals or essential oils obtained from
different plants have ovicidal, larvicidal, adulticidal
and repellent effects against ectoparasites (Abbas et
al., 2014; Fang et al., 2016). Efficiency of botanical
driven products and essential oils is frequently
ascribed due to their main constituents which have
diverse properties and positive effects (Yang et al.,
2003; Cal, 2006; Birkett et al., 2011; Abbas et al.,
2014; El-Seedi et al., 2017).
This review estimates the potential essential
oils in controlling ectoparasites of veterinary
importance with their possible mechanism of action.
Effects against Ticks
A lot of work has been done in last decade on
investigating the acaricidal response of different
essential oils against ticks of Ixodidae family (hard
ticks). Essential oils of Ageratum houstonianum have
shown remarkable effects against ticks biting
goats.There was a 94.9% decrease in the counting of
biting ticks on goats treated with essential oils of
Ageratum houstonianum (Pamo et al., 2005). In an in
vitro experiment essential oils derived from Thymus
vulgaris, Dorystoechas hasata and Mentha longifolia
were tested through larval immersion test which
resulted in 99% mortality of Rhipicephalus microplus
larvae after exposure to eachoil (0.1% soultion) (Koc
et al., 2013). Essential oils of Pimenta dioica and
Cuminum cyminum were also effective against
Rhipicephalus microplus in 1.26% and 2.49%
solution of each oilwhile essential oil of Ocimum
basilicum had no larvae killing possessions, even at
the quantity of 19.9% (Martinez-Velazquez et al.,
2011). Essential oil of Hypericum polyanthemum
(Ribeiro et al., 2007) and Calceolaria serrata
(Ribeiro et al., 2008) caused no effect on mortality of
two species of ticks including Rhipicephalus
sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. In another
study, the essential oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (Iori
et al., 2005), Satureja thymbra (Cetin et al., 2010)
and Origanum minutiflorum (Cetin et al., 2009) were
proved to be effective against hard ticks.
In a recent in vitro study, essential oils of
Conyza dioscoridis, Artemisia herba-alba and
Calendula officinalis have shown high repulsive
activity against hard ticks (El-Seedi et al., 2017). In
another in vivo study protective action of Tagetes
minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil against
Rhipicephalus microplus was reported and results
suggested that Tagetes minuta was greatly effective
Abbas et al. Acaricidal and insecticidal effects of essential oils against ectoparasites of veterinary importance
Titulo corto)
Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas/443
against ticks (Andreotti et al., 2013). Previously,
essential oil of Tagetes minuta essential oil proved to
be 95% effective for controlling the different tick
species including Rhipicephalus microplus,
Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense
and Argas miniatus. The efficacy of essential oil was
accesssed by adult immersion and larval packet tests
(Garcia et al., 2012).
The acaricidal potential of essential oils may
be accredited due to the action of their volatile
components and constituents (Kim et al., 2007;
George et al., 2009; Cetin et al., 2010).
Effects against Mites
Essential oils are also effective against various mites
infecting animals. In an in vitro study, the essential
oils of plants such as Eugenia caryophyllata,
Coriandrum sativum and Juniperus oxycedrus were
proved to be effective against Dermanyssus gallinae
(poultry red mite) and caused 99.9% mortality (Kim
et al., 2004). In a recent study, essential oils derived
from plants such as clove, palmarosa, tea tree, and
eucalyptus species have shown potential against
Sarcoptes scabiei (Itch mite). Results of study
demonstrated that essential oils of these plants are
potential alternative products to treat Sarcoptes
scabiei infections in animals and humans (Fang et al.,
2016). In another trial in which mites were
permittedinteraction with essential oil of
Leptospermum scoparium in closed and open
chambers which showed good results by causing
29.9% mortality rate in open chambers while 80%
mortality rate in closed chambers (George et al.,
2009). Likewise, higher mortality was observed after
treatment of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris in
closed chambersas compared to open chambers
(George et al., 2009). It has been shown that volatile
characteristics in Thymus vulgaris may be enough to
resist Dermanyssus gallinae for up to 10-15 days
(George et al., 2009). Essential oil of Lavandula
angustifolia caused 70% mortality of mites in an in
vitro assay (George et al., 2008).
Some other in vitro studies have
demonstrated that essential oil of Lavandula
angustifolia and most of its ingredients have shown
potential against Psoroptes cuniculi (Perrucci et al.,
1996). Furthermore, essential oil of Cinnamomum
verum (cinnamon) leaf have been revealed to have
great acaricidal effectiveness against Psoroptes
cuniculi on rabbits (Fichi et al., 2007). In an in vitro
trial among four tested commercially available
monoterpenes (SigmaAldrich, Milan, Italy) geraniol
caused 100% mortality of Otodectes cynotis (dog ear
mite) whereas limonene, p-cymene and α-pinene
were proved to be less effective (Traina et al., 2005).
Different experiments have shown that
acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy of essential oils
varies due to difference in composition of essential
oil and concenteration of its active components that
varies in different varieties of same plant and also
part of plant (leaves, roots) (George et al., 2010).
For example, essential oils obtained from different
varieties of Lavandula angustifolia showed marked
differences in toxicity against D. gallinae (George et
al., 2010). Inconsistency in oil composition or
fractions in different varieties and parts of plants is an
inherent problem. Such differences are important
because the precise composition of an essential oil
may determine its acaricidal efficacy (Na et al.,
2011). Furthermore, chemical composition of
essential oils can also vary according to various
factors such as season (for example before or after
flowering), soil conditions including its type and
water availability (Andrade et al., 2011). Another
important factor that effects the chemical
composition of essential oils is genetic composition
of the plant which is in accordance with plant variety.
All such factors including genetic and epigenetic
factors affect the biochemical synthesis of essential
oils in a particular plant. So, the same species of plant
with different chemical composition of essential oil
may produce different biological and therapeutic
effects (Sangwan et al., 2001).
Effects against Flies and Fleas
Essential oils have been also effective against various
flies and fleas infecting different species of animals.
In in vitro test essential oil of Mentha piperita
(peppermint) was found to be effective against larvae
of the Musca domestica (house fly) (Morey and
Khandagle, 2012). In another study nuisance flies
such as Stomoxys calcitrans, Hippobosca equina and
Musca domestica were declined and repelled on
cattle cured with essential oils of Mentha piperita,
Matricaria chamomilla and Cinnamomum camphora
(Khater et al., 2009). Repulsive properties of
essential oil of Myrica gale were evaluated against
Culicoides impunctatus (biting midge) and results
showed that essential oil of Myrica gale have
repulsive effects against Culicoides impunctatus
Abbas et al. Acaricidal and insecticidal effects of essential oils against ectoparasites of veterinary importance
Titulo corto)
Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas/444
(Stuart & Stuart, 1998). Essential oil of Nepeta
cataria also showed good response against Stomoxys
calcitrans in an in vitro study (Zhu et al., 2012).
In another study essential oils including basil,
cinnamon, citronella and thymus essential oils
showed larvicidal activity against Anopheles dirus
and Aedes aegypti mosquito (Pitasawat et al., 2007).
Various experiments have shown that
essential oils play important role in controllingflies
being responsible for myiasis on animals such as
Lucilia cuprina (Callander & James, 2012) and
Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Khalaf et al., 2009). In an in
vitro study conducted on essential oil of Melaleuca
alternifolia (tea tree), major repulsive properties to
larva of Lucilia cuprina have been recorded
(Callander & James, 2012). Essential oils are also
effective against various fleas infecting animals. It
has been observed that essential oil of the Citrus
sinensis (citrus) oil is harmful to Ctenocephalides
felis (cat flea) (Collart & Hink, 1986). Furthermore,
essential oils containing carvacrol and its derivatives
caused death of flea in an in vitro study (Panella et
al., 2005).
In an experiment, insecticidal activity of
essential oils from Origanum onites, Satureja
thymbra and Myrtus communis was evaluated against
different insects. Among all tested the essential oils
of Origanum onites and Satureja thymbra were
effective causing 100% mortality of insects (Ayvaz et
al., 2010).
Effects against Lice
Essential oils are also effective against various types
of lice infecting animals. Various in vitro and in vivo
trials have shown remarkable results against lice of
veterinary importance. In an in vitro study,
effectiveness of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia
(tea tree) was evaluated against Bovicolao cellatus
(chewing lice). The essential oils showed their
antilice activity in terms of high mortality (Talbert &
Wall, 2012). Different in vitro assays have displayed
that usage of 1% quantity of tea tree caused 100%
mortality of Bovicola ovis (sheep lice) (Callander
and James, 2012). In another in vitro study, essential
oil of Cinnamomum camphora (camphor) proved to
be the lethal to Haematopinus tuberculatus and
caused ovicidal action on its eggs (Khater et al.,
2009). Essential oil of Lippia multiflora proved to
have excellent potential against body lice, head lice
and scabies mites, with overall efficacy exceeding as
compared to synthetic drugs tested (Oladimeji et al.,
Mechanism of action of Essential Oils
Acaricidal and insecticidal effects of essential oils are
largely associated with the presence of bioactive
constituents (Boldbaatar et al., 2014). Many botanical
oils and their extracts are composed of more than one
bioactive compound that can exert different modes of
action against ectoparasites (Showler, 2017). Many
studies have revealed that constituents of essential
oils have harmful effect on nervous system of
ectoparasites. For example, terpinen-4-ol, high in
concentrations in tea tree oil, inhibits release of
acetylcholinesterase which is essential for insects for
their activity and synaptic transmission (Bakkalai et
al., 2008; Lopez & Pascual-Villalobos, 2010).
Different compounds of essential oils are also known
to act on Octopamine (circulating-neuromodulator)
and its disruption results in complete breakdown of
nervous system in insects (Hollingworth et al., 1984).
Furthermore, essential oils are hydrophobic in nature
and cause water stress in insects by blocking the
spiracles resulting in suffocation and distressing the
cuticular waxes (Burgess, 2009).
Different studies have shown that essential
oils components act synergistically. This may occur
because some oil components aid cellular
accumulation and absorption of other toxic
components (Yang et al., 2003; Cal, 2006). Although
several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the
underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated
so far. Synergistic activity observed has long been
speculated to be obtained via complex effects in
several targets due to multiple modes-of-action by
different components (Tak & Isman, 2017).
However, despite this complexity in their modes-of-
action, the synergistic or antagonistic effects in
essential oil-based insecticides seem to depend upon
concentration of major constituents of particular
essential oil (Tong & Coats, 2012).
Mostly essential oils are rapidly absorbed
after dermal or oral administration and cross the
blood-brain barrier and interact with receptors in the
central nervous system. Components of essential oils
are fat soluble and have the ability to permeate the
membranes of the skin and act on targets organs
(Adorjan & Buchbauer, 2010). Most essential oil
components are metabolized and either eliminated by
the kidneys in the form of polar compounds (Kohlert
et al., 2000). The same happens with thymol,
Abbas et al. Acaricidal and insecticidal effects of essential oils against ectoparasites of veterinary importance
Titulo corto)
Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas/445
carvacrol, limonene and eugenol. After their oral
administration, sulphate and glucuronide forms have
been detected in urine and in plasma respectively
(Michiels et al., 2008). Due to their volatility nature
and fast metabolism of its active compounds there is
a minimum risk of accumulation in body tissues
(Kohlert et al., 2002).
Essential oils are highly complex mixtures of
volatile compounds (Shibamoto, 2010), including
hydrocarbons (e.g. limonene, pinene), acids (e.g.
benzoic acid, geranic acid), alcohols (e.g. santalol,
linalol), aldehydes (e.g. citral, cuminal), ketones (e.g.
camphor), lactones (e.g. bergaptene), phenols (e.g.
eugenol), phenolic ethers (e.g. anethole), oxides (e.g.
1,8 cineole) and esters (e.g. geranylacetate) (Andrade
et al., 2011).
Limitations of using essential oils
No doubt essential oil have wide potential uses but,
their use remain limited due to toxic effects and
other undesirable effects (Yang et al., 2005).
Essential oils also deteriorate the cell membrane and
cell wall structure cytoplasmic membranes and
organelles of cell including mitochondria and
peroxisomes (Bakkali et al., 2008). Essential oils
disturb the depolarization of mitochondrial
membrane in cell by altering ion channels and effect
ATP synthesis (Vercesi et al., 1997). Essential oils
such as thymol and carvacol have been proved to be
to be lethal for the intestinal cells of mucosa layer
due to lipophilic and hydrophobic nature (Giannenas
et al., 2003). Furthermore, essential oils separated
from Chinese as well Egyptian plants have been
reported to cause fumigant toxicity (Fu et al., 2013).
It should also be taken into account that essential oils
and their components could cause allergic reactions
and symptoms (De Groot & Schmidt, 2016).
Table No. 1
Some important essential oils reported for acaricidal and insecticidal activities
Common Name
Goat weed
Kumar et al., 2016
George et al., 2010
Jaenson et al., 2005
El-Seedi et al., 2017
Nawaz et al., 2015
Kim et al., 2004
El-Seedi et al., 2017
Purple cleome
Ndungu et al., 1999
Kim et al., 2004
Lwande et al., 1999
Macchioni et al., 2006
Zapania Lam
Cruz et al., 2013
Tea tree
Magi et al., 2006
Sweet Basil
Veeramaniet al., 2014
Kocet al., 2013
Martinez-Velazquez et al., 2011
Wild marigold
Andreottiet al., 2013
George et al., 2009
Abbas et al. Acaricidal and insecticidal effects of essential oils against ectoparasites of veterinary importance
Titulo corto)
Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas/446
Table No. 2
Major constituents of some important essential oils
Scientific Name
Essential Oil
Major Constituent
Thymus vulgaris L
Fadliet al., 2011
Thymus pulegioides L
Miladinovic et al., 2014
Origanum vulgare L
Rosatoet al., 2010
Origanumm ajorana L
El-Hosseiny et al., 2014
Salvia officinalis L
El-Hosseiny et al., 2014
Satureja montana L
Miladinovic et al., 2014
Ocimum basilicum L
Silva et al., 2015
Aniba rosaeodora Ducke
Rosato et al., 2010
Melaleuca Alternifolia Maiden &
Betche ex Cheel
Tea tree
Rosato et al., 2010
Pelargonium graveolens L’Her
Rosato et al., 2010
Zanthoxylum articulatum Engler
Rodrigues et al., 2010
Allium sativum L
Diallylle disulfide
Thomson & Ali, 2003
Mentha piperita L
Menthol & menthone
Sala, 2011
Azadirachta indica A. Juss
Hexadecanoic acid
Oleic acid
octadecanoic acid
Kurose &Yatagai, 2005
Concluding Remarks
On the basis of previous and recent research on
essential oils against ectoparasites, it is proved that
essential oils are effective in controlling ectoparasites
of livestock importance. The essential oils should be
considered as alternative to chemical insecticides thus
delaying or averting resistance. Essential oils can act
as best alternative in the treatment of ectoparasite
infections. However, most of the studies reported in
this review article are not so well designed and
comprehensive and based on just in vitro trials in
laboratory conditions, therefore, further extensive in
vivotrials and experiments are needed for formulation
and standardization of herbal product from these
essential oilsto be used in field practices.
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... These oils comprise of some components which are biologically active and linked with the acaricidal activity of these oils. These components act in a synergistic manner for manifestation of strong acaricidal action (Abbas et al., 2018). The essential oils exert their effect through different routes like inhalation, ingestion or contact with the body surface of the acarids and damage their nervous system functioning (Khater, 2012;Abbas et al., 2018;Castro et al., 2018). ...
... These components act in a synergistic manner for manifestation of strong acaricidal action (Abbas et al., 2018). The essential oils exert their effect through different routes like inhalation, ingestion or contact with the body surface of the acarids and damage their nervous system functioning (Khater, 2012;Abbas et al., 2018;Castro et al., 2018). For example, the oil of Tagetes minuta has shown its effectiveness in control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks in cattle. ...
Ticks, particularly the Rhipicephalus which are the most prevalent and invasive affect 80% of the cattle population worldwide. Through transmission of pathogens, tick worry and physical damage to the hides, ticks cause economic loss of billions of dollars each year with 1 billion US dollars loss per annum reported only in Latin-America. These losses can be minimized only by successful management of Rhipicephalus ticks. Various strategies like chemical control, vaccination and biological control are aimed at control of Rhipicephalus ticks. There are some serious limitations associated with them like tick resistance, drug toxicity, antigenic variations etc. In contrast to these issues related with chemical tick control, the botanicals particularly the essential oils obtained from aromatic plants of medicinal importance are eco-friendly and non-toxic to most host. In recent years, essential oils-based control of cattle ticks has gained considerable attraction of scientists all over the world as depicted from this review. A comprehensive effort has been made to critically analyze the role of essential oils in controlling Rhipicephalus ticks with particular emphasis on the mode of action of bioactive compounds both as repellents and acaricides. Furthermore, we have pointed out the most important challenges which need to be addressed for development and commercialization of an essential oil based anti-tick product.
... Ectoparasites are major threat that affect animal welfare and are the vector of many bacterial, viral, rickettsial and protozoal, including zoonotic, diseases (Abbas et al., 2014(Abbas et al., , 2018Khater et al., 2018;Tirosh-Levy et al., 2018). Ticks can affect equine welfare directly through blood loss, skin damage, irritation and discomfort, allergy, tick paralysis, or indirectly through morbidity or mortality caused by infectious organisms transmitted (Duell et al., 2013). ...
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Ticks are major external parasites of horses that affect animal welfare and transmit many infections. Little is known about the epidemiology of ticks in horses in Pakistan. Keeping in view the significance of horses and its importance, a cross-sectional study was designed to investigate species distribution, seasonal dynamics and epidemiology of ticks infesting horses in Pakistan. By convenience sampling, 500 horses in two districts (Sargodha and Lahore) of Punjab were screened for the presence of ticks from January to December 2017. Tick samples were collected from horses and identified to species level. Data of temporospatial, host and husbandry practices-related risk factors were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Ticks representing six species were collected i.e. Hyalomma impeltatum (n=52), H. impressum (n=25), H. excavatum (n=9), H. anatolicum (n=3), H. scupense (n=3) and H. dromedarii (n=3). The sex ratio of collected ticks showed 63 (66.32%) male and 32 (33.68%) female. In both districts, predominant species in horses was H. impeltatum. All infested horses had more than one tick species. The overall proportion of tick infested horses was 7% (35/500), which was high in district Lahore (8.15%) than district Sargodha (5.99%). Summer, ≤3 body condition score, satisfactory nutritional status, same breed rearing system, presence of dogs and absence of birds at farms, and activity were important risk factors associated with high equine tick infestation. This is the first report regarding the presence of H. dromedarii in the horses of Punjab. To Cite This Article: Ali S, Ijaz M, Ghaffar A, Oneeb M, Masud A, Durrani AZ and Rashid MI, 2020. Species distribution and seasonal dynamics of equine tick infestation in two subtropical climate niches in Punjab, Pakistan. Pak Vet J, 40(1): 25-30. http://dx.
... Natural products obtained from plant secondary metabolism have been studied in order to select compounds with potential for the development of new acaricides. These compounds have proved to be an interesting alternative in controlling this ectoparasite, because they have varied mechanisms of action and, generally, little mammalian toxicity (Koul et al., 2008;Pavela and Benelli., 2016;Jankowska et al., 2017;Khater et al., 2018;Abbas et al., 2018;Fayaz et al., 2019). Studies conducted with Acmella oleracea (L.) RK Jansen (Astereacea) (synonym -Spilanthes acmella and Acmella ciliata), commonly known as Jambu, have shown that active compounds found in extracts of this plant present potential for the development of botanical acaricides (Marchesini et al., 2018). ...
The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the acaricidal activity of different fractions of Acmella oleracea methanolic extract, containing 0.0% (F1), 24.5% (F2), 48.0% (F3) and 100% (F4) of spilanthol, on unfed larvae and engorged females from the same Rhipicephalus microplus population. To obtain these fractions, the crude extract was subjected to different extraction procedures using increasingly polarized solvents to isolate the spilanthol compound. The Larval Packet Test was used to evaluate acaricidal activity in unfed larvae at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.0 mg/mL, while for engorged females, the Adult Immersion Test was performed at concentrations from 3.1 to 25.0 mg/mL. The F1 fraction showed no activity on unfed larvae, while a control percentage of 44.6% was observed at a concentration of 25.0 mg/mL for engorged females. For unfed larvae, the F2 fraction resulted in 95.7% mortality at a concentration of 1.6 mg/mL, with a control percentage of 92.7% for engorged females at a concentration of 12.5 mg/mL. Fractions F3 and F4 had similar activity against unfed larvae, with mortality >84.0% from the concentration of 0.8 mg/mL. This similarity between the fractions was also observed for engorged females from a concentration of 12.5 mg/mL, expressing a control percentage >94.0%. These results demonstrate that the presence of spilanthol is an important factor for the acaricidal activity of A. oleracea extract. Fraction extracts with 24.5, 48 and 100% of spilanthol have similar acaricidal activity on R. microplus.
... et al., 2008, 2011), alternate approaches are being sought for the control of various infectious diseases including coccidiosis (Hussain et al., 2017;Abbas et al., 2017aAbbas et al., , 2017bAbbas et al., , 2017cAbbas et al., , 2019aAbbas et al., , 2019bMahmood et al., 2018). One of these alternates is the use of essential oils which are helpful in maintaining vital physiological functions (Idris et al., 2017;Abbas et al., 2018;Khater et al., 2018;Ahmad et al., 2019;Fayaz et al., 2019) but consumption of these oils has been reported for causing cell membrane damage in laboratory animals. ...
... Many botanicals and their products have been reported to have shown diverse biological effects in birds and ruminants as proven by different studies (Abbas et al., 2017(Abbas et al., , 2018. In current study in vivo anticoccidial effects of C. sinensis extract were measured in terms of different parameters such as lesion, oocysts scores, oocysts per gram of feces (OPG), feed conversion ratio, mortality rate and such type of anticoccidial parameters have also been evaluated in recent studies (Hong et al., 2016;Gadelhaq et al., 2018). ...
... This may lead to the risk of antibiotic resistance in humans due to the consumption of poultry products, containing antibiotic residues (Kamollerd et al., 2016). Thus, the use of antibiotics and chemicals should be prohibited in Pakistan and novel alternatives should be searched out for controlling infectious diseases (Abbas et al., 2017a, b, c;Abbas et al., 2018;Idris et al., 2017). Probiotics can also serve as an alternative approach to control Salmonella issue in poultry (Amara and Shibal, 2015). ...
... Many botanicals and their products are reported to have excellent effect against various diseases and particularly against coccidiosis as proven by different in vitro and in vivo studies ( Abbas et al., 2015Abbas et al., , 2017aAbbas et al., , 2017bAbbas et al., , 2017cAbbas et al., , 2018Idris et al., 2017;Khater et al., 2018;Mahmood et al., 2018). In present study like that of previous studies (Awais et al., 2014;Hong et al., 2016;Gadelhaq et al., 2018), in vivo anticoccidial effect of Trachyspermum ammi was measured in terms of different parameters such as feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, lesion, fecal and oocyst scores. ...
... Different types of domesticated animals such as buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep, poultry, horses, donkeys and camel are included in livestock (Khan, 2004). Parasitic diseases are the major issues to the poor farming community in tropical and subtropical areas in particular Pakistan (Jonsson, 2006;Khan et al., 2017;Mehmood et al., 2017;Naqvi et al., 2017;Zaman et al., 2017;Abbas et al., 2018;Khater et al., 2018). Among ectoparasites, ticks are blood-sucking parasites associated with mammals, birds and reptiles (Aslam et al., 2015;Ali et al., 2016) which, also transmit diseases in its host. ...
... Parasitic diseases have been great threat in livestock production systems (Abbas et al., 2017a(Abbas et al., , 2017b(Abbas et al., , 2017c(Abbas et al., , 2018Mehmood et al., 2017;Naqvi et al., 2017;Hanem et al., 2018). Fascioliasis is an economically important disease of sheep and goat, which is caused by Fasciola (F.) hepatica, a flatworm belonging to class Trematoda. ...
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Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola (F.) hepatica, affects a large number of animals in terms of morbidity, production losses, treatment cost and high mortality rate. Economic losses of about 3.6 billion US$ per year have been reported due to this parasite throughout the world. The present study was planned to investigate the prevalence and related risk factors of F. hepatica in sheep and goat population in District Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan. To this end, a total of 384 serum samples were collected from sheep and goats in different tehsils of District and examined through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) by using Excretory/Secretary antigen coated plates. A predesigned questionnaire was also used to collect the data of related risk factors. The overall prevalence of fascioliasis in the small ruminant population was 37.24%. The highest prevalence was observed in tehsil Talla Gang, followed by Chakwal, Kallar Kahar and Choa Saiden Shah. Fascioliasis was more prevalent in females as compared to males. According to age groups, the prevalence was higher in animals with 6-12 months of age. At the species level, sheep had higher prevalence as compared to goats and this prevalence was higher in animals went for grazing than those fed through stalls. Among different breeds of goats, Teddy breed had a higher prevalence of F. hepatica than those of Beetal and mixed breeds of goat.
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House flies are global pests and notoriously difficult to control. Essential oils of vetiver, cinnamon, and lavender and their blends were tested for toxic and repellent effects against larval and adult flies. All of the oils had moderate toxicity for eggs. Mortality of 2nd instar larvae was 57–78% in dipping assays, 38–100% in contact assays, and 94–100% in treated media. Lavender was less effective (38% mortality) than the others (91–100%) in contact bioassays. Oil blends were not more effective against larvae than individual oils. Vetiver and cinnamon oils were strongly repellent (84 and 78%, respectively) for larvae in treated media. None of the oils were repellent for adult house flies in olfactometer assays, but testing of additional products demonstrated significant repellency for neem oil, p‐menthane‐3,8‐diol (PMD), and vanillin. Contact/fumigant toxicity of vetiver, cinnamon, and lavender oils was 100%, significantly higher than mortality from sunflower oil (67%). Blends of oils were not more effective against adults than the individual oils, but blends diluted with sunflower oil were as effective as the individual oils. Essentials oils of vetiver and cinnamon may have potential for fly management in situations where conventional insecticides cannot be used.
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Parasitic diseases account for important health hazard in man and animal in tropical countries like India. Ectoparasites infestation causes a serious loss in health and economy every year in India. They can cause annoyance, irritation, skin infection, anaemia, tick fever as well as act as a vector for various devastating diseases. Thus, ectoparasites control is a matter of great concern. Various chemical acaricides have been prescribed since last 50 years. But, their residual effect, adverse side effect, and resistance are a matter of concern now days. Hence, biological control of ectoparasites gains prime importance in many parasite control program. The present review critically analyzes the different methods for controlling the ectoparasites with special emphasis on the newer approach of the biological, immunological, genetic and pheromone method.
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Geo-climatic and socio-economic conditions provide a favourable environment for parasitic population of livestock in Pakistan. Hard ticks (Ixodidae) and gastrointestinal nematodes pose most serious threats to livestock industry. Stackholders rely on synthetic drugs to control these parasites. Emergence of drug resistance in these parasites; however, has provoked interest in alternate of synthetic drugs. Testing of plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine for their antiparasitic activity employing standard procedures has been reported to be promising. Plants have been most frequently used for deworming purposes followed by as acaricides and insecticides; whereas, reports as to their antiprotozoal use are relatively less. Use of plants as antiparasitics is more frequent in developing countries having low accessability to the modern parasite control practices. Likewise, validation studies on the use of plants as antiparasitics have been more frequently carried out in the developing countries compared with those having livestock farming as commercial enterprise. This article presents an overview of the plants having acaricidal and anthelmintic activity, limitations as to the application of phytotherpay to control parasites and future prospects of the use of plants as antiparasitics.
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Due to the role of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of many serious pathogens, personal protection against bites of this tick is essential. In the present study the essential oils from 11 aromatic Egyptian plants were isolated and their repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs was evaluated Three oils (i.e. Conyza dioscoridis L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Calendula officinalis L.) elicited high repellent activity in vitro of 94, 84.2 and 82%, respectively. The most active essential oil (C. dioscoridis) was applied in the field at a concentration of 6.5 µg/cm² and elicited a significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs by 61.1%. The most repellent plants C. dioscoridis, C. officinalis and A. herba-alba yielded essential oils by 0.17, 0.11 and 0.14%, respectively. These oils were further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. α-Cadinol (10.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (10.5%) were the major components of C. dioscoridis whereas in C. officinalis, α-cadinol (21.2%) and carvone (18.2%) were major components. Artemisiaherba-alba contained piperitone (26.5%), ethyl cinnamate (9.5%), camphor (7.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (6.9%). Essential oils of these three plants have a potential to be used for personal protection against tick bites.
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Herbal medication is becoming very popular in today's world as people seek for natural remedies and avoid synthetic ones. These are widely used as immuno-modulatory agents. Nigella sativa is one of them and its extract contains a major component thymoquinone (TQ), which has immuno-modulatory activities. The objectives of current study were to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of Nigella sativa extract in ethanol on the polymorphonuclear (PMN)/ leukocyte phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation in goats. For this purpose, whole blood was analyzed with Phagotest ® by flow cytometry and lymphocyte proliferation using WST-1 ® test kit. All doses of D4 and D8 dilutions of Nigella sativa exerted an inhibitory effect on phagocytosis activity, maximal effect was observed with 10 µl (highest dose). In contrast, all doses of the D6 dilution of Nigella sativa enhanced the phagocytosis activity in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum stimulating effect (median: 8%) was observed at the highest dose (l0 µl), which was significantly (P<0.05) different from other doses. Various doses (10 µl, 2 µl, 1 µl, and 0.5 µl) of all tested dilutions (D4, D6, D8) of Nigella sativa stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. The maximum stimulating effect (median: 8%) was observed by the lowest dose (0.5 µl) of D4 dilution of Nigella sativa, which was significantly (P<0.05) different from other doses tested. Thus, ethanolic dilutions of Nigella sativa seed extract may be considered as an immuno-modulatory agent to cure immune mediated disorders.
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Immunomodulatory activity of Pinus radiata extract (PRE) against experimental Eimeria infection in broiler chicks was evaluated. For in-vivo trials, 175 day-old broiler chicks were divided into five equal groups (A, B, C, D and E) containing 35 chicks in each group. At one week of age, the groups A, B and C were given orally with graded doses of PRE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight, respectively) for three consecutive days. Group D served as positive control (Vitamin-E treated) and Group E served as negative control (PBS treated). At 14th day of age, all groups were infected orally with 60,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed Eimeria species. Cell mediated immune response was evaluated by Phytohemagglutinin-P, Concanavalin-A, Carbon clearance assay and Dinitrochlorobenzene tests. Humoral immune response was evaluated by microplate hemagglutination test using sheep red blood cells. Results of study demonstrated that a dose dependent immune response was observed in PRE treated groups. Cell meditated and humoral immune response of group treated with PRE @ 300 mg/kg of body weight was comparable to positive control group (Vitamin-E treated) (P>0.05). Pinus radiata extract treated groups showed significantly higher cell mediated and humoral response as compared to negative control (PBS) (P < 0.05).
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This paper describes case of psoroptic mange in a herd consisting of 45 sheep and 15 cattle. Single species of mite, Psoroptes ovis, was identified in superficial skin scrapings, treated with 10% KOH, of all sheep and cattle. For treatment purpose, affected animals were placed in four groups (three sheep groups each having 15 sheep and fourth one consisting of 15 cattle) and control group consisted of 15 healthy animals. Two doses of Doramectin, Ivermectin, Trichlorofan and Ivermectin were injected/poured on at 14 days interval. Significantly different mean recovery response was measured in groups (2 and 4) treated with ivermectin from all others at 7th day after treatment (P < 0.05). All members of groups 2 and 4 were recovered completely at day 14 post-treatment and clinical signs were diminished. It was concluded that ivermectin is quite effective for treatment of Psoroptic mange in sheep and cattle as well.
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Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay.
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The objective of this study was to assess the flukicidal effect of various anthelmintics against naturally occurring infection of Fasciola, in sheep. Fasciola positive female (n=175) of Kajli breed at Livestock Experiment Station, Khizerabad, district Sargodha were randomly assigned to seven groups, including an untreated control group that received normal saline as placebo. The six groups were treated with four anthelmintics alone and in combination. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed to determine the chemotherapeutic efficacy of anthelmintics. The FECRT for the candidate anthelmintics showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in eggs per gram of feces of treated groups compared to untreated control group. The highest efficacy was found of a combination therapy of oxyclozanide and oxfendazole (97.50%) treated group; whereas, levamisole treated group showed lowest efficiency (65.67%). Time dependent response of each treatment was determined on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days post treatment. In groups treated with combination of drugs, 28th day while, in groups treated with single drug 21st day was found the most efficacious time dependent response against natural Fasciola infection. It can be concluded that combination of oxyclozanide and oxfendazole holds potential as part of an integrated management plan for the control of Fasciola in Pakistan.
Horn flies, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), are economically important blood-feeding ectoparasites of wild and domesticated animals, including cattle, Bos taurus L. Conventional insecticides are used for control of biting flies on cattle, but safety concerns and the buildup of insecticide resistance indicate the need for alternative control tactics. Many botanical extracts and oils are composed of more than one bioactive compound that can exert different modes of action, delaying or averting resistance. Plant genera that have shown repellency and toxicity against horn flies and stable flies include Allium, Azadirachta, Chrysanthemum, Cinnamomum, Cymbopogon, Derris, Eucalyptus, Festuca, Melaleuca, Melinus, Mentha, Nepeta, Nicotiana, Pelargonium, Pogostemon, Ricinus, Rosa, Syzygium, Vitex, and Zyloxanthum. Other botanically based methods for biting fly control have been investigated, such as the use of fatty acids, soybean trypsin inhibitors, and fungal endophytes on forage grasses. Many of the plantbased control methods have been shown to have strong effects against the two biting fly species, but work has only just begun on identifying and, in particular, developing botanically based tactics.
Recently, use of botanicals as an alternative to anticoccidial drugs has been appealing approach for controlling avian coccidiosis. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of aqueous methanolic extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight) of Beta vulgaris (roots) in broiler chicks. A total of 315 day old broiler chicks were divided into seven equal groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G). At 14th day of age, all groups except group G, which served as non infected non medicated control, were infected orally with 60,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed Eimeria species. At the same day, groups A, B and C were treated with graded oral doses of B. vulgaris aqueous methanolic extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). Group D was treated with Vitamin-E, group E served as infected medicated control group (Baycox(®) treated) and group F served as infected non medicated control group (PBS treated). Treatment with extract, reference drug Baycox(®), Vitamin E and PBS was continued for three consecutive days (14-16 days of age). Though, not at par with reference drug (Baycox(®)), B. vulgaris demonstrated good anticoccidial activity adjudged based on considered criteria, i.e., feed conversion ratio, lesion score, oocyst score and oocysts per gram of feces. Results of serum profile of infected chicks revealed no adverse effects of aqueous methanolic extract of B. vulgaris on the experimental chicks.