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Pharmacological importance of Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae): A mini review


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Kaempferia galanga L. belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is an endangered medicinal plant with potent medicinal activities. The leaves, rhizome and root tubers of the plant possess a number of medicinal applications. The plant is economically important and is over exploited to the extent that there is always scarcity of propagating material (rhizomes) which is the consumable part too. The present review provides broad information of Kaempferia galanga throwing light on its current status, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Extracts of Kaempferia galanga have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, anti-bacterial, sedative, cytotoxic, insecticidal and anthelmintic properties which are reported here. Keywords: Kaempferia galanga, zingiberaceae, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity
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International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN: 2455-698X
Impact Factor: RJIF 5.22
Volume 3; Issue 3; May 2018; Page No. 32-39
Pharmacological importance of Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae): A mini review
Hosne Jahan Shetu1, Kaniz Taskina Trisha2, Shishir Ahmed Sikta3, Raihanatul Anwar4, Sadman Sakib Bin Rashed5,
Pritesh Ranjan Dash6*
1, 2, 3 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
4, 5 Department of Pharmacy, BRAC University, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh
6 Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Kaempferia galanga L. belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is an endangered medicinal plant with potent medicinal activities.
The leaves, rhizome and root tubers of the plant possess a number of medicinal applications. The plant is economically important
and is over exploited to the extent that there is always scarcity of propagating material (rhizomes) which is the consumable part
too. The present review provides broad information of Kaempferia galanga throwing light on its current status, ethnobotany,
phytochemistry and pharmacology. Extracts of Kaempferia galanga have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, anti-
bacterial, sedative, cytotoxic, insecticidal and anthelmintic properties which are reported here.
Keywords: Kaempferia galanga, zingiberaceae, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity
Kaempferia galanga Linn., commonly known as Cekor,
Ekangi, Kencur or aromatic ginger is a stem less herb in
Zingiberaceae family. The plant is native to tropical Asia
including southern China, Indochina, Thailand, Taiwan,
Malaysia and India [1]. Being a source of valuable bioactive
compounds, KG is famous for its medicinal as well as edible
use [1]. As folk medicine, the rhizome of K. galanga L. is
employed for antibacterial, treatment of hypertension, asthma,
rheumatism, indigestion, cold and headache, relief abdominal
pain and toothache [2, 3]. In Thailand, the dried rhizome has
been used as cardiotonic and CNS [4], whereas an acetone
extract has an effect on monoamine oxidase inhibition [5]. K.
galanga rhizome can be used to treat wind and phlegm,
restore digestive heat, and help circulate the blood [6].The
powdered rhizome mixed with honey is an expectorant used to
treat productive cough and pectoral affection. Besides, oil
prepared from the rhizome is applied over the nasal region to
relieve nasal congestion [7]. The preparation also can be used
to treat wounds and applied to rheumatic region [8]. Roasted
rhizomes are applied as hot poultice in rheumatism [7].
Chemical constituents isolated from K. galanga possess
different pharmacological properties like antioxidant,
antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, sedative,
vasorelaxant, nematicidal, mosquito repellent, larvicidal,
antiprotozoal and wound healing activities [9, 10]. The most
vital phytoconstituent isolated from Ekangi extracts found
Ethyl-cinnamate and Ethyl-p-methoxy cinnamate.
Kaempferol, isolated from K.galanga rhizome was found
effective to reduce the risk of pancreatic and lung cancer.
Leaves and rhizomes of K. galanga are useful in treating
rheumatism traditionally. K. galanga is one of those precious
medicinal herbs that are still included in unutilized herbs in
spite of the variety of useful pharmacological properties it
possess. Therefore, the importance of the plant K. galanga as
a medicinal plant is to be documented and presented to the
mass of people. Keeping in view the above statement a brief
and up to date review about some of the medicinal values of
K. galanga has been made in the following study.
Botanical Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Sub Kingdom: Phanerogamae
Division: Spermatophyta
Sub Division: Angiospermae
Class: Monocotyledonae
Order: Scitaminales
Family: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Kaempferia
Species: K. galanga
Common name
Aromatic Ginger, Resurrection lily, Lesser galangal, Sand
ginger; Hindi: Chandramula, Sidhoul; Marathi: Kapurkachri;
Tamil: Kacholum, Pulankilanku; Malayalam: Kachhuram,
Katjulam; Kannada: Kachchura, Kachhoora; Bengali: ekangi,
bhuichampa; Assamese: Chandramula; Sanskrit:
Chandramoolika, corakah, karcurah, Sathi, Sati,
Botanical Description
Kaempferia galanga is a member of the Zingiberaceae family.
It is a stemless herb arising from tuberous rootstocks with
fibrous cylindrical roots. The rhizome has dark reddish-brown
skin and the soft interior is nearly white. The leaves usually 2-
3(-5), spread horizontally, dark green, broadly elliptical to
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
slightly flat with circular outline, measuring 8-15 cm wide.
The blade is often lying flat to the soil the top surface is
smooth while the bottom surface is cobweb-hairy [11].
The inflorescence is sessile, emerging from between the
leaves. It is 4-12(-15)-flowered. The sepal is 2-3 cm long. The
petal is white, with tube 2.5-5 cm long and lobes 1.5-3 cm
long. Their lip is broadly reversed egg-shaped, divided to
about halfway or more, white or pale purple with violet to
purple spots at the base. Each lateral lobe is about 2-2.5 cm x
1.5-2 cm. Other abortive stamen has an imperfect anther that
is oblong-reversed egg-shaped to oblong-lance-shaped, 1.5-3
cm long and white. Their fertile stamen is 10-13 mm long,
with two lobes deeply connective with abruptly bent lobes [11].
Fig 1: Kaempferia galanga
Phytochemical Constituents
A superabundant work has been done to identify and isolate
the chemical constituents from different polar and non-polar
extracts of Kaempferia galanga. Ethyl-cinnamate and ethylp-
methoxycinnamate are found to be the most vital constituents
in the dichloromethane [10], hexane [12] and methanol extracts
[13]. About 98.98% of essential oil constituents have been
isolated and identified with only 1.11% constituents that are
still unknown [13]. The most abundant essential oil constituents
include propanoic acid, pentadecane, ethyl-p-
methoxycinnamate. Other constituents include 1,8-cineol,
undecanone, isopropyl cinnamate, dicyclohexyl
propanedinitrile, dipentene dioxide, 9-hydroxy, 2-nonanone,
2,7- octadiene-1-yl acetate, ethyl cyclohexyl acetate, cis-11-
tetradecenyl acetate, 2-heptadecanone, 4-methyl isopulegone,
camphidine, trans,trans-octa-2, 4-dieny acetate, 10 undecyn-1-
ol, 3,7-dimethoxycoumarin, delta- 3-carene, alpha pinene,
camphene, borneol, cymene, alphaterpineol, alpha gurjunene,
germacrenes, cadinenes, caryophyllenes, luteolin and apigenin
[7, 10, 14, 15]. The percent concentrations of essential oil
constituents are shown in Figure 2. The chemistry of
important constituents of Kaempferia galanga is given in
Fig 2: Percent composition of essential oil content of KG extracts [14]
Table 1: Important phytoconstituents isolated from KG extracts [10, 14, 15]
Serial No
2- propeonic acid
Pentade cane
Ethyl paramethoxycinnamate
3 - carene
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
3, 4- methoxyphenyl
3H- 3a, 7- methanoazulene
Heptade cane
1- methyl, 2-(1- methylethyl)
1,6- cyclodecadienen
8- heptade cane
Delta limonene
Alpha pinene
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Beta pinene
1- methyl- 3-(1- methylethyl)
Gamma elemene
Ethyl cinnamate
Eucalyptol or 1, 8 cineole
Alpha Terpineol
Alpha Gurjunene
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Pharmacological activities of Kaempferia galangal
Antimicrobial activity
Kaempferia galangal extract has the ability to inhibit
Lactobacillus acidophilus, bacteria responsible for dental
caries. The extract of KG was made using three solvents
namely dichloromethane, aquades and ethanol; amongst which
the ethanolic extract was most effective against Lactobacillus
acidophilus, exhibiting better antibacterial activity than
penicillin but less than erythromycin [16]. Essential oils
extracted from the rhizomes of Kaempferia galanga were
tested for antibacterial activity against both gram positive
(Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and gram-
negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escheria
coli). K. galanga did not exhibit any antibacterial activity
against the bacterial strain tested [17]. The in vitro antibacterial
activities of Kaempferia galanga leaves and rhizomes
(extracted in acetone) were tested against gram positive
bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus), Bacillus
cereus (B. cereus) and gram negative bacteria such as
Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aureus (P. aureus),
Shigella dysenteriae (S. dysenteriae) and Klebsiella
pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) using disc diffusion method. All
the extracts showed moderate activity against all the strains of
bacteria mentioned except Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.
pneumoniae) [18]. Ethyl p-methoxy cinnamate (EPMC)
extracted from Kaempferia galanga L. rhizome was screened
for its antibacterial activity. The results indicated that EPMC
compound with concentration up to 1.2 and 2.4% have
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S.aureus and
S. epidermidis; while for P.acne, the concentrations are 0.6,
1.2 and 2.4%. In conclusion, it can be said that EPMC 1.2%
can be regarded as risk free since there were no reports of
allergic irritation [19]. The antimicrobial activity of Kaempferia
galanga rhizome was investigated using methanol, ethanol,
chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of it. Ten
bacterial pathogenic species (Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis,
Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli,
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pesudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio
cholerae) and four fungal species (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus,
A.fumigatus and Candida albicans) were assayed using disc
diffusion method and then the zone of inhibition was
analysed. All the extracts showed good to moderate antifungal
and antibacterial activity; although ethanolic extract depicted
most prominent antibacterial activity against S.aureus [20].
Cytotoxic and Antineoplastic Activity
Cytotoxic activities were assessed by standard MTT and SRB
measures against four cancerous viz., DU145, PA1, SW620,
B16F10 and a normal Vero cell cultures by using the extracts
of the rhizome from Kaempferia galanga and also some
progressive extracts like petroleum ether, ethyl acetic acid
derivation and ethanol. In case of cancer cells Successive
ethyl acetate extract appeared particular poisonous quality but
for normal cells they were less harmful [21]. Extracts of K.
galanga and its bioactive compound EPMC exhibited
moderate cytotoxic activity against human CCA tumor (CL-6)
cell line [22]. KG extracts possesses inhibitory impact on
tumor-promoting arrange of neoplasia and hence detailed as
anti-neoplastic [23]. Hindrance of TPA (12-O tetradecanoyl-
phorbol-13-acetate) initiated activation of epsteinbarr virus
early antigen in Raji cells is caused due to the methanolic
extracts of KG that is assessed by circuitous
immunofluorescent assay and western blot and display
fractional inhibitory impact on tumor-promoting stage [23].,
80% restraint is perceived at a dose of 320 µg/ml. At a dose of
640 µg/ml it can be escalates to a most extreme level of 90%
[23]. Colorimetric tetrazolium salt assay of the methanolic
extracts of KG Linn showed that at doses more than 250
µg/ml may grant inhibitory impact on human cardiac
fibroblast (cell line HCF-7) and human T cell leukemia (HT-
29 cell line) [24]. KG extract, ethyl-p methoxycinnamate
follows a dose dependent manner and exhibits the inhibition in
proliferation of human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (Hep
G2 cell line) [25]. Dash and his colleagues reported that by
using lethality bioassay technique in case of brine shrimp
nauplii we can see that the LC50 esteem of acetonic leaf
extract was 4.78 μg/ml. Thus it is reported that all the extracts
display direct cytotoxic action while equating with vincristine
sulphate, a standard drug which has an LC50 esteem of
0.52μg/ml [26].
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity
Alcoholic extract of Kaempferia galanga was tested for
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
analgesic and antiinflammatory activities in animal models,
where two doses 600 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg of plant extract
exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan
model and cotton pellet granuloma model and significant
analgesic activity in tail flick model and hot plate model [27].
In traditional medicine, leaves and rhizomes of Kaempferia
galanga are used to treat headache, swelling, stomach ache,
toothache and rheumatism [28]. When given subcutaneously in
doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, the aqueous extracts of
Kaempferia galanga leaves show significant anti-
inflammatory effect in rats in a dose dependent manner [29].
The capacity of the extracts to block abdominal constriction,
hot plate and formaline test indicates that analgesic activity
has both central mechanism, involving opioid receptors, and
peripheral mechanism that involves cyclooxygenase pathway
[30]. The methanol extract of Kaempferia galanga at doses of
100 and 200mg/kg demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity
which seemed to be dose and time dependent [31]. Ethyl-p-
methoxycinnamate is an anti-inflammatory constituent which
can be isolated from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts [32].
Kaempferia galanga inhibits inflammation by suppressing
interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and angiogenesis by
blocking endothelial functions [33]. Kaempferia galanga L.
extract has the same effectiveness as meloxicam in reducing
pain, stiffness in patient with knee osteoarthritis [34].
Antidiarrheal activity
According to Ali et al, experimental animals were randomly
selected and divided into four groups denoted as control,
standard and test samples (group-I and group-II) and
consisting of 6 mice in each group. Mice were fasted for 18h
before the test with free access to water. Control (water
5ml/kg), standard (Loperamide 3mg/kg) and test samples
Kaempferia galangal (100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered
orally. Then 1 h later, 0.3ml castor oil was administered orally
to each mouse to induce diarrhea. The total numbers of both
dry and wet faeces excreted by the animals were counted
every hour for a period of 4 h. The total number of diarrheal
faeces of the control group was considered 100%. In this
castor oil-induced diarrhea experiment, the mice group that
did not receive the plant extracts showed typical diarrheal
signs and symptoms such as watery and frequent defecation.
The effects of Kaempferia galangal were found to be
statistically significant (p < 0.05-0.001) which shows it has
the power to inhibit the severity of diarrhea induced by castor
oil [35].
Anthelmintic activity
According to Dash et al, test samples of extract of Kaempferia
galanga were prepared at 25, 50 and 100mg/ml concentration
in normal saline water and approximately equal size of six
earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) were placed in each beaker
containing 50ml of above test solutions of extract.
Albendazole (10 mg/ml) was used as a reference standard and
normal saline water as control. Time for death of worms were
recorded after ascertaining that worms neither moved when
shaken vigorously nor when dipped in warm water (50ºC).
Eventually, dose-dependent paralysis followed by death
occurred in each crude extract containing 25, 50 and
100mg/ml. At 25mg/ml concentration in all extracts (ACR =
Acetone extract of rhizome, PEF = Petroleum ether fraction of
rhizome, CHF=Chloroform fraction of
rhizome, MEF=Methanol fraction of rhizome) showed
paralytic effect approximately in 48 min and took more than
80 min for death sentence. However, for 50 and 100mg/ml
concentration, within a very short time each extract
successfully produced paralytic effect followed by death. The
reference drug albendazole also showed strong anthelmintic
action. As a whole, different extracts of Kaempferia
galanga showed anthelmintic activity in a dose- dependent
manner [36].
Mosquito repellent and larvicidal activity
The essential oil of Kaempferia galanga rhizomes
demonstrated contact toxicity against the booklouse,
Liposcelisbos Trychophila Badonnel, with an LC50 value of
68.6 g/cm2. Four active constituents, including 1,8 single,
ethyl cinnamate, ethyl-methoxycinnamate, and trans-
cinnamaldehyde were isolated from the essential oil and
identified. Ethyl cinnamate (LC50 21.4 g/cm2) exhibited
stronger contact toxicity than both ethyl methoxycinnamate
(LC50 44.6) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (LC50 43.4 g/cm2)
while 1,8-cineole showed weak acute toxicity[37].Methanolic
extract of Kaempferia galanga showed the significant toxicity
effect at different concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%
and 4.0%) against the different instar (I, II, III and IV) larvae
and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. The LC50 and LC90
values of K. galanga for I instar larvae were 0.63 %,3.15 %, II
instar 0.86 %, 3.66%, III instar 1.12%, 4.14%, IV instar
1.43%, 4.55%, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 values of
pupae were 0.69%, 3.05% [38]. The extracts have shown
significant larvicidal activity even against pyrethroid resistant
strains of A. aegypti [14]. Ethyl-pmethoxycinnamate, ethyl-
cinnamate, 3-carene, 2- propionic acid and pentadecane are
mainly responsible for larvicidal activity [14, 39]. Ethyl-p-
methoxycinnamate has shown more larvicidal activity (LC 50
= 12.3 to 20.7 mg/L) against A. aegypti, O. togo iand C.
pipenspallens, on the other hand, ethyl-cinnamate and 3-
carene have more larvicidal activity (LC 50 = 24.1 and 21.6
mg/L respectively) against C. pipenspallensbut less activity
(LC50 = 40 to 60 mg/L) against A. aegyptiand O.
togio[39].Essential oils extracted from the rhizomes of K.
galanga have shown considerable repellent and larvicidal
activity against a number of mosquito species, including
Aedes togoi, Culex pipenspallens [40], Aedes aegypti [40, 41, 42].
Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles
aconitus, Mansonia uniformis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex
gelidus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus [42].Without irritating
human skin for about 3 h, these essential oils exert repellent
effect against A. aegypti (effective dose (ED 50) = 30.73
µg/cm2) [42].This protection time increases further by the
addition of 10% vanillin [41]. Methanolic extracts of K.
galanga showed 100% mortality, at a concentration of 100
ppm against A. aegypti, A. togoi and C. pipenspallens, which
reduced up to 78% at the concentration of 50 ppm [40]. A
study on the possible mechanism of toxicity of ethanolic
extracts of K. galangal against C. quinquefasciatus larvae has
revealed that the possible site of action is the anal gills of C.
quinquefasciatus where it causes the destruction of ionic
regulation [43].
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sedative activity
The acetone extracts of rhizome (200 mg/kg) and leaf (200
mg/kg) of Kaempferia galangal exhibited significant (p < 0.05
and p < 0.001) reduction of onset and duration of thiopental
sodium induced sleeping time. The extracts possess central
nervous system (CNS) depressant properties which support its
use in traditional medicine [44]. Inhalation of hexane extract of
K. galanga has shown considerable decrease in locomotor
activity in rats, at doses ranging from 1.5 to 10 g. This
sedative activity is due to ethyl trans-p-methoxycinamate and
ethyl-cinnamate that inhibits locomotor activity at doses of
0.0014 and 0.0012 mg, respectively [13].
Kaempferia galanga is an important herb with many valuable
medicinal properties. The plants K. galanga or aromatic
ginger are already has gained the acceptances worldwide
because of their medicinal activity, odor and tastes. The
further and advanced study and research could improve and
enhance their application in more broader and appropriate
range. The review presented here dealt with the taxonomy,
ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of K.
galanga. However, the extensive information provided here in
all these aspects will be useful as a concrete support for future
experimental studies targeting K. galanga.
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... Alpinia galanga telah digunakan selama bertahuntahun untuk aktivitas biologisnya sebagai antibakteri, antijamur, antitumor, antiulkus, antialergi, antioksidan dan aktivitas insektisida (Subramanian & Nishan, 2015). Sedangkan ekstrak Kaempferia galanga memiliki sifat anti-inflamasi, analgesik, anti-diare, anti-bakteri, obat penenang, sitotoksik, insektisida dan anthelmintik (Shetu et al., 2018). ...
Masyarakat Blang Crum telah menggunakan tumbuhan obat secara turun temurun berdasarkan kearifan lokal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menyediakan informasi terkait tumbuhan obat yang digunakan oleh masyarakat Blang Crum, Kecamatan Muara Dua, Kota Lhokseumawe, Aceh. Metode penelitian menggunakan Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tumbuhan obat yang digunakan terdiri atas 72 spesies dalam 38 famili. Bagian tumbuhan yang digunakan berupa daun (44%), buah (20%), rimpang (7%), biji (6%), bunga (5%), umbi (5%), getah (5%), seluruh bagian tumbuhan (4%), batang (2%), akar (1%), dan kulit batang (1%). Proses pengolahannya dilakukan dengan cara direbus (39%), digiling (29%), diremas (8%), ditumbuk (8%), ditetes (5%), diperas (4%), diparut (2%), dimakan langsung (2%), dikunyah (2%), dan dibakar (1%). Dalam pemanfaatannya, masyarakat meramu tumbuhan obat secara tunggal dan mencampur dengan tumbuhan lainnya. Tumbuhan obat tersebut digunakan untuk berbagai macam pengobatan seperti penyakit ringan (batuk, sakit kepala, penyakit kulit, dan demam), penyakit dalam (percernaan, pernapasan, reproduksi, kolesterol, diabetes, ginjal, jantung, dan malaria), dan bahan untuk kosmetik (penghilang jerawat dan ketombe, serta penyubur dan pewarna rambut).
... Kaempferia galanga has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiarrheal, antibacterial, sedative, and cytotoxic properties (Shetu et al. 2018). It is used for the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, cough, asthma, joint fractures, rheumatism, urticaria, vertigo, and intestinal injuries (Khairullah et al. 2021). ...
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Supiandi MI, Julung H, Susanti Y, Zubaidah S, Mahanal S. 2023. Potential of traditional medicinal plants in the Dayak Tamambaloh Tribe, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 24: 3384-3393. The Dayak tribe in West Kalimantan (Indonesia) consists of 151 sub-ethnics, one of which is the Dayak Tamambaloh located in Temau Village, Embaloh Hulu Subdistrict, Kapuas Hulu District, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. This tribe uses the forest for various purposes, including plants as traditional medicines, which is a form of local wisdom in the community. However, the local wisdom can be threatened with extinction when it is not preserved properly. Factors contributing to the extinction of local wisdom include the influence of foreign cultures, forest degradation due to shifting cultivation, the existence of oil palm plantations, and forest fires. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the use of plants as traditional medicine with a qualitative descriptive approach. The method used was a survey; data were obtained from the key informants. They are knowledgeable about the uses of plants for traditional medicine. Data on medicinal plants were collected through in-depth interviews, field observations, documentation, and were then analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. The results showed that the plants used to treat diseases by the Dayak Tamambaloh tribe were 58 and consisted of 29 families. The most widely used families were Zingiberaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, and Musaceae, with 10, 4, 4, 4, and 3 species, respectively.
... It is an important Indian medicinal herb that has a long history of use in the treatment of several kinds of human ailments including cough and cold, fever, headache, pains disorders, skin diseases, rheumatic diseases, arthritis, joint fractures, vertigo, wounds, gastritis. Moreover, the rhizomes of this plant are highly aromatic and have been used widely as spices, in food flavouring, pickles, and cosmetics and in perfumery products (Shetu et al., 2018;Kumar, 2020). The rhizome extract of Kaempferia galanga also confirmed the presence ofcineol, borneol, 3-carene, camphene, kaempferal, cinnamaldehyde, pmethoxycinnamic acid and ethyl cinnamate. ...
Zingiberaceae is the largest family of the order Zingiberales containing more than 1600 species and 200 genera among which Kaempferia is the medium sized ornamental genus containing near about 60 species mostly distributed throughout the tropics and sub tropics of the world. Being aromatic and rich in diverse bioactive compounds plants of this family are economically, ethnomedicinally and pharmaceutically very important. Apart from their traditional use as spices, food, ethnomedicine, dyes, perfume etc., they have got a huge future potential in new drug development due to their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-cancer and antioxidant characteristics. In the present study, the ethnomedicinal uses of Kaempferia galanga have been documented. In addition to this the antimicrobial properties of this plant have been examined by disc diffusion method. It has been observed that K. galanga exhibited remarkable antibacterial property against the Gram +ve bacterium Staphylococcus aureus than Gram the -ve bacterium Escherichia coli. Fifty five compounds have been identified by GCMS analysis. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (55.60%) comprised of the maximum area which is followed by other compounds such as Pentadecane (22.46%), 2-Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl-, Ethyl ester, (E)-(7.78%), Eucalyptol (1.11%), Alpha. -Pinene (.11%), Endo-Borneol (0.57%), Germacrene D (0.14%), Camphene (0.07%) and 3-Carene (1.46%) are the major representative compounds.
... 6 One of the wide herbs employed is from Zingiberaceae family. 7 Kaempferia galanga is a family of Zingiberaceae widely distributed in tropical regions. 8 These plants are also identified as kencur, sand ginger, aromatic ginger, and resurrection lily. ...
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Recently, medicinal plants have been the main source in treating malaria. Kaempferia galanga was investigated as an antioxidant, and anti-inflammation. In vivo study of K. galanga had been verified as antimalarial for severe malaria. The objective of this study is to investigate the chemoprophylactic effect, body composition, and blood parameters of K. galanga against Plasmodium berghei. The prophylactic effects were determined by employing K. galanga (50; 100 and 200 mg/kg) in mice infected with P. berghei. Mice were subdivided into 4 groups (control negative and 3 treatment groups). The treatment groups received K. galanga daily for 3 days before the inoculation of P. berghei. Each mice were inoculated with the infected blood containing 106 of P. berghei. Parasitemia and body weight were calculated every day until 5 days post-inoculation, and the blood parameters was monitored in day 5. The parasitemia on the fifth days after inoculation revealed a significant suppresses effect compared to control (p<0.05). The suppressed effect by doses 50 mg/kg; 100 mg/kg; 200 mg/kg and negative control were 0.83%; 1.96%; 2.82%, and 17.8% respectively. The body weight on treatment groups was normal, but the control group decreased (p<0.05). The blood parameters on treatment groups were normal compared to control group. The K. galanga possess the prophylactic effect, normal weight and blood parameters against Plasmodium berghei.
... Tanaman ini penting secara ekonomi dan dieksploitasi secara berlebihan sehingga selalu ada kelangkaan bahan perbanyakan (rimpang) yang juga merupakan bagian yang dapat dikonsumsi. Ekstrak Kaempferia galanga memiliki sifat anti-inflamasi, analgesik, anti-diare, anti-bakteri, obat penenang, sitotoksik, insektisida dan anthelmintik (Shetu et al., 2018). ...
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Pandemi Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) saat ini menjadi masalah terbesar yang dihadapi lebih dari 200 negara di dunia, termasuk Indonesia. Pemanfaatan tanaman herbal perlu mendapat perhatian dari pemerintah atau masyarakat, termasuk di Sulawesi Selatan yang merupakan salah satu daerah dengan jumlah kasus terkonfirmasi positif COVID-19 yang cukup tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pemanfaatan tumbuhan dari famili Zingiberaceae pada masa pandemi COVID-19 sebagai bahan herbal untuk kesehatan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei deskriptif untuk mendeskripsikan pemanfaatan tumbuhan famili Zingiberaceae sebagai bahan herbal. Hasil yang diperoleh dari pengisian kuisioner online oleh responden didapatkan data bahwa 59,5% responden mengetahui adanya bahan herbal yang dapat meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh terhadap Covid 19 dan 56,5% responden pernah menggunakan tumbuhan dari famili Zingiberaceae, diperoleh dari internet (53,10%), dapat diolah dengan mencampurkan beberapa jenis tanaman herbal (75,6%). Jenis tumbuhan dari famili Zingiberaceae yang paling sering digunakan sebagai bahan herbal untuk kesehatan adalah jahe (Zingiber officinale), kunyit (Curcuma domestica), lempuyang (Zingiber aromaticum), lengkuas (Alpinia galanga), dan kencur (Kaempferia galanga).
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Nghiên cứu này được tiến hành nhằm xác định ảnh hưởng của các chất điều hòa sinh trưởng đến quá trình nhân nhanh in vitro cây dược liệu Địa liền (Kaempferia galanga L.), một cây dược liệu có giá trị ở Việt Nam. Để tạo vật liệu khởi đầu, chồi mầm từ thân củ có kích thước 2-3cm được khử trùng bề mặt bằng dung dịch thủy ngân clorua (HgCl2) 0,1% trong 10 phút. Để tìm được môi trường nhân nhanh tối ưu, nghiên cứu đã xác định được ảnh hưởng của BA, Kinetin, tổ hợp BA và NAA hoặc IAA đến sự nhân nhanh chồi Địa liền in vitro. Môi trường tối ưu để nhân nhanh chồi Địa liền là môi trường MS bổ sung tổ hợp 2 mg/l BA và 0,5 mg/l NAA. Hệ số nhân chồi đạt 5,03 chồi/mẫu cấy sau 4 tuần nuôi cấy. Chồi in vitro có thân lá và rễ phát triển tốt. Sau 5 chu kỳ nhân nhanh liên tiếp, hệ số nhân chồi vẫn được duy trì và không xuất hiện hình thái bất thường. Môi trường tối ưu đề xuất trong nghiên cứu này có thể được sử dụng trong nuôi cấy mô để nhân giống và bảo tồn các kiểu gen cây Địa liền thu thập ở Việt Nam.
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Kaempferia galanga is an endangered plant whose recognition as a flavoring agent and perfumery ingredient has increased its demand greatly. Therefore, the present investigation aimed at the identification of high-rhizome-yielding varieties of K. galanga. A total of forty-nine germplasms were collected from different parts of India and planted at CSIR-NEIST, Jorhat experimental farm, during 2013. The two-year evaluation of essential morphological and chemical data was recorded for the selection of superior rhizomes with a high rhizome yield during 2014 and 2015. Subsequently, multi-location field trials were conducted with the selected elite germplasm along with controls using a randomized complete block design, and relevant morphological traits as well as essential oil quality data were recorded for all the lines for three consecutive years during 2016, 2017 and 2018. The essential oil quality was analyzed by using GC/MS. The data obtained were statistically analyzed for stability based on rhizome yield, essential oil yield and days to maturity. A high-rhizome-yielding variety of K. galanga was identified and named Bharamputra-1.Itwas found to be stable in multi-locational trials conducted in Northeast India. The variety showed a mean rhizome yield of 10.01 tones/ha. Stability parameters, namely, βi = 1.13 and σ2di = −0.07 were recorded and found to be superior to those of the other examined varieties. The chemical profiling of the rhizome essential oil of the selected germplasm was also performed using GC/MS, which revealed ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (37.25%), trans-ethyl cinnamate (28.35%), endo-borneol (8.91%), eucalyptol (6.83%), (-)-camphor (3.98%) and 3-carene (3.77%) as the main components. The cultivation of this identified variety could help in the successful commercial cultivation of the crop.
Zingiberaceae dikenal sebagai tanaman jahe-jahean merupakan famili dari tanaman berbunga monokotil yang terdiri dari sekitar 1600 jenis herba. Kandungan senyawa polifenol (kurkumin) dan minyak atsiri yang terdapat pada zingiberaceace memiliki aktivitas antiiflamasi, antimikroba, anti-diare, antivirus, dan antikanker. Masyarakat lokal (Jambi) telah memanfaatkan jenis-jenis Zingiberaceae sebagai bumbu masak, bahan kosmetik, dan obat tradisional. Penelitian tentang keragaman jenis-jenis Zingiberaceae di Provinsi Jambi belum banyak dilakukan, maka penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis Zingiberaceae yang ada di Provinsi Jambi yang ditemukan di Pasar Tradisional dan Modern sebagai sumber informasi dasar pengembangan secara budidaya/ ekonomi. Studi obeservasi dilakukan dengan pencatatan secara langusng terhadap Jenis-jenis Zingiberaceace yang ada ditemukan di pasar tradisional dan pasar modern yang ada di provinsi Jambi. Data kemudian dibuat dalam bentuk tabulasi, selanjutnya dianalisis secara deskriptif. Total 13 jenis Zingiberaceae yang ditemukan di pasar tradisional dan dari 13 jenis tersebut hanya ada 3 jenis saja yang juga ditemukan di pasar modern, yaitu: kunyit, kencur dan jahe merah. Bagian tanaman Zingiberaceae yang paling banyak dimanfaatkan adalah rimpang. Jenis-jenis famili Zingiberaceae yang umum dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat Jambi adalah Kunyit, Kencur, Jahe Putih, Lengkuas, Kapulaga, Lempuyang, Temu Kunci, Jahe Merah, Bangle, Temu Putih, Temu Ireng, Kecombrang, dan Temulawak. Jenis-jenis tersebut sebagian besar digunakan sebagai obat tradisional dan bumbu masakan. Kata kunci: Pemanfataan, Zingiberaceae, Jambi, Tradisional, Modern.
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Etil p-metoksisinamat (EPMS) merupakan senyawa utama dari rimpang kencur (Kaempferia galanga Linn) yang diisolasi dengan pelarut nonpolar yaitu n-heksan. Beberapa penelitian telah membuktikan bahwa EPMS memiliki efek farmakologi sebagai antiinflamasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat formulasi EPMS secara topikal dengan dibuat sediaan mikroemulgel. Metode yang digunakan dalam pembuatan mikroemulgel adalah dengan membuat sistem mikroemulsi spontan dan di loading kedalam basis gel. Fase minyak yang digunakan yaitu isopropil miristat, surfaktan yang digunakan yaitu tween 80, kosurfaktan etanol 96%, gelling agent yaitu carpopol 940, trietanolamin (TEA) sebagai pembasa dan propilenglikol sebagai humektan. Dosis EPMS yang digunakan sebanyak 200 µg/mL. Telah dibuat empat formulasi mikroemulgel yaitu B1, B2, B3 dan B4 dengan variasi konsentrasi surfaktan dan kosurfaktan. Hasil menunjukan formula terbaik yaitu pada formula B3 dengan formulasi isopropil miristat 5%, Tween 80 40%, etanol 96% 10%, Propilenglikol 10%, carbopol 1%, TEA dan aquades. Kesimpulan dari formula ini yaitu menunjukan bahwa penggunaan surfaktan dan kosurfaktan dalam jumlah besar membuat tampilan yang transparan serta stabilitas yang lebih baik dibandingkan formulasi yang lainnya.
Purpose: Even though Indonesia is comprised of at least 1,300 ethnic groups, no specific traditional method for reducing pain, especially in neonates, has been elaborated. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the traditional methods used by the Sundanese people in Indonesia to manage pain in neonates. Methods: This ethnonursing study was conducted in the Pangandaran District, West Java Province, Indonesia. Thirty informants including health cadres, midwives, and community leaders in the health sector, such as trained traditional birth attendants and female elders, participated in this study. Data were collected through interviews and focus group discussions, as well as from field notes. Data were analyzed using the four phases of qualitative analysis based on Leininger's theory. Results: Six themes were identified in this study: (1) Preference for the use of traditional methods to treat pain in neonates and infants, (2) Desire to obtain information on the safe use of traditional medicine, (3) Desire to use practical pain management methods, (4) Easy to get modern medicine, (5) Use of medicinal plants, (6) Physical methods. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the need for better harmonization between the use of traditional and modern medicines, in both research and practice, to determine the most appropriate mix that combines the strengths of each method based on accurate scientific evidence.
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Introduction: Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the bacteria causes dental caries. The previous study has shown that Kaempferia galanga extract has a potential to inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus.Objective: To determine the antibacterial effect of Kaempferia galanga extract to Lactobacillus acidophilus.Methods:Kaempferia galanga is extracted in 3 different solvents:dichlormethane, ethanol, and aquades. For each solvent, 0.2 μl Kaempferia galanga extractdroped into 6 mm steril paper dics. 0.1 ml Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculated on MRS agar. Each disc contains extract were impragnated into the agar media, then incubated at 370C for 24 hours, and inhibition zone measured.Results: Mean scores of Kaempferia galanga extract in 3 different solvents are: Kaempferia galanga (dichlormethane) is 1.6400; Kaempferia galanga (ethanol) is 1.7440; Kaempferia galanga extract is 1.6600; boiled Kaempferia galanga is 1.7000. Using Mann-Whitney Test, the results are: negative controls have no inhibition effect on Lactobacillus acidophilus compaired to Kaempferia galanga extract, comparation of those 4 Kaempferia galangal treatments shows no significant difference, those 4 Kaempferia galanga treatments compaired to erythromycin antibacterial effect shows significant difference, otherwise 4 Kaempferia galanga treatments compaired to penicillin shows no significant difference except Kaempferia galanga (ethanol).Conclusions: Kaempferia galanga extract can kill Lactobacillus acidophilus. Inhibition effect of Kaempferia galanga extract has no significant difference to penicillin but lower inhibition effect than erythromycin. The Kaempferia galanga extracts showed better antibacterial activity than penicillin.
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Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an important public health problem in several tropical and subtropical parts of the world particularly Thailand. Chemotherapy of CCA is largely ineffective and discovery and development of effective alternative drugs is urgently needed. The objective of the study was to confirm the anti-CCA potential as well as toxicity of the crude extract of Kaempferia galangal Linn. (rhizome) both in vitro and in animal models. Methods The ethanolic extract of K. galanga Linn. rhizome, ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against CCA cell line (CL-6) using MTT cell proliferation assay. Acute and subacute toxicity of the extract were evaluated in ICR (Imprinting Control Region) mice according to the OECD (International Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline. Anti-CCA activity was evaluated in CCA- xenografted nude mice. Results Results of cytotoxicity test showed moderate activity of the extract and EPMC with median (95% confidence interval: 95% CI) 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 64.2 (57.76–72.11) and 49.19 (48.16–52.29) μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 of 5-FU was 107.1 (103.53–109.64) μg/ml. The selectivity index (SI) values for the extract, EPMC and 5-FU against human normal cell line (OUMS) and cancer cell line (CL-6) were 2.2, 2.09 and 1.31, respectively. Toxicity testing revealed no overt toxic effect up to the maximum single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight and up to daily dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The extract at the maximum tolerated dose level of 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days exhibited promising anti-CCA activity in CL6-xenografted nude mice as determined by inhibitory activity on tumor growth (58.41%) and lung metastasis (33.3%), as well as prolongation of survival time (62 days). Conclusion The K. galangal Linn. rhizome extract and its bioactive compound EPMC exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against human CCA tumor (CL-6) cell line. Results of toxicity testing suggest that the extract was well tolerated up to the maximum single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight and daily dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The extract exhibited promising anti-CCA activity in CL6-xenografed nude mice as determined by significant inhibitory activity on tumor growth and lung metastasis, as well as prolongation of survival time.
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Kaempferia galanga has profound implications in the treatment of nematocide, larvicide, abdominal discomfort, cholera, various inflammatory diseases and many more. It is a potential candidate in terms of evaluating its medicinal activities. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate anthelmintic and insecticidal activities of different extracts of the rhizome of Kaempferia galanga. For anthelmintic activity, Pheretima posthuma was selected as test animal while 25, 50, 100 mg/ml concentrations of samples were tested in the bioassay, from which time of paralysis and time of death of worms were estimated. Evaluation of insecticidal activity was performed against Sitophilus oryzae to calculate the mortality rate. In anthelmintic study, extracts exhibited its activity in dose-dependent manner showing higher the concentration, higher the effect. Extracts of ACR, PEF, CHF and MEF in case of 100 mg/ml concentration exhibited its paralytic effect followed by death within a short period of time among which ACR extract gave the best result which only took approx. 20 mins to show paralytic effect and 35 min for death sentence. In insecticidal activity, all extracts showed potent activity with 100% mortality of rice insects Sitophilus oryzae at 80 mg/ml concentration in 24hrs, proving the activity also followed dose dependent pattern. 90% mortality rate observed in case of 80 mg/ml concentration of MEF extract in 12 hr whereas ACR and CHF extracts showed 70 % and PEF showed 50% mortality rate in treated rice insects. The present study shows that all the extracts of Kaempferia galanga are found to possess anthelmintic and insecticidal activities. Keywords: Kaempferia galanga, anthelmintic activity, insecticidal activity, Pheretima posthuma, Sitophilus oryzae.
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Kaempferia galanga (Family: Zingiberaceae) has been used for the treatment of various skin disorders and widely used in the treatment of nematocide, larvicide, colera and various inflammatory disorders. The study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of different extracts of the rhizome and leaf of Kaempferia galanga. Cytotoxicity was determined against (Artemia salina) brine shrimp nauplii. The antibacterial activity was performed by disc diffusion method and determination of zone of inhibition of living microorganisms. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay all the extracts showed moderate cytotoxic activity when compared with the standard drug vincristine sulphate. For example, LC50 value of the acetonic leaf extract was 4.78 μg/ml while the LC50 of vincristine sulphate was 0.52 μg/ml. All the natural products (400 μg/disc) showed moderate antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria as compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin (5 μg/disc). Keywords: Kaempferia galanga, zingiberaceae, brine shrimp nauplii, disc diffusion method, microorganisms.
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Kaempferia galanga (Family: Zingiberaceae) has immense importance in traditional health care system as a carminative, cholera, anti-inflammatory, abdominal pain, dyspepsia and stomachic as well as in the diseases of coughs, pectoral affections and stoppage of the nasal blocks. Grewia paniculata (Family: Malvaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of indigestion, eczema, itch, small-pox, typhoid fever, dysentery and syphilitic ulceration of the mouth. Leaves of this plant used along with turmeric and shell of snail for the treatment of jaundice. This study was aimed to investigate the antidiarrhoeal activity of the acetonic extract of Kaempferia galanga and ethanolic extract of Grewia paniculata. The acetone extract of rhizome (ACR), as well acetone extract of leaf (ACL), ethanol extract of bark (EEB) and ethanol extract of leaf (EEL) were subjected to antidiarrhoeal activity test. The antidiarrhoeal activity was performed by castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice. In this study, both plant extracts exhibited significant inhibition (p < 0.05-0.001) and a dose dependent decrease in the total number of faecal dropping in castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. Maximum 80.00% and 77.36% inhibition of defecation were observed with ACL (200 mg/kg) and EEL (500 mg/kg) where the standard drug Loperamide (3mg/kg) showed 54.64% inhibition of defecation. The results suggest that both the plant extracts possess pronounced antidirrhoeal activity. This study validates the use of these plants in traditional medicine.
Background and Objective: An activity of certain bacterias is one of the causes of acne. Rimpang kencur (Kaempferia galanga L.) has an antibacterial agent from compound ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC). The purpose of this study is to find out the antibacterial activity using EPMC against P. acne, S. aureus and S. epidermidis with the physical stability of the cream and its safety use as an antiacne cream. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of EPMC are 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4% was done using disc diffusion method and broth dilution test. Data obtained from in vitro test of bacterial activity was analyzed using descriptive analysis and Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 99% (p<0.01) level of confidence. Results: The result shows that all EPMC concentration has significant antibanterial activity (p<0,01) respectively gaining clear zone against P. acne (9.00, 11.50, 14.50 and 16.00 mm), S. aureus (9.00, 11.50, 16.50 and 22.00 mm) and S. epidermidis (10.50, 12.50, 20.50 and 27.00 mm). Conclusion: The EPMC compound with the 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4% concentration is proven to have MIC against P acne bacterias, while on the S. aureus and S. epidermidis reaches up to 1.2 and 2.4% concentration. From the results of safety use (pacth test) on 12 subjects there were no evidence of allergic irritation, therefore cream EPMC 1.2% is safe to be used in topical preparation.
Crude ethanol extract of the rhizome Kaempferia galanga L. and the successive extracts prepared with increasing polarity viz., petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The extracts and fractions were screened for cytotoxic activities by standard MTT and SRB assays against four cancerous viz., DU145, PA1, SW620, B16F10 and a normal Vero cell cultures. The successive ethyl acetate extract showed selective toxicity towards cancer cells and showed less toxicity towards normal cells. The successive petroleum ether fraction showed potent activity against human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells with CTC 50 0.55 μg/ml and was comparatively non toxic towards normal Vero cell cultures.
Together with its companion volume, Handbook of herbs and spices: Volume 2 provides a comprehensive and authoritative coverage of key herbs and spices. Chapters on individual plants cover such issues as description and classification, production, chemical structure and properties, potential health benefits, uses in food processing and quality issues. Authoritative coverage of more than 50 major herbs and spices, Provides detailed information on chemical structure, cultivation and definition, Incorporates safety issues, production, main uses, health issues and regulations.