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Pharmacological importance of Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae): A mini review

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Kaempferia galanga L. belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is an endangered medicinal plant with potent medicinal activities. The leaves, rhizome and root tubers of the plant possess a number of medicinal applications. The plant is economically important and is over exploited to the extent that there is always scarcity of propagating material (rhizomes) which is the consumable part too. The present review provides broad information of Kaempferia galanga throwing light on its current status, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Extracts of Kaempferia galanga have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, anti-bacterial, sedative, cytotoxic, insecticidal and anthelmintic properties which are reported here. Keywords: Kaempferia galanga, zingiberaceae, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity
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International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
32
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN: 2455-698X
Impact Factor: RJIF 5.22
www.pharmacyjournal.in
Volume 3; Issue 3; May 2018; Page No. 32-39
Pharmacological importance of Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae): A mini review
Hosne Jahan Shetu1, Kaniz Taskina Trisha2, Shishir Ahmed Sikta3, Raihanatul Anwar4, Sadman Sakib Bin Rashed5,
Pritesh Ranjan Dash6*
1, 2, 3 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
4, 5 Department of Pharmacy, BRAC University, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh
6 Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Abstract
Kaempferia galanga L. belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is an endangered medicinal plant with potent medicinal activities.
The leaves, rhizome and root tubers of the plant possess a number of medicinal applications. The plant is economically important
and is over exploited to the extent that there is always scarcity of propagating material (rhizomes) which is the consumable part
too. The present review provides broad information of Kaempferia galanga throwing light on its current status, ethnobotany,
phytochemistry and pharmacology. Extracts of Kaempferia galanga have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, anti-
bacterial, sedative, cytotoxic, insecticidal and anthelmintic properties which are reported here.
Keywords: Kaempferia galanga, zingiberaceae, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity
Introduction
Kaempferia galanga Linn., commonly known as Cekor,
Ekangi, Kencur or aromatic ginger is a stem less herb in
Zingiberaceae family. The plant is native to tropical Asia
including southern China, Indochina, Thailand, Taiwan,
Malaysia and India [1]. Being a source of valuable bioactive
compounds, KG is famous for its medicinal as well as edible
use [1]. As folk medicine, the rhizome of K. galanga L. is
employed for antibacterial, treatment of hypertension, asthma,
rheumatism, indigestion, cold and headache, relief abdominal
pain and toothache [2, 3]. In Thailand, the dried rhizome has
been used as cardiotonic and CNS [4], whereas an acetone
extract has an effect on monoamine oxidase inhibition [5]. K.
galanga rhizome can be used to treat wind and phlegm,
restore digestive heat, and help circulate the blood [6].The
powdered rhizome mixed with honey is an expectorant used to
treat productive cough and pectoral affection. Besides, oil
prepared from the rhizome is applied over the nasal region to
relieve nasal congestion [7]. The preparation also can be used
to treat wounds and applied to rheumatic region [8]. Roasted
rhizomes are applied as hot poultice in rheumatism [7].
Chemical constituents isolated from K. galanga possess
different pharmacological properties like antioxidant,
antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, sedative,
vasorelaxant, nematicidal, mosquito repellent, larvicidal,
antiprotozoal and wound healing activities [9, 10]. The most
vital phytoconstituent isolated from Ekangi extracts found
Ethyl-cinnamate and Ethyl-p-methoxy cinnamate.
Kaempferol, isolated from K.galanga rhizome was found
effective to reduce the risk of pancreatic and lung cancer.
Leaves and rhizomes of K. galanga are useful in treating
rheumatism traditionally. K. galanga is one of those precious
medicinal herbs that are still included in unutilized herbs in
spite of the variety of useful pharmacological properties it
possess. Therefore, the importance of the plant K. galanga as
a medicinal plant is to be documented and presented to the
mass of people. Keeping in view the above statement a brief
and up to date review about some of the medicinal values of
K. galanga has been made in the following study.
Botanical Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Sub Kingdom: Phanerogamae
Division: Spermatophyta
Sub Division: Angiospermae
Class: Monocotyledonae
Order: Scitaminales
Family: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Kaempferia
Species: K. galanga
Common name
Aromatic Ginger, Resurrection lily, Lesser galangal, Sand
ginger; Hindi: Chandramula, Sidhoul; Marathi: Kapurkachri;
Tamil: Kacholum, Pulankilanku; Malayalam: Kachhuram,
Katjulam; Kannada: Kachchura, Kachhoora; Bengali: ekangi,
bhuichampa; Assamese: Chandramula; Sanskrit:
Chandramoolika, corakah, karcurah, Sathi, Sati,
Sugandhamula.
Botanical Description
Kaempferia galanga is a member of the Zingiberaceae family.
It is a stemless herb arising from tuberous rootstocks with
fibrous cylindrical roots. The rhizome has dark reddish-brown
skin and the soft interior is nearly white. The leaves usually 2-
3(-5), spread horizontally, dark green, broadly elliptical to
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
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slightly flat with circular outline, measuring 8-15 cm wide.
The blade is often lying flat to the soil the top surface is
smooth while the bottom surface is cobweb-hairy [11].
The inflorescence is sessile, emerging from between the
leaves. It is 4-12(-15)-flowered. The sepal is 2-3 cm long. The
petal is white, with tube 2.5-5 cm long and lobes 1.5-3 cm
long. Their lip is broadly reversed egg-shaped, divided to
about halfway or more, white or pale purple with violet to
purple spots at the base. Each lateral lobe is about 2-2.5 cm x
1.5-2 cm. Other abortive stamen has an imperfect anther that
is oblong-reversed egg-shaped to oblong-lance-shaped, 1.5-3
cm long and white. Their fertile stamen is 10-13 mm long,
with two lobes deeply connective with abruptly bent lobes [11].
Fig 1: Kaempferia galanga
Phytochemical Constituents
A superabundant work has been done to identify and isolate
the chemical constituents from different polar and non-polar
extracts of Kaempferia galanga. Ethyl-cinnamate and ethylp-
methoxycinnamate are found to be the most vital constituents
in the dichloromethane [10], hexane [12] and methanol extracts
[13]. About 98.98% of essential oil constituents have been
isolated and identified with only 1.11% constituents that are
still unknown [13]. The most abundant essential oil constituents
include propanoic acid, pentadecane, ethyl-p-
methoxycinnamate. Other constituents include 1,8-cineol,
undecanone, isopropyl cinnamate, dicyclohexyl
propanedinitrile, dipentene dioxide, 9-hydroxy, 2-nonanone,
2,7- octadiene-1-yl acetate, ethyl cyclohexyl acetate, cis-11-
tetradecenyl acetate, 2-heptadecanone, 4-methyl isopulegone,
camphidine, trans,trans-octa-2, 4-dieny acetate, 10 undecyn-1-
ol, 3,7-dimethoxycoumarin, delta- 3-carene, alpha pinene,
camphene, borneol, cymene, alphaterpineol, alpha gurjunene,
germacrenes, cadinenes, caryophyllenes, luteolin and apigenin
[7, 10, 14, 15]. The percent concentrations of essential oil
constituents are shown in Figure 2. The chemistry of
important constituents of Kaempferia galanga is given in
table.
Fig 2: Percent composition of essential oil content of KG extracts [14]
Table 1: Important phytoconstituents isolated from KG extracts [10, 14, 15]
Serial No
Name
Structure
1.
2- propeonic acid
2.
Pentade cane
3.
Ethyl paramethoxycinnamate
4.
3 - carene
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5.
Cadinenes
6.
3, 4- methoxyphenyl
7.
Borneol
8.
3H- 3a, 7- methanoazulene
9.
Heptade cane
10.
1- methyl, 2-(1- methylethyl)
11.
1,6- cyclodecadienen
12.
8- heptade cane
13.
Camphene
14.
Tetradecane
15.
Delta limonene
16.
Alpha pinene
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17.
Germacrene
18.
Beta pinene
19.
Cyclooctene
20.
1- methyl- 3-(1- methylethyl)
21.
Gamma elemene
22.
Ethyl cinnamate
23.
Eucalyptol or 1, 8 cineole
24.
Cymene
25.
Alpha Terpineol
26.
Alpha Gurjunene
27.
Beta-Caryophyllen
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
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28.
Kaempferide
29.
Cinnamaldehyde
30.
Kaempferol
Pharmacological activities of Kaempferia galangal
Antimicrobial activity
Kaempferia galangal extract has the ability to inhibit
Lactobacillus acidophilus, bacteria responsible for dental
caries. The extract of KG was made using three solvents
namely dichloromethane, aquades and ethanol; amongst which
the ethanolic extract was most effective against Lactobacillus
acidophilus, exhibiting better antibacterial activity than
penicillin but less than erythromycin [16]. Essential oils
extracted from the rhizomes of Kaempferia galanga were
tested for antibacterial activity against both gram positive
(Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and gram-
negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escheria
coli). K. galanga did not exhibit any antibacterial activity
against the bacterial strain tested [17]. The in vitro antibacterial
activities of Kaempferia galanga leaves and rhizomes
(extracted in acetone) were tested against gram positive
bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus), Bacillus
cereus (B. cereus) and gram negative bacteria such as
Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aureus (P. aureus),
Shigella dysenteriae (S. dysenteriae) and Klebsiella
pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) using disc diffusion method. All
the extracts showed moderate activity against all the strains of
bacteria mentioned except Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.
pneumoniae) [18]. Ethyl p-methoxy cinnamate (EPMC)
extracted from Kaempferia galanga L. rhizome was screened
for its antibacterial activity. The results indicated that EPMC
compound with concentration up to 1.2 and 2.4% have
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S.aureus and
S. epidermidis; while for P.acne, the concentrations are 0.6,
1.2 and 2.4%. In conclusion, it can be said that EPMC 1.2%
can be regarded as risk free since there were no reports of
allergic irritation [19]. The antimicrobial activity of Kaempferia
galanga rhizome was investigated using methanol, ethanol,
chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of it. Ten
bacterial pathogenic species (Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis,
Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli,
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pesudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio
cholerae) and four fungal species (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus,
A.fumigatus and Candida albicans) were assayed using disc
diffusion method and then the zone of inhibition was
analysed. All the extracts showed good to moderate antifungal
and antibacterial activity; although ethanolic extract depicted
most prominent antibacterial activity against S.aureus [20].
Cytotoxic and Antineoplastic Activity
Cytotoxic activities were assessed by standard MTT and SRB
measures against four cancerous viz., DU145, PA1, SW620,
B16F10 and a normal Vero cell cultures by using the extracts
of the rhizome from Kaempferia galanga and also some
progressive extracts like petroleum ether, ethyl acetic acid
derivation and ethanol. In case of cancer cells Successive
ethyl acetate extract appeared particular poisonous quality but
for normal cells they were less harmful [21]. Extracts of K.
galanga and its bioactive compound EPMC exhibited
moderate cytotoxic activity against human CCA tumor (CL-6)
cell line [22]. KG extracts possesses inhibitory impact on
tumor-promoting arrange of neoplasia and hence detailed as
anti-neoplastic [23]. Hindrance of TPA (12-O tetradecanoyl-
phorbol-13-acetate) initiated activation of epsteinbarr virus
early antigen in Raji cells is caused due to the methanolic
extracts of KG that is assessed by circuitous
immunofluorescent assay and western blot and display
fractional inhibitory impact on tumor-promoting stage [23].,
80% restraint is perceived at a dose of 320 µg/ml. At a dose of
640 µg/ml it can be escalates to a most extreme level of 90%
[23]. Colorimetric tetrazolium salt assay of the methanolic
extracts of KG Linn showed that at doses more than 250
µg/ml may grant inhibitory impact on human cardiac
fibroblast (cell line HCF-7) and human T cell leukemia (HT-
29 cell line) [24]. KG extract, ethyl-p methoxycinnamate
follows a dose dependent manner and exhibits the inhibition in
proliferation of human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (Hep
G2 cell line) [25]. Dash and his colleagues reported that by
using lethality bioassay technique in case of brine shrimp
nauplii we can see that the LC50 esteem of acetonic leaf
extract was 4.78 μg/ml. Thus it is reported that all the extracts
display direct cytotoxic action while equating with vincristine
sulphate, a standard drug which has an LC50 esteem of
0.52μg/ml [26].
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity
Alcoholic extract of Kaempferia galanga was tested for
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
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analgesic and antiinflammatory activities in animal models,
where two doses 600 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg of plant extract
exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan
model and cotton pellet granuloma model and significant
analgesic activity in tail flick model and hot plate model [27].
In traditional medicine, leaves and rhizomes of Kaempferia
galanga are used to treat headache, swelling, stomach ache,
toothache and rheumatism [28]. When given subcutaneously in
doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, the aqueous extracts of
Kaempferia galanga leaves show significant anti-
inflammatory effect in rats in a dose dependent manner [29].
The capacity of the extracts to block abdominal constriction,
hot plate and formaline test indicates that analgesic activity
has both central mechanism, involving opioid receptors, and
peripheral mechanism that involves cyclooxygenase pathway
[30]. The methanol extract of Kaempferia galanga at doses of
100 and 200mg/kg demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity
which seemed to be dose and time dependent [31]. Ethyl-p-
methoxycinnamate is an anti-inflammatory constituent which
can be isolated from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts [32].
Kaempferia galanga inhibits inflammation by suppressing
interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and angiogenesis by
blocking endothelial functions [33]. Kaempferia galanga L.
extract has the same effectiveness as meloxicam in reducing
pain, stiffness in patient with knee osteoarthritis [34].
Antidiarrheal activity
According to Ali et al, experimental animals were randomly
selected and divided into four groups denoted as control,
standard and test samples (group-I and group-II) and
consisting of 6 mice in each group. Mice were fasted for 18h
before the test with free access to water. Control (water
5ml/kg), standard (Loperamide 3mg/kg) and test samples
Kaempferia galangal (100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered
orally. Then 1 h later, 0.3ml castor oil was administered orally
to each mouse to induce diarrhea. The total numbers of both
dry and wet faeces excreted by the animals were counted
every hour for a period of 4 h. The total number of diarrheal
faeces of the control group was considered 100%. In this
castor oil-induced diarrhea experiment, the mice group that
did not receive the plant extracts showed typical diarrheal
signs and symptoms such as watery and frequent defecation.
The effects of Kaempferia galangal were found to be
statistically significant (p < 0.05-0.001) which shows it has
the power to inhibit the severity of diarrhea induced by castor
oil [35].
Anthelmintic activity
According to Dash et al, test samples of extract of Kaempferia
galanga were prepared at 25, 50 and 100mg/ml concentration
in normal saline water and approximately equal size of six
earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) were placed in each beaker
containing 50ml of above test solutions of extract.
Albendazole (10 mg/ml) was used as a reference standard and
normal saline water as control. Time for death of worms were
recorded after ascertaining that worms neither moved when
shaken vigorously nor when dipped in warm water (50ºC).
Eventually, dose-dependent paralysis followed by death
occurred in each crude extract containing 25, 50 and
100mg/ml. At 25mg/ml concentration in all extracts (ACR =
Acetone extract of rhizome, PEF = Petroleum ether fraction of
rhizome, CHF=Chloroform fraction of
rhizome, MEF=Methanol fraction of rhizome) showed
paralytic effect approximately in 48 min and took more than
80 min for death sentence. However, for 50 and 100mg/ml
concentration, within a very short time each extract
successfully produced paralytic effect followed by death. The
reference drug albendazole also showed strong anthelmintic
action. As a whole, different extracts of Kaempferia
galanga showed anthelmintic activity in a dose- dependent
manner [36].
Mosquito repellent and larvicidal activity
The essential oil of Kaempferia galanga rhizomes
demonstrated contact toxicity against the booklouse,
Liposcelisbos Trychophila Badonnel, with an LC50 value of
68.6 g/cm2. Four active constituents, including 1,8 single,
ethyl cinnamate, ethyl-methoxycinnamate, and trans-
cinnamaldehyde were isolated from the essential oil and
identified. Ethyl cinnamate (LC50 21.4 g/cm2) exhibited
stronger contact toxicity than both ethyl methoxycinnamate
(LC50 44.6) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (LC50 43.4 g/cm2)
while 1,8-cineole showed weak acute toxicity[37].Methanolic
extract of Kaempferia galanga showed the significant toxicity
effect at different concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%
and 4.0%) against the different instar (I, II, III and IV) larvae
and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. The LC50 and LC90
values of K. galanga for I instar larvae were 0.63 %,3.15 %, II
instar 0.86 %, 3.66%, III instar 1.12%, 4.14%, IV instar
1.43%, 4.55%, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 values of
pupae were 0.69%, 3.05% [38]. The extracts have shown
significant larvicidal activity even against pyrethroid resistant
strains of A. aegypti [14]. Ethyl-pmethoxycinnamate, ethyl-
cinnamate, 3-carene, 2- propionic acid and pentadecane are
mainly responsible for larvicidal activity [14, 39]. Ethyl-p-
methoxycinnamate has shown more larvicidal activity (LC 50
= 12.3 to 20.7 mg/L) against A. aegypti, O. togo iand C.
pipenspallens, on the other hand, ethyl-cinnamate and 3-
carene have more larvicidal activity (LC 50 = 24.1 and 21.6
mg/L respectively) against C. pipenspallensbut less activity
(LC50 = 40 to 60 mg/L) against A. aegyptiand O.
togio[39].Essential oils extracted from the rhizomes of K.
galanga have shown considerable repellent and larvicidal
activity against a number of mosquito species, including
Aedes togoi, Culex pipenspallens [40], Aedes aegypti [40, 41, 42].
Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles
aconitus, Mansonia uniformis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex
gelidus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus [42].Without irritating
human skin for about 3 h, these essential oils exert repellent
effect against A. aegypti (effective dose (ED 50) = 30.73
µg/cm2) [42].This protection time increases further by the
addition of 10% vanillin [41]. Methanolic extracts of K.
galanga showed 100% mortality, at a concentration of 100
ppm against A. aegypti, A. togoi and C. pipenspallens, which
reduced up to 78% at the concentration of 50 ppm [40]. A
study on the possible mechanism of toxicity of ethanolic
extracts of K. galangal against C. quinquefasciatus larvae has
revealed that the possible site of action is the anal gills of C.
quinquefasciatus where it causes the destruction of ionic
regulation [43].
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
38
Sedative activity
The acetone extracts of rhizome (200 mg/kg) and leaf (200
mg/kg) of Kaempferia galangal exhibited significant (p < 0.05
and p < 0.001) reduction of onset and duration of thiopental
sodium induced sleeping time. The extracts possess central
nervous system (CNS) depressant properties which support its
use in traditional medicine [44]. Inhalation of hexane extract of
K. galanga has shown considerable decrease in locomotor
activity in rats, at doses ranging from 1.5 to 10 g. This
sedative activity is due to ethyl trans-p-methoxycinamate and
ethyl-cinnamate that inhibits locomotor activity at doses of
0.0014 and 0.0012 mg, respectively [13].
Conclusion
Kaempferia galanga is an important herb with many valuable
medicinal properties. The plants K. galanga or aromatic
ginger are already has gained the acceptances worldwide
because of their medicinal activity, odor and tastes. The
further and advanced study and research could improve and
enhance their application in more broader and appropriate
range. The review presented here dealt with the taxonomy,
ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of K.
galanga. However, the extensive information provided here in
all these aspects will be useful as a concrete support for future
experimental studies targeting K. galanga.
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MF, Altaf R and Ahmed A. Bioactivity-Guided Isolation
of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory
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S R. Al-Suede, Hassan LEA, Altaf R,Ahamed MBK.
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... Traditionally, people in other parts of Indonesia utilized kencur rhizomes to treat flu for toddlers, flatulence, and massage in infants, including for postnatal scrubs, powder for sprains, and cracks or fractures (Arum 2012). Not only that, but it also has the potential to overcome coughs and colds (Limananti and Triratnawati 2003), anti-inflammatory (Limananti and Triratnawati 2003;Umar et al. 2011;Shetu et al. 2018), antidiarrhea, cytotoxic (Shetu et al. 2018), analgesic, nematicidal, mosquito repellent, larvicidal, vasorelaxant, sedative, antineoplastic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiallergic and wound healing properties (Umar et al. 2011;Shetu et al. 2018). The results of previous studies demonstrated that turmeric is advantageous for stomach pain and internal medicine. ...
... Traditionally, people in other parts of Indonesia utilized kencur rhizomes to treat flu for toddlers, flatulence, and massage in infants, including for postnatal scrubs, powder for sprains, and cracks or fractures (Arum 2012). Not only that, but it also has the potential to overcome coughs and colds (Limananti and Triratnawati 2003), anti-inflammatory (Limananti and Triratnawati 2003;Umar et al. 2011;Shetu et al. 2018), antidiarrhea, cytotoxic (Shetu et al. 2018), analgesic, nematicidal, mosquito repellent, larvicidal, vasorelaxant, sedative, antineoplastic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiallergic and wound healing properties (Umar et al. 2011;Shetu et al. 2018). The results of previous studies demonstrated that turmeric is advantageous for stomach pain and internal medicine. ...
... Traditionally, people in other parts of Indonesia utilized kencur rhizomes to treat flu for toddlers, flatulence, and massage in infants, including for postnatal scrubs, powder for sprains, and cracks or fractures (Arum 2012). Not only that, but it also has the potential to overcome coughs and colds (Limananti and Triratnawati 2003), anti-inflammatory (Limananti and Triratnawati 2003;Umar et al. 2011;Shetu et al. 2018), antidiarrhea, cytotoxic (Shetu et al. 2018), analgesic, nematicidal, mosquito repellent, larvicidal, vasorelaxant, sedative, antineoplastic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiallergic and wound healing properties (Umar et al. 2011;Shetu et al. 2018). The results of previous studies demonstrated that turmeric is advantageous for stomach pain and internal medicine. ...
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Panjaitan RGP, Mitalia, Partasasmita R. 2020. Indigenous knowledge of the people in Karya Usaha Hamlet (Kubu Raya, West Kalimantan, Indonesia) on the processing and diversity of plants that enhance toddler's appetite. Biodiversitas 21: 4284-4290. Traditional medicines derived from plants are widely consumed daily by the people of Karya Usaha Hamlet in Indonesia. Not only it is used by adults but also children under the age of five, to increase their appetites. This information was the key to a scientific assessment as it was an effort for health resilience in the community. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the diversity of plant species that is prospective to enhance the toddler's appetite and its process. The method used in this study was a qualitative analysis using a semi-structured interview technique with several informants, which consisted of midwives, health service workers, Posyandu cadres, and people from the ethnic origin. The parts of the plants used as traditional medicinal ingredients were subjected to a qualitative phytochemical screening. The results revealed that seven species were potential as appetite enhancers for toddlers. Furthermore, sixty percent of the informants exhibited Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) mainly as herbal medicine, while 25.8% and 14.2% chose the fingerroot (Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schlecht.) and common turmeric (Curcuma domestica L.), respectively, as main herbal medicine. On the other hand, flavor enhancers on food from the diversity of plants used mostly by midwives in the village were on average of 2.19 species. Medicinal plants were generally processed by boiling and further adding honey or sugar so that children under the age of five will have a sweet flavor as they drink it.
... Preparations from particularly the rhizome are used against, among others, colds, sore throat, coughing, bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and several other microbial infections and inflammatory conditions; various parasitic infections including helminthiasis and malaria; headaches, mouth ulcers, and toothaches; skin problems such as dandruff, leprosy, and psoriasis; as well as restlessness, stress, anxiety, and depression. [126][127][128] Interestingly, Surinamese Javanese apply a K. galanga-based preparation on the skin of babies to remove excessive body hair; however, at a later age the child also does not develop hair on arms and legs. 14 The main pharmacologically active ingredients of K. galanga probably are phenylpropanoids such as ethyl p-methoxy cinnamate, p-methoxycinnamic acid, ethyl cinnamate, and cinnamaldehyde; flavonols such as kaempferol and kaempferide; as well as a number of terpenoids such as 1,8-cineole, g-careen, and borneole. ...
... 129,130 These compounds are constituents of the rhizome essential oil and have been associated with various pharmacological activities, supporting some of the traditional uses. 127,128 Leaves and flowers of the plant also contain a number of flavonoids with biological activity. 130 That K. galanga may possess antimicrobial activity is supported by the inhibitory effects of extracts from its rhizome and leaves on the growth of a variety of pathogenic bacterial and fungal species. ...
... Though sufficient efforts have been highlighted to evaluate various biological properties, limited research witnessed about its possible bio-functional mechanisms so far. Nevertheless, application of bioactive phytochemicals of Kaempferia has been reported in the area of food [15], pharmaceuticals [16], agriculture [17,18] and health [19]. ...
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Present study envisaged the development of nanoemulsions (NEs) based on essential oil (EO) of Kaempferia galanga using biosurfactant, saponin. Aromatic components of the distilled EO were characterized in GC-MS and the oil was formulated to prepare NEs with saponin at three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) using ultrasonic acoustic energy at three individual time points (3, 5 and 10 min). NEs prepared with ≥1% saponin solution with ≥10 min ultrasonication were found stable even after accelerated storage condition at 54±1 °C for 14 days. Briefly, NEs at 400 µg/mL concentration, showed hydrodynamic droplet diameter of 71.68 nm with the corresponding PDI 0.52 and zeta potential -20.05 mV. TEM images confirmed the spherical morphology and droplet diameters. NEs exhibited excellent efficacy against A. flavus 2547 (32.3 µg/mL) followed by A. flavus 2838 (45.6 µg/mL), A. flavus 8601 (56.2 µg/mL) and A. flavus 6641 (69.7 µg/mL). Molecular modelling studies revealed the most promising binding complexes of 6IV7-ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (-56.22 kcal/mol), the key component responsible for interfering functional properties of the native ligand. Additive interaction effect of 4QBJ-pentadecane (-50.15 kcal/mol) and 6JOH-ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (-45.91 kcal/mol) attributed to the extraordinary favourable binding energy for non-bonded covalent and lipophilic interactions towards the selective target proteins.
... Kumar et al. researched the chemical constituent of K. galanga rhizome, showing that this plant contains compounds such as esters, terpenoids, flavonoids, thiourea derivatives, polysaccharides, diarylheptanoids, phenolic acids, phenolic glycoside and cyclic lipodepsipeptide types [10]. Propanoic acid, pentadecane, and ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) compounds were reported as the most abundant compounds from the essential oil of this plant [11]. ...
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The most common type of skin cancer is melanoma. While significant advances in chemotherapy have occurred in a few instances, only marginal progress has been made in treating metastatic melanoma. Natural medicine has traditionally been used to treat various illnesses, including cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the active compound in Kaempferia galanga, which could be used to treat melanoma as an anti-metastasis and chemosensitizer agent. The active compound in K. galanga was isolated and identified using chromatography and spectroscopy techniques, and given six compounds. Inhibitory activity on NFκB activation and cell viability was determined using reporter assay methods. Among the isolated compounds, ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) demonstrated potent NFκB inhibitory activity against melanoma cell B16F10- NFκB Luc2 with an IC50 of 88.7 μM. Further investigation was conducted by evaluating the anti-metastasis effect of EPMC in vitro by using wound-healing assays, invasion tests, and molecular mechanism assays using Western blotting. NFκB has been implicated in tumorigenesis through the PI3K/Akt/NFκB pathway. The results of this study indicated that EPMCs act as inhibitors of p38 and thereby Akt phosphorylation inhibitors at serine 473, inhibiting NFκB-dependent transcription. Further analysis with paclitaxel demonstrated that the combinations could sensitize to apoptosis in response to well-known chemotherapy agents. Additional studies were conducted using the human melanoma cancer cell line SK-Mel 28. Along with the induction of apoptosis, we observed an increase in p-γH2AX expression (a molecular marker for double strand breaks in DNA damage) in response to treatment with paclitaxel and EPMC. The result showed EPMC to be a potential, viable adjuvant for improving the clinical efficacy of anti-metastatic and cancer chemotherapy.
... Herbs can also increase rumen fluid NH3 levels, and improve digestibility in-vitro [7] [9]. medicinal plants containing active substances including terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, essential oils, phenols, curcuminoid, allicin which often functions as antimicrobial, anti-fungal and antioxidant will suppress the growth of gram-negative bacteria and maintain endurance [9] [20][21][22][23]. The addition of EM-4 to herbal medicine, where EM-4 contains lactic acid bacteria which can lower the pH in the intestine. ...
... K. galanga. Leaves (left) and Rhizomes (right)(35). ...
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Kaempferia galanga included in the Zingiberaceae family is one of the potential medicinal plants with aromatic rhizome. In traditional medicine in Asian countries, this plant is widely used by local practitioners. This plant is widely cultivated in most Southeast Asian countries such as Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Ethyl-para-methoxycinnamate and ethyl-cinnamate are found as the main compounds in hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts of K. galanga. This plant is traditionally used as an expectorant, stimulant, diuretic, carminative, and antipyretic remedy. In addition, K. galanga is used for treatment of diabetes, hypertension, cough, asthma, joint fractures, rheumatism, urticaria, vertigo, and intestinal injuries. Therefore, this study aimed to give a sneak peek view on galangal’s ethnobotany, toxicology, pharmacology, and phytochemistry.
... Several plant species belong to this family include Zingiber officinale, Kaempferia galangal, and Curcuma longa. These plant species traditionally used as an analgesic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and respiratory disorders (Ahmed et al., 2011;Krup et al., 2013;Gruyal, 2018;Shetu et al., 2018) which attributed to their bioactive compounds that constitute the entire parts of the plants. These mentioned plant species under their specific family have broad applications for the treatment of various ailments/diseases. ...
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The Island of Mindanao in the Philippines is blessed with abundant medicinal plants where most of its people around the archipelago are still relying on the traditional use of herbal plants as their primary health care. Despite several efforts to record and conserve other ethnomedicinal knowledge in Mindanao, many plant species are not yet fully explored, especially to other plant species that warrant practical use in the selected villages of the Province of Surigao del Sur. Thus, this paper aimed to document the ethnomedicinal plants used by the local folks of the two Villages (Tina and Libas Gua) of San Miguel, Surigao del Sur. Thirty (30) key informants ages 30 to 79 years old participated in the series of interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 46 plant species belong to 31 families were documented. Data analysis also revealed the highest frequency distribution of plant family were Gramineae/Poaceae (5 species), Fabaceae (4 species), Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species) and Compositae, Verbenaceae, Liliaceae, and Malvaceae with two plant species each. Gastrointestinal ailments, skin conditions, body pain, cancer and tumor/cysts, high blood, leukemia, and diabetes, respiratory illnesses, and renal diseases were among the common health problems with remedies from the documented herbal plants. The decoction of the herb plants using leaves and water was mostly the mode of preparation, wherein this usually taken internally through drinking. Conducting pharmacological examination is vital to validate the ethnomedicinal uses of the identified plants.
... And also compound like constituents include 1,8-cineol, undecanone, isopropyl cinnamate, dicyclohexylpropanedinitrile, dipentene dioxide, 9-hydroxy, 2-nonanone, 2,7-octadiene-1-yl acetate, ethyl cyclohexyl acetate, cis-11-tetradecenyl acetate, 2-heptadecanone, 4methyl isopulegone, camphidine, others compound like transocta-2, 4-dieny acetate, 10 undecyn-1-ol, 3,7dimethoxycoumarin, delta-3-carene, alpha pinene, camphene, borneol, cymene, alphaterpineol, alpha gurjunene, germacrenes, cadinenes, caryophyllenes, luteolin and apigenin. Uses: Kaempferia galangal is used for this activity antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic and antineoplastic activity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, antidiarrheal activity, Mosquito repellent and larvicidal activity, sedative activity [29] . ...
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The herbal and natural are practiced worldwide for the treatment of gouty arthritis since ancient times. Herbs and allopathic methods have been used in the treatment of different diseases. This article is scrutinizing the treatment on gouty arthritis. Gout is a type of arthritis that causes inflammation suddenly and characterized by accumulation of uratecrystals. The current articles deals with therapeutic strategies and options for the treatment of gout. We carried out this write up about the introduction, signs and symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment of gout. We also confer about the mechanism of action allopathic systems of medicine with this review. In that we annexed the list of herbal plants and their chemical constituents used in the treatment of gout. 1. Introduction Gout is a type of inflammatory arthritis that is caused by the crystallization of uric acid within the joints. Acute gout is the most painful form of gout which is associated with severe joint pain, swelling, and erythema. Deposition of monosodiumurate crystals in and around of joints, cartilage, bones, tendons, bursas, or other sites. So it results in a raised serum urate concentration which leads to irreversible joint damage. The identification of monosodium urate crystals is used in the diagnosis of the disease [1]. The most important approach in the treatment of gout is the development of xanthineoxidase inhibitors, which are effective in reducing plasma and urinary urate levels and reverses the development of tophaceous deposits [2]. Purines degrade to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which leads to the accumulation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which further degrade to uric acid. The main clinical stages of gout are divided into asymptomatic hyperuricemia, acute gouty arthritis, inter-critical gout and chronic tophaceous gout [3]. The major risk factors for gout is increased uric acid levels which lead to renal dysfunction, cardio vascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, obesity and hyperlipidemia [4]. Other risk factors like male sex, high purine diets(red meats, shellfish), beer and alcohol, obesity. The effect of ethanol and type of alcoholic beverage consumed has an effect on urate which can be translated into the risk for gout. It has been reported that certain non-alcoholic components that vary among these alcoholic beverages play an important role in the metabolism of urate. Ingested purines in beer may have an effect on blood uric acid levels that could increase the hyperuricemic effect of alcohol, thereby producing a higher risk for gout than liquor or wine. Eating a diet that's high in meat and seafood and high in beverages sweetened with fruit sugar promotes higher uric acid levels, which increases the risk of gout. If overweight, the body produces more uric acid, and kidneys have more difficulty in eliminating uric acid which greatly increases the risk of gout. It occurs more often in men, primarilybecause, women tend to have lower uric acid levels. Men are more likely to develop gout earlier usually between 30 and 50 years of age, whereas women generally develop signs and symptoms after menopause. Certain medications to reduce the risk of gout includes list of the drugs like thiazide diuretics, the low dose of aspirin, cytotoxic drugs, ethambutol, nicotinic acid, cyclosporine. Hyperuricemia, a concentration of urate in serum above the limit of solubility of this substance (≤7.0 mg/dl) increased uric acid production, impaired renal uric acid excretion, or a combination of these mechanisms [5]. Serum urate levels are determined by the balance of metabolic production and excretion through the gastrointestinal tract and most prominently the kidneys.
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p> Kaempferia galanga L. is a traditional medicine with antitumor properties, as indicated by its immunomodulatory activities. This study aimed to determine the effect of K. galanga on lymphocyte cell proliferation activity as an indicator of immunomodulatory properties. This study was conducted at the Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science (February to April 2018). The immunomodulatory activity of the extract was evaluated with an in vitro splenocyte proliferation assay. The assay was based on cellular enzymatic synthesis to transform the XTT from formazan tetrazolium as an indicator. The K. galanga extract was obtained by 96% ethanol extraction. The test was conducted in an aseptic condition, consisted of five treatment groups with three replications each. Three groups of splenocyte cell culture, each with extract concentration of 2.5 µg.ml<sup>-1</sup>, 25 µg.ml<sup>-1</sup>, and 250 µg.ml<sup>-1</sup>, as well as a positive (Concanavalin A/Con A) and negative (cell only) control. The cell suspension (10x10<sup>4 </sup>cells/ml) was distributed on 96-well plates and cultured following the treatment groups. The same five plates were made for five days of observation and retrieved daily by observing an Elisa reader at 450 nm. The extract of K. galanga at 2.5 µg.ml<sup>-1</sup>, 25 µg.ml<sup>-1</sup>, and 250 µg.ml<sup>-1</sup> significantly (P <0.05) promoted splenocyte proliferation compared to control. Therefore, it was expected that K. galanga has a high potential to be used as immunomodulators. Hence, further investigations should be done to clarify the mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effect of K. galanga as an antitumor in vivo .</p
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Introduction: Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the bacteria causes dental caries. The previous study has shown that Kaempferia galanga extract has a potential to inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus.Objective: To determine the antibacterial effect of Kaempferia galanga extract to Lactobacillus acidophilus.Methods:Kaempferia galanga is extracted in 3 different solvents:dichlormethane, ethanol, and aquades. For each solvent, 0.2 μl Kaempferia galanga extractdroped into 6 mm steril paper dics. 0.1 ml Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculated on MRS agar. Each disc contains extract were impragnated into the agar media, then incubated at 370C for 24 hours, and inhibition zone measured.Results: Mean scores of Kaempferia galanga extract in 3 different solvents are: Kaempferia galanga (dichlormethane) is 1.6400; Kaempferia galanga (ethanol) is 1.7440; Kaempferia galanga extract is 1.6600; boiled Kaempferia galanga is 1.7000. Using Mann-Whitney Test, the results are: negative controls have no inhibition effect on Lactobacillus acidophilus compaired to Kaempferia galanga extract, comparation of those 4 Kaempferia galangal treatments shows no significant difference, those 4 Kaempferia galanga treatments compaired to erythromycin antibacterial effect shows significant difference, otherwise 4 Kaempferia galanga treatments compaired to penicillin shows no significant difference except Kaempferia galanga (ethanol).Conclusions: Kaempferia galanga extract can kill Lactobacillus acidophilus. Inhibition effect of Kaempferia galanga extract has no significant difference to penicillin but lower inhibition effect than erythromycin. The Kaempferia galanga extracts showed better antibacterial activity than penicillin.
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Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an important public health problem in several tropical and subtropical parts of the world particularly Thailand. Chemotherapy of CCA is largely ineffective and discovery and development of effective alternative drugs is urgently needed. The objective of the study was to confirm the anti-CCA potential as well as toxicity of the crude extract of Kaempferia galangal Linn. (rhizome) both in vitro and in animal models. Methods The ethanolic extract of K. galanga Linn. rhizome, ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against CCA cell line (CL-6) using MTT cell proliferation assay. Acute and subacute toxicity of the extract were evaluated in ICR (Imprinting Control Region) mice according to the OECD (International Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline. Anti-CCA activity was evaluated in CCA- xenografted nude mice. Results Results of cytotoxicity test showed moderate activity of the extract and EPMC with median (95% confidence interval: 95% CI) 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 64.2 (57.76–72.11) and 49.19 (48.16–52.29) μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 of 5-FU was 107.1 (103.53–109.64) μg/ml. The selectivity index (SI) values for the extract, EPMC and 5-FU against human normal cell line (OUMS) and cancer cell line (CL-6) were 2.2, 2.09 and 1.31, respectively. Toxicity testing revealed no overt toxic effect up to the maximum single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight and up to daily dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The extract at the maximum tolerated dose level of 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days exhibited promising anti-CCA activity in CL6-xenografted nude mice as determined by inhibitory activity on tumor growth (58.41%) and lung metastasis (33.3%), as well as prolongation of survival time (62 days). Conclusion The K. galangal Linn. rhizome extract and its bioactive compound EPMC exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against human CCA tumor (CL-6) cell line. Results of toxicity testing suggest that the extract was well tolerated up to the maximum single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight and daily dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The extract exhibited promising anti-CCA activity in CL6-xenografed nude mice as determined by significant inhibitory activity on tumor growth and lung metastasis, as well as prolongation of survival time.
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Kaempferia galanga has profound implications in the treatment of nematocide, larvicide, abdominal discomfort, cholera, various inflammatory diseases and many more. It is a potential candidate in terms of evaluating its medicinal activities. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate anthelmintic and insecticidal activities of different extracts of the rhizome of Kaempferia galanga. For anthelmintic activity, Pheretima posthuma was selected as test animal while 25, 50, 100 mg/ml concentrations of samples were tested in the bioassay, from which time of paralysis and time of death of worms were estimated. Evaluation of insecticidal activity was performed against Sitophilus oryzae to calculate the mortality rate. In anthelmintic study, extracts exhibited its activity in dose-dependent manner showing higher the concentration, higher the effect. Extracts of ACR, PEF, CHF and MEF in case of 100 mg/ml concentration exhibited its paralytic effect followed by death within a short period of time among which ACR extract gave the best result which only took approx. 20 mins to show paralytic effect and 35 min for death sentence. In insecticidal activity, all extracts showed potent activity with 100% mortality of rice insects Sitophilus oryzae at 80 mg/ml concentration in 24hrs, proving the activity also followed dose dependent pattern. 90% mortality rate observed in case of 80 mg/ml concentration of MEF extract in 12 hr whereas ACR and CHF extracts showed 70 % and PEF showed 50% mortality rate in treated rice insects. The present study shows that all the extracts of Kaempferia galanga are found to possess anthelmintic and insecticidal activities. Keywords: Kaempferia galanga, anthelmintic activity, insecticidal activity, Pheretima posthuma, Sitophilus oryzae.
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Kaempferia galanga (Family: Zingiberaceae) has been used for the treatment of various skin disorders and widely used in the treatment of nematocide, larvicide, colera and various inflammatory disorders. The study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of different extracts of the rhizome and leaf of Kaempferia galanga. Cytotoxicity was determined against (Artemia salina) brine shrimp nauplii. The antibacterial activity was performed by disc diffusion method and determination of zone of inhibition of living microorganisms. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay all the extracts showed moderate cytotoxic activity when compared with the standard drug vincristine sulphate. For example, LC50 value of the acetonic leaf extract was 4.78 μg/ml while the LC50 of vincristine sulphate was 0.52 μg/ml. All the natural products (400 μg/disc) showed moderate antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria as compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin (5 μg/disc). Keywords: Kaempferia galanga, zingiberaceae, brine shrimp nauplii, disc diffusion method, microorganisms.
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Kaempferia galanga (Family: Zingiberaceae) has immense importance in traditional health care system as a carminative, cholera, anti-inflammatory, abdominal pain, dyspepsia and stomachic as well as in the diseases of coughs, pectoral affections and stoppage of the nasal blocks. Grewia paniculata (Family: Malvaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of indigestion, eczema, itch, small-pox, typhoid fever, dysentery and syphilitic ulceration of the mouth. Leaves of this plant used along with turmeric and shell of snail for the treatment of jaundice. This study was aimed to investigate the antidiarrhoeal activity of the acetonic extract of Kaempferia galanga and ethanolic extract of Grewia paniculata. The acetone extract of rhizome (ACR), as well acetone extract of leaf (ACL), ethanol extract of bark (EEB) and ethanol extract of leaf (EEL) were subjected to antidiarrhoeal activity test. The antidiarrhoeal activity was performed by castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice. In this study, both plant extracts exhibited significant inhibition (p < 0.05-0.001) and a dose dependent decrease in the total number of faecal dropping in castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. Maximum 80.00% and 77.36% inhibition of defecation were observed with ACL (200 mg/kg) and EEL (500 mg/kg) where the standard drug Loperamide (3mg/kg) showed 54.64% inhibition of defecation. The results suggest that both the plant extracts possess pronounced antidirrhoeal activity. This study validates the use of these plants in traditional medicine.
Article
Background and Objective: An activity of certain bacterias is one of the causes of acne. Rimpang kencur (Kaempferia galanga L.) has an antibacterial agent from compound ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC). The purpose of this study is to find out the antibacterial activity using EPMC against P. acne, S. aureus and S. epidermidis with the physical stability of the cream and its safety use as an antiacne cream. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of EPMC are 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4% was done using disc diffusion method and broth dilution test. Data obtained from in vitro test of bacterial activity was analyzed using descriptive analysis and Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 99% (p<0.01) level of confidence. Results: The result shows that all EPMC concentration has significant antibanterial activity (p<0,01) respectively gaining clear zone against P. acne (9.00, 11.50, 14.50 and 16.00 mm), S. aureus (9.00, 11.50, 16.50 and 22.00 mm) and S. epidermidis (10.50, 12.50, 20.50 and 27.00 mm). Conclusion: The EPMC compound with the 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4% concentration is proven to have MIC against P acne bacterias, while on the S. aureus and S. epidermidis reaches up to 1.2 and 2.4% concentration. From the results of safety use (pacth test) on 12 subjects there were no evidence of allergic irritation, therefore cream EPMC 1.2% is safe to be used in topical preparation.
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Crude ethanol extract of the rhizome Kaempferia galanga L. and the successive extracts prepared with increasing polarity viz., petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The extracts and fractions were screened for cytotoxic activities by standard MTT and SRB assays against four cancerous viz., DU145, PA1, SW620, B16F10 and a normal Vero cell cultures. The successive ethyl acetate extract showed selective toxicity towards cancer cells and showed less toxicity towards normal cells. The successive petroleum ether fraction showed potent activity against human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells with CTC 50 0.55 μg/ml and was comparatively non toxic towards normal Vero cell cultures.
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Together with its companion volume, Handbook of herbs and spices: Volume 2 provides a comprehensive and authoritative coverage of key herbs and spices. Chapters on individual plants cover such issues as description and classification, production, chemical structure and properties, potential health benefits, uses in food processing and quality issues. Authoritative coverage of more than 50 major herbs and spices, Provides detailed information on chemical structure, cultivation and definition, Incorporates safety issues, production, main uses, health issues and regulations.