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Management elements for two Alburninae species, Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782) based on a decision-support system study case

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Management elements for two Alburninae species, Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782) based on a decision-support system study case

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ABSTRACT: ADONIS:CE has been used as a base to create a support-system management decision-making model for Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782) species. Investigation of the habitat necessities and the identification of the necessary elements for a good status of conservation of these two fish species populations has revealed the pressures and threats to these congener species, for which specific management activities have been finally recommended. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Management Elemente für zwei Alburninae Arten, Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) und Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782) anhand einer Fallstudie als Grundlage für ein Management-Entscheidungssystem. ADONIS:CE wurde für die Entwicklung eines Modells verwendet, das als Grundlage für ein Entscheidungssystems in Managementfragen für die Arten Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) und Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782) dienen soll. Untersuchungen betreffend Habitatansprüche und Feststellung der notwendigen Elemente für einen guten Erhaltungszustand der Populationen dieser Fischarten ließen deutlich die Gefährdungen der beiden verwandten Arten erkennen, für die ein entsprechendes Management vorgeschlagen wird. REZUMAT: Elemente de management pentru două specii de Alburninae, Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) şi Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782) bazate pe un studiu de caz al unui sistem de suport decizional. ADONIS:CE a fost utilizat pentru a crea un model de sistem-suport pentru luarea deciziilor de management pentru speciile Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) şi Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782). Investigarea necesităţilor de habitat şi a elementelor necesare pentru un statut bun de conservare al populaţiilor acestor două specii, au relevat presiunile şi ameninţările asupra acestor specii congenere pentru care au fost recomandate în final măsuri specifice de management.
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Transylv. Rev. Syst. Ecol. Res. 21.2 (2019), "The Wetlands Diversity"
81
MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS FOR TWO ALBURNINAE SPECIES,
ALBURNUS ALBURNUS (LINNAEUS, 1758)
AND ALBURNOIDES BIPUNCTATUS (BLOCH, 1782)
BASED ON A DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEM STUDY CASE
Angela CURTEAN-BĂNĂDUC *, Ioana-Cristina CISMAŞ ** and Doru BĂNĂDUC ***
* “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Sciences, Dr. Ion Raţiu Street 5-7, Sibiu, Sibiu County,
Romania, RO-550012, angela.banaduc@ulbsibiu.ro
** “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Sciences, Dr. Ion Raţiu Street 5-7, Sibiu, Sibiu
County, Romania, RO-550012, cristha_83@yahoo.com
*** “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Applied Ecology Research Center, Dr. Ion Raţiu Street 5-7,
Sibiu, Sibiu County, Romania, RO-550012, ad.banaduc@yahoo.com
DOI: 10.2478/trser-2019-0014
KEYWORDS: Bleak, Schneider, fish habitat needs, human activities negative effects,
conservation management elements.
ABSTRACT
ADONIS:CE has been used as a base to create a support-system management
decision-making model for Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Alburnoides bipunctatus
(Bloch, 1782) species. Investigation of the habitat necessities and the identification of the
necessary elements for a good status of conservation of these two fish species populations has
revealed the pressures and threats to these congener species, for which specific management
activities have been finally recommended.
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Management Elemente für zwei Alburninae Arten,
Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) und Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782) anhand einer
Fallstudie als Grundlage für ein Management-Entscheidungssystem.
ADONIS:CE wurde für die Entwicklung eines Modells verwendet, das als Grundlage
für ein Entscheidungssystems in Managementfragen für die Arten Alburnus alburnus
(Linnaeus, 1758) und Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782) dienen soll. Untersuchungen
betreffend Habitatansprüche und Feststellung der notwendigen Elemente für einen guten
Erhaltungszustand der Populationen dieser Fischarten ließen deutlich die Gefährdungen der
beiden verwandten Arten erkennen, für die ein entsprechendes Management vorgeschlagen
wird.
REZUMAT: Elemente de management pentru două specii de Alburninae, Alburnus
alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) şi Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782) bazate pe un studiu de caz
al unui sistem de suport decizional.
ADONIS:CE a fost utilizat pentru a crea un model de sistem-suport pentru luarea
deciziilor de management pentru speciile Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) şi Alburnoides
bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782). Investigarea necesităţilor de habitat şi a elementelor necesare
pentru un statut bun de conservare al populaţiilor acestor două specii, au relevat presiunile şi
ameninţările asupra acestor specii congenere pentru care au fost recomandate în final măsuri
specifice de management.
A. Curtean-Bănăduc et al. Management elements for two Alburninae species (81 ~ 92)
82
INTRODUCTION
Regardless of variation in need and reserve induced by the dynamic of fishing activities
results, fish remain a significant source of food in many regions (*, 2002). Fish population
management systems, to assure the protein and also the game needs of the humans, need to be
complex, innovative, and highly addaptative to the local/regional habitat, biotic and human-
related conditions (Cochrane, 1999). The increasing desire for more fish protein is evident
everywhere, and this threat demands a focused, creative struggle in identifying practical
answers for conservative and economic issues (Agnew et al., 2009; Monte-Luna et al., 2016).
Usually only the conservation and high-direct, economic valuable fish species benefit
from adapted management plans, and very rarely the indirect economic valuable fish species,
which consist the trophic base for upper trophic level fish species (Bănăduc et al., 2011).
Too often, many different fish species, belonging to a certain overspecific taxonomic
group with different economic and/or conservation value, are confused by the local fisherman
(Oţel, 2007), situations in which a proper conservation is hard to implement and sustain. In
some such cases, specific on site and on species adapted management systems can offer
integrated management elements, which is the goal of this Târnava Mare River study case.
The Alburninae subfamily (Actinopterygii, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) include over
eighteen species (Fish Base, 2018) including Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) and
Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782). A relatively common fish species in the Târnava Mare
River, with relative, similar morphological and colour aspects, these two fish species,
especially in young age classes (Bănărescu, 1964, 2005), can be difficult to identify, creating
problems in their populations’ assessment, monitoring, and management.
The Târnava Mare Basin is a well known area under constant and variable human
impact and effects on local biota (Cupșa, 2005; Sîrbu, 2005; Momeu and Péterfi, 2005; Robert
and Curtean-Bănăduc, 2005), including species of fish fauna containing Alburnus alburnus and
Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bănăduc, 2005; Curtean-Bănăduc, 2005; Păpuc et al., 2017).
There is no general accepted “golden rule” in Carpathian streams and rivers fish
populations’ optimum management, but it is obvious that one feature is usually correlated with
beneficial consequences, namely science-based adequate management, the goal of this study
relaying on this specific approach.
In nature conservation, modeling is frequently used to obtain the “large picture” of
various systems and/or actions of peculiar domains. The pieces of the modeling process are
practical in discriminating the specific phases of adaptive species and their environment
management. Using ADONIS:CE, we can construct models that support management
objectives. This type of model targets three operational sectors important for environment
conservation: 1) to determine the present state, 2) to assess the effects of modifications and
3) to suggest actions to improve the actual state in a desired way. Convincingly, diversified
diagrams can be developed to highlight management elements (Hall and Harmon, 2005).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The researched area, the Târnava River watershed (Fig. 1) is located in the central area
of the Romanian Carpathians arch, running off the Transylvania Depression, in precisely its
southern sector of the Târnavelor Plateau. With a watershed of 6,157 km2, a length of 249 km
and a falling elevation of about 1,250 m, the Târnava River is one of the main tributaries of the
Mureş River, delineating 21% of its watershed. It is composed of the confluence of Târnava
Mare River (3,606 km2 watershed surface; 221 km length) and Târnava Mică River (2,049 km2
watershed surface and 191 km length) near Blaj locality. (Tufescu, 1966; Posea et al., 1983)
Transylv. Rev. Syst. Ecol. Res. 21.2 (2019), "The Wetlands Diversity"
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Figure 1: The Târnava River basin location (Bănăduc, 2005).
Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides bipunctatus are a well known species in Romania
(Bănărescu, 1964) with a relatively large distribution in Transylvanian medium and large
rivers (Bacalu, 1997; Bănăduc, 1999; Bănărescu et al., 1999; Bănărescu, 2005; Curtean-
Bănăduc and Bănăduc, 2007; Telcean and Cupşa, 2009; Bănăduc et al., 2013, 2014; Bănăduc
and Curtean-Bănăduc, 2014; Telcean et al., 2014; Cocan et al., 2015; Păpuc et al., 2017;
Stavrescu-Bedivan et al., 2017; Voicu et al., 2016, 2017) where the studied area is located.
These fish species individuals were found for this research and analyzed in Târnava
River in 2016; all of them were immediately released alive after an in situ identification, in
their natural habitat.
Supplementary reference data for these fish species’ presence and ecological status
were based on a similar approach study of Bănăduc (2005) and on the local fisherman’s
captures.
The researched habitat characteristics of the fish populations were evaluated based
on specific selected criteria including: population size, size of range, the balanced allocation of
fish in age classes, and high/low number of individual fish species individuals in fish
communities.
The local lotic habitat necessities, pressures, and threats on the two fish species were
studied in connection with their populations’ ecological status, the correlations between them
and the conservation situation of these species.
A. Curtean-Bănăduc et al. Management elements for two Alburninae species (81 ~ 92)
84
An in situ-on species adaptable management model was projected to build up a
suitable management plan that would protect the researched fish species that are living in
the studied lotic sectors, with a priority on required processes.
The ADONIS:Community Edition (ADONIS:CE), made-up by the Business Object
Consulting (BOC) Group, was applied here. This software is a freely accessible form of
ADONIS with few restraints (in comparison with the commercial version). It uses a Business
Process Model and Notation (BPMN), a standardized modeling language that supports
detectable processes. ADONIS:CE is typically used as an access point to Business Process
Management. These processes can be modeled using compatible notation.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The study results reveal that the main common threats on Alburnus alburnus and
Alburnoides bipunctatus fish species are: modifying and fragmentation of specific habitats,
water pollution, and overfishing and poaching.
Identified specific requirements
Both the juveniles and adults need a significant/close to natural water flow and
relatively high depths of the water (minimum 0.5 m), with rocky-sandy substrata, variable
speed of the water flow, and not abundant aquatic vegetation.
Proposed specific habitat indicators
In the studied lotic sectors, principal habitat indicators as causes for the
presence/absence and abundance of Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides bipunctatus are:
average water flowing surface speed (proportion 50% of the river), relatively slow water
flowing surface speed (proportion 50% of the river), mixed sandy with rocky substrata (50%
of the river), and water surface with relatively high depth of the water (50% of the river).
Management measures
Management characteristics have been a suggestion for analytical research and,
a request for managers which face many pressures and threats on lotic systems. As a
result, there are many viewpoints and models which fluctuate based on source, system,
and design intricacy. The management indicators can be match based on a process which
includes six levels (Krause and Mertins, 1999): designing a process value chain model,
determining the key success factors, giving the description of the performance indicators, data
acquiring and checking, assessment of the performance indicators, and putting into action
process.
This pathway based on a model is sustained by the learning process which appears
while realising the process maps; and set up the need for management elements grouped
around the record sheets of management measures. It is meaningful to highlight that
constructing the essentiality to identify an indicator set for assessment of an entity’s overall
achievement, the proposed model find the preeminent value delivery process, to which an
indicator set for process assessment can be designated, which are generated by diagnosing the
success factors for the process and for the entity’s performance (Miricescu, 2011, 2014).
Appropriately with this model, we propose that the main management measures
include the conservation of: the natural morphology of the lotic systems ‒ natural dynamic of
banks and water flow regime; rocky-sandy substratum and relatively deep water depth; the
forbiddance of the disposing of wastes in water and on the banks; keeping a medium level of
the water including in drought periods based on avoiding of important water removals and
use; decreasing water pollution; and implementation of a long term monitoring system for fish.
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Adjusted model for the site management
The proposed model of the two species of fish Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides
bipunctatus uses common objects of the ADONIS:CE for modeling business processes
(BPM), namely: the beginning of the process ( ), activities ( ), decisions ( ), parallelism
() and merging ( ) in the case of parallel activities, notes ( ), subprocesses ( )
processes that are used within the basic process, variables ( ) and generators ( ) – are used to
highlight the percentage of achievement of the habitat indicators (the percentage indicators
that ensure conservation status) and the end of the process ( ).
To better visualize the model structure proposed for the two fish species, figure 2
highlights the inter-model references between processes modeled.
Figure 2: Hierarchy of modeled process and inter-model references.
Model description
The basic process of these two fish species modeled (Fig. 3) is conceived as a
description of them, being presented with the help of the following activities: the habitat type,
the specific identified requirements (these were modeled with the help of parallelism and
merging independent activities), continues with the Habitat indicators of Alburnus alburnus
and Alburnoides bipunctatus speciessubprocess call (Fig. 4), then follows another two
activities field observations, pressures and threats on the habitat, and implicitly, on the species
Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides bipunctatus and the process ends. With the help of notes,
it was possible to graphically exemplify the characteristics of certain process activities.
The Habitat indicators of Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides bipunctatus species”
subprocess (Fig. 4) have the same characteristics as a process and contain the specific habitat
indicators – proposed for this research, the decisions for verifying them whether or not they
ensure the favourable conservation status of the studied two species Alburnus alburnus and
Alburnoides bipunctatus, the management measures to be taken (subprocess Fig. 5) and the
final activity, the implementation of a long-term fish species monitoring system.
For example, the model begins with the first indicator (“Average water flowing
surface speed” proportion 50% of the river), and the first decision verifies whether it does or
does not meet fair conservation status (basically, this was compared to the current state of the
indicator – resulting from field measurements with favourable conservation status).
If for this indicator, the favourable conservation status is fulfilled (the “YES” branch
of the decision, variable: Water_flowing_surface_speed = “Yes”, probability: 99%), then the
model continues with the second indicator. If the first indicator does not fulfil the favourable
conservation status (the “NO” branch of the decision, variable: Water_flowing_surface_speed
= “No”, probability: 1%) then, the model continues with the management measure subprocess
goes through every measure after which, it returns to the first indicator, and once again
checks (after the management measures applied) whether or not the fair conservation status is
fulfilled. A loop is formed and the process does not go through the other indicators unless the
current indicator meets that condition.
A. Curtean-Bănăduc et al. Management elements for two Alburninae species (81 ~ 92)
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Figure 3: Species Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides bipunctatus
critical requirements of habitat.
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87
Figure 4: Habitat indicators of Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides bipunctatus species.
The last subprocess shows the management measures (Fig. 5) model made only
with activities. Here are the management measures that should be taken to ensure that the
Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides bipunctatus species preserve their favourable conservation
status. Among these, we mention the conservation of the natural morphology of the lotic
systems, the preservation of the rocky and sandy substrate, the prohibition of the discharge into
the rivers of any type of waste, the maintenance of a medium level of water during periods of
drought.
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Figure 5: Management measures for Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides bipunctatus
habitat indicators.
CONCLUSIONS
The principal recorded pressures and threats to the fish species Alburnus alburnus and
Alburnoides bipunctatus in the studied lotic sectors of the Târnava Watershed were the
following: modifying and fragmentation of characteristic lotic habitats, water pollution, and
overfishing and poaching.
Critical for Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides bipunctatus fish species conservation
are the following: the characteristic/natural riverbed morphodynamics guardianship, the
diminishment of the existing flowing water habitats fragmentation, the prohibition of riverbed
heavy exploitation, the riverine vegetation preservation, the ecological restoration of the
riverbeds’ characteristic morphodynamic, complex waste management, reducing water
pollution, effective poaching restriction, and the creation of an integrated monitoring system
where the fish fauna is a core element.
In this particular research, a necessary model for decisions in management in order to
back the two Alburninae species was produced, ready to be implemented in the researched
area.
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The ADONIS:CE was used here for fish conservation in an area of concern,
coming up with a specific management model for Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides
bipunctatus fish species that contain their main necessities regarding the habitat, and the
elements that reveal a good ecological status. The suggested management elements help to
prevent and/or diminish the identified pressures and negative effects on these species’
populations.
This particular on-site, on habitats and on species management decisions
supporting model scheme for Alburnus alburnus and Alburnoides alburnoides, will be
more effective if integrated in a management model for the Târnava Watershed fish
associations.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to thank Mr. Popa E. M. for his continuous support in informatics
and to many fishers of the Târnava Basin for their help during the research. This study data
was acquired in the period of the projects POS Mediu, priority ax four project code SMIS
CSNR 17049 “Pentru Comunităţi Locale și Natură Bazele managementului integrat Natura
2000 în zona Hârtibaciu Târnava Mare Olt (PH+ PRO MANAGEMENT Natura 2000)”
and Project ID 66243, SIDPOP ‒ “Instrument suport pentru luarea deciziilor în domeniul
managementului poluanţilor organici persistenţi. Studiu de caz: Bazinul hidrografic Mureş”,
finanţat în cadrul programului R004 „Reducerea substanţelor periculoase, prin Mecanismul
Financiar al Spaţiului Economic European (SEE)”.
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