3D Printing in Orthopedic Oncology

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... With the development of new printing technologies and materials, 3D printed models can now be used for pre-operative surgical simulations and directly in the OR as intra-operative guides [5][6][7][8]. In patients undergoing oncologic resections, 3D printed cutting jigs and drilling guides, can help ensure both adequate margins and preoperatively planned margins, which often correspond to custom-made implants [9]. 3D printing patient- ...
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Introduction: Paget's disease is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by abnormal patterns in bone remodeling, resulting in variable degrees of chronic bone pain, deformation of the long bones and rarely, and pathologic fracture. These issues can pose difficult surgical challenges, particularly in the elderly frail population, where the benefits of orthopedic intervention must be balanced with minimizing inherent surgical risks. Such considerations often include reducing operative time and blood loss, allowing for early mobilization, stabilizing an impending fracture, and providing symptom relief. Case report: A 77-year-old female with a 10-year history of Paget's disease presented to an outside orthopedic clinic with progressive right leg pain and worsening anterior bowing following minor trauma to the extremity. Ultimately, the patient was offered in situ prophylactic intramedullary (IM) nail fixation, intended to augment her bone's native strength and prevent further microfractures and subsequent deformation. A three-dimensional (3D) printed patient specific model was developed to permit for pre-contouring of an off-the-shelf implant and subsequent sterilization and use at a future point in time. She underwent uneventful IM nailing of her tibia with the pre-contoured implant and proceeded to progress clinically postoperatively. Conclusion: In this report, we present an innovative use of a 3D printed patient-specific tibia model to pre-contour an IM nail. This surgical approach was undertaken to treat an elderly patient with a symptomatic and progressive deformity of the tibia secondary to Paget's disease of bone.
... Some studies have presented patient-specific 3D printed models of the affected bone and tumor for preoperative planning, reporting improved surgical outcomes in blood loss, operative time, and surgical incision [24,25]. Others propose an "in-house" workflow with desktop 3D printers designing patient-specific surgical guides to delimit the tumor or the osteotomy cutting plane during the surgical intervention [26,27]. Regardless of the clear benefit of these technologies, the 3D printing time and material required for large anatomical models limit their application [24]. ...
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During the last decade, orthopedic oncology has experienced the benefits of computerized medical imaging to reduce human dependency, improving accuracy and clinical outcomes. However, traditional surgical navigation systems do not always adapt properly to this kind of interventions. Augmented reality (AR) and three-dimensional (3D) printing are technologies lately introduced in the surgical environment with promising results. Here we present an innovative solution combining 3D printing and AR in orthopedic oncological surgery. A new surgical workflow is proposed, including 3D printed models and a novel AR-based smartphone application (app). This app can display the patient’s anatomy and the tumor’s location. A 3D-printed reference marker, designed to fit in a unique position of the affected bone tissue, enables automatic registration. The system has been evaluated in terms of visualization accuracy and usability during the whole surgical workflow. Experiments on six realistic phantoms provided a visualization error below 3 mm. The AR system was tested in two clinical cases during surgical planning, patient communication, and surgical intervention. These results and the positive feedback obtained from surgeons and patients suggest that the combination of AR and 3D printing can improve efficacy, accuracy, and patients’ experience.
Over the past four decades, advancements in adjuvant treatments of bone sarcomas have catalyzed development of novel surgical technologies that continue to improve limb salvage surgeries. To date, these technologies have made limb salvage surgery the mainstay of treatment, while limb amputations became negligible. These advancements include pre-and intra-operative imaging technologies enabling accurate 3D-preoperative planning, and intraoperative patient-specific instruments allowing accurate execution of surgical plans. The introduction of customized 3D-printed porous titanium implants gave surgeons more freedom to retain surrounding healthy tissue and optimize reconstruction fit, thereby improving quality of life and reducing comorbidities post-operatively. Creating these custom implants has brought forth novel processes, materials and technologies and given rise to a new era in orthopedic oncology.
Background Primary bone sarcomas are associated with critically sized bone defects and require complete resection with negative margins. Recent advancements in health care have pioneered novel approaches such as the implementation of 3D surgical technologies. This study presents oncological and functional outcomes following tumor resections of long bones with the use of customized 3D-printed Patient Specific Instruments (PSIs). Methods This single-center retrospective study is comprised of seventeen patients who underwent either intercalary (N = 12) or geographic (N = 5) resections with various reconstruction methods including allograft (N = 8), vascularized fibula (Capanna) (N = 7), and 3D printed customized titanium implant (N = 2), between the years 2016–2020. All patients were operated on with a 3D surgical workflow, including intraoperative PSIs, and were followed up postoperatively for at least 12 months (average 31.40 ± 12.13 months) to assess local recurrence and metastases. Results All patients demonstrated negative surgical margins, apart from one patient who had planned positive margins. Three patients suffered from short-term complications, and three patients underwent revision surgery due to graft non-union or pathological fracture. One patient suffered from local recurrence and underwent above-knee amputation. Three patients suffered from lung metastasis. MSTS at 12-month follow-up was 26.9.±5.87. Conclusion Customized 3D-printed osteotomy PSIs provide surgeons with a novel tool for optimizing bone resection and reconstruction in long bones surgeries, thus minimizing overall tissue trauma and reducing the risk of damage to nervous and vascular structures. This study demonstrates that the use of PSIs has the potential to improve functional and oncologic outcomes. We believe that this technique will become increasingly popular in the future as a widely applicable, highly accurate, cost-effective optimization tool.
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