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Antiinflammatory Herbal Supplements

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... Have been shown to be a positive predictor of agein men and are sprouted with poor life quality [38] . Although fracture data in mem at sites other than the spine and hip are mite limited, there is now with evidence that low-trauma fractures of the upper forearm and ankle associated with increased risk for future fractures in men [39] These data emphasize the importance and significance understanding factors associated with bone gain and later bone lose in men. Peak bone mass is thought to be a significant predictor of future osteoporosis and fracture risk. ...
... With non-toxic effects on humans [36] , Berberine has shown effectiveness as an antidiabetic, antioxidant, chemokine-regulator, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-metastatic, and anti-tumoral drug [37,38] . Curcumin is a spice origin from India, derived from the rhizomes of cucuma longa, also known as turmeric [39] . The proapoptotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer potential of curcumin has been extensively investigated but not completely elucidated [40] . ...
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The current treatment for cancer depends on various factors such as the stage of cancer, size of the tumor, receptors expressed on the ECM, etc. Whether the case, the medications used for adjuvant treatment can be divided into three main groups, i.e., hormone-blocking agents, chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies. With an increased understanding of cancer hallmarks, drug repurposing has gradually positioned itself as a promising strategy for cancer treatment by finding new effects of drugs for which human safety and pharmacokinetics are already well established. Drug repurposing for cancer therapeutics is an emerging topic of research. There are many consequences to developing new drugs for cancer therapy and overcoming this drug repurposing approach has several advantages. A crucial phase of drug research is the safety and effectiveness testing are done in human volunteers in clinical trials that normally comprise four phases, which can take many years and count exorbitant amounts of resources. Thus, the repurposing strategy represents two major advantages. In the first place, prior knowledge of the drug behaviour and characteristics. Secondly, in contrast with the very expensive novel compounds, most of the candidates for repurposing anti-cancer medications are at very low prices. Therefore, drug repurposing incorporates an approach for reducing its morbidity and lethality as well as making the treatment more accessible for everyone. Here, in this book chapter, we provide an overview of the current status of repurposed drugs and compounds that have demonstrated the potential to be used in cancer therapeutics. We will also discuss the barriers that need to be overcome to realize the benefit of this approach.
... According to Güler et al. [40], this compound is primarily responsible for the antimicrobial and antifungal properties of carrots. In addition to these bioactive compounds, D-limonene (59), β-myrcene (51), β-pinene (40) and α-phellandrene (50) were also identified in low quantities. ...
... It is the most common bioactive compound present in garlic and accounts for about 70% of the sulfur compounds family [49]. Allicin is produced enzymatically by the interaction of the non-protein amino acid alliin with the enzyme alliinase, common in all Allium species [50]. During the enzymatic reaction, ammonia and pyruvate are also formed. ...
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In recent years, there has been a growing interest in studying and exploring the potential health benefits of foods, mainly from vegetables and fruits from regular intake. The presence of secondary metabolites, namely polyphenols, carotenoids and terpenes, in certain food matrices seems to contribute to their functional properties, expressed through an increased prevention in the development of certain chronic diseases, namely coronary heart diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and diabetes. However, some foods’ volatile secondary metabolites also present important bioactive properties, although this is a poorly scientifically explored field. In this context, and in order to explore the potential bioactivity of volatile metabolites in different vegetables and fruits from regular consumption, the volatile composition was established using a green extraction technique, solid phase microextraction in headspace mode (HS-SPME), combined with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 320 volatile metabolites, comprising 51 terpenic compounds, 45 organosulfur compounds, 31 aldehydes, 37 esters, 29 ketones, 28 alcohols, 23 furanic compounds, 22 hydrocarbons, 19 benzene compounds, 13 nitrogenous compounds, 9 carboxylic acids, 7 ethers, 4 halogenated compounds and 3 naphthalene derivatives, were positively identified. Each investigated fruit and vegetable showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. The obtained results revealed that terpenic compounds, to which are associated antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, are the most predominant chemical family in beetroot (61%), orange carrot (58%) and white carrot (61%), while organosulfur compounds (antiviral activity) are dominant in onion, garlic and watercress. Broccoli and spinach are essentially constituted by alcohols and aldehydes (enzyme-inhibition and antimicrobial properties), while fruits from the Solanaceae family are characterized by esters in tamarillo and aldehydes in tomato.
... Silymarin is the mixture of substances derived from Silybum marianum seed that exhibits antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties [276]. Silymarin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis, while also having anti-angiogenic properties. ...
... Another flavonolignan, silychristine (54), is a 1-benzofuran derivative isolated from Silybum marianum or from silymarin. Silychristine also has antioxidant properties and is an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation in vivo and in vitro, LOX, and prostaglandin synthetase [276]. Silybin and silychristine inhibited collagen-initiated platelet activation. ...
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) refers to deep vein thrombosis (DVT), whose consequence may be a pulmonary embolism (PE). Thrombosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and is the third most common cardiovascular disease after myocardial infarction and stroke. DVT is associated with the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein in the body. Thrombosis promotes slowed blood flow, hypoxia, cell activation, and the associated release of many active substances involved in blood clot formation. All thrombi which adhere to endothelium consist of fibrin, platelets, and trapped red and white blood cells. In this review, we summarise the impact of various factors affecting haemostatic disorders leading to blood clot formation. The paper discusses the causes of thrombosis, the mechanism of blood clot formation, and factors such as hypoxia, the involvement of endothelial cells (ECs), and the activation of platelets and neutrophils along with the effects of bacteria and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mechanisms related to the action of anticoagulants affecting coagulation factors including antiplatelet drugs have also been discussed. However, many aspects related to the pathogenesis of thrombosis still need to be clarified. A review of the drugs used to treat and prevent thrombosis and natural anticoagulants that occur in the plant world and are traditionally used in Far Eastern medicine has also been carried out.
... Caryophyllene oxide is reported in the EO from the genera Cinnamomum verum J.Presl, Syzygium aromaticum Merr. & L.M.Perry, M. officinalis, Zataria multiflora Boiss., and Eucaliptos [104][105][106]. The EO from Z. multiflora, with caryophyllene oxide in its composition, showed satisfactory antiviral action against HSV-1 [81], which was also observed for spathulenol, a majority compound in Eucalyptus polybractea F.Muell. ...
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Essential oils (EOs) and their compounds have attracted particular attention for their reported beneficial properties, especially their antiviral potential. However, data regarding their anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential are scarce in the literature. Thus, this study aimed to identify the most promising EO compounds against SARS-CoV-2 based on their physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, and toxicity properties. A systematic literature search retrieved 1669 articles; 40 met the eligibility criteria, and 35 were eligible for analysis. These studies resulted in 465 EO compounds evaluated against 11 human and/or SARS-CoV-2 target proteins. Ninety-four EO compounds and seven reference drugs were clustered by the highest predicted binding affinity. Furthermore, 41 EO compounds showed suitable drug-likeness and bioactivity score indices (≥0.67). Among these EO compounds, 15 were considered the most promising against SARS-CoV-2 with the ADME/T index ranging from 0.86 to 0.81. Some plant species were identified as EO potential sources with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, such as Melissa officinalis Arcang, Zataria multiflora Boiss, Eugenia brasiliensis Cambess, Zingiber zerumbet Triboun & K.Larsen, Cedrus libani A.Rich, and Vetiveria zizanoides Nash. Our work can help fill the gap in the literature and guide further in vitro and in vivo studies, intending to optimize the finding of effective EOs against COVID-19.
... C. indicum, famed as "Ye Ju Hua" in China, has a long history in the treatment of inflammation, hypertension, and respiratory diseases in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine; furthermore, it is traditionally used in tea preparations, tinctures, creams, and lotions [29]. ...
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Many flavonoids, as eminent phenolic compounds, have been commercialized and consumed as dietary supplements due to their incredible human health benefits. In the present study, a bioactive flavone glycoside linarin (LN) was designated to comprehensively overview its phytochemical and biological properties. LN has been characterized abundantly in the Cirsium, Micromeria, and Buddleja species belonging to Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Scrophulariaceae families, respectively. Biological assessments exhibited promising activities of LN, particularly, the remedial effects on central nervous system (CNS) disorders, whereas the remarkable sleep enhancing and sedative effects as well as AChE (acetylcholinesterase) inhibitory activity were highlighted. Of note, LN has indicated promising anti osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, thus a bone formation effect. Further biological and pharmacological assessments of LN and its optimized semi-synthetic derivatives, specifically its therapeutic characteristics on osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, might lead to uncovering potential drug candidates.
... The ingredients are borage seed oil, evening primrose oil, Angelica root extract, and Coleus forskohlii extract (Ferguson et al., 2003). Both borage seed and evening primrose oils contain a significant amount of gamma-linoleic acid (GLA) (Mahboubi, 2019;Parhizkar and Latiff, 2013), which is then metabolized into prostaglandin, a compound that may increase genital blood flow and enhance pelvic nerve stimulation (Dasgupta, 2019;West and Krychman, 2015). This increases vaginal lubrication and sexual arousal (Angulo et al., 2003). ...
Article
Background : Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) includes female orgasmic disorder, female sexual interest or arousal disorder, and genito-pelvic pain or penetration disorder. FSD affects 40% of women worldwide, but it is understudied and likely undertreated. Natural products are frequently used by women to treat FSD, but scientific evidence of their efficacy is lacking. Objective : This systematic review and meta-analysis focused on the study of the efficacy of natural products on FSD. Study design : Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing studies on natural products in the treatment of FSD. Methods : The literature search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial databases for studies published from January 2000 to February 2020. The quality and the level of evidence of the studies were assessed. The association between natural products and FSD was summarized using standardized mean differences (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results : A total of 536 studies were identified, with 20 of them meeting the criteria. According to this meta-analysis, Tribulus terrestris showed a significant positive effect in improving overall female sexual function (SMD = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.46 - 1.79, p = 0.001) and individual sexual arousal (SMD = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.22 - 1.84, p = 0.013), sexual desire (SMD = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.52 - 1.63, p = <0.001) and sexual orgasm (SMD = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.02 - 1.00, p = 0.040) domains compared to placebo. Panax ginseng was found to be effective in treating sexual arousal (SMD = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.11 - 0.97, p = 0.014) and sexual desire (SMD = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.27 - 0.90, p < 0.001) compared to placebo. Meanwhile, other natural products reviewed in this study, such as Trifolium pretense, did not differ significantly from placebo in terms of improving FSD. Conclusion : Preliminary evidence suggests that Tribulus terrestris and Panax ginseng may be effective as alternative treatments for FSD in a clinical setting.
... Allicin is responsible for distinct odor of garlic. It is unstable and changes into different chemicals rather quickly (Dasgupta 2019). ...
Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is one of the most important polyphagous pest on a wide range of cultivated, outdoor and protected crops worldwide. In this study, lethal and sub-lethal effects of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus extracts on the females and eggs of T. urticae was evaluated in laboratory conditions. The results showed that the mortality percentages of the females of T. urticae were significantly increased in the treated specimens compared with the controls in garlic ethanol extract treatment (88.52 ± 3.45%). Moreover, in the highest and lowest duration of embryonic development were recorded in ethanol with 6.09 ± 0.03 and acetic acid with 3.87 ± 0.07 days, respectively. Generally, the garlic extract had the appreciable effect from the viewpoint of mortality and sub-lethal effect (reduction of the oviposition). With carrying out further complimentary research these botanical compounds can be used in integrated pest management.
... Indeed, it is responsible for the characteristic smell and was used as a quality indicator for commercial garlic. However, our findings demonstrated that the extraction method and processing conditions have a profound impact on the stability of allicin, which is reported to change into different chemicals rather quickly (Dasgupta, 2019). ...
Article
In this study, the aerial parts and bulbs of nine Allium species were investigated for their functional phytochemical profile, in vitro antioxidant activities, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Phenolics, alkaloids, glucosinolates and other sulfur-containing compounds were distinctively profiled in the different species. Maceration in methanol allowed recovering the highest cumulative phenolic content in A. scabrifolium (42.31 mg/g), followed by A. goekyigiti (33.15 mg/g) and A. atroviolaceum (28.35 mg/g). The aerial parts of all Allium species showed high in vitro antioxidant activity whereas methanolic extract of A. cappadocicum bulb showed the highest inhibition against AChE (2.44 mg galantamine equivalent/g) and the water extracts of A. isauricum aerial part were the best BChE inhibitors (4.31 mg galantamine equivalent/g). Bulbs were the richer source of oligosaccharides, and in vitro digestion determined an increase of oligosaccharides bioaccessibility. A promising nutraceutical potential could be highlighted in our understudied Allium species.
... The active component found in Curcuma longa is curcumin. However, other active constituents are demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, volatile oils (tumerone, zingiberene and atlantone) [70]. It is known by its astonishing activities to cure several diseases. ...
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The global pandemic of prediabetes and diabetes has led to a severe corresponding complication of these disorders. Neuropathy is one of the most prevalent complication of diabetes is, affecting blood supply of the peripheral nervous system that may eventually results into loss of sensations, injuries, diabetic foot and death. The utmost identified risk of diabetic neuropathy is uncontrolled high blood glucose levels. However, aging, body mass index (BMI), oxidative stress, inflammation, increased HbA1c levels and blood pressure are among the other key factors involved in the upsurge of this disease. The so far treatment to deal with diabetic neuropathy is controlling metabolic glucose levels. Apart from this, drugs like reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, aldose reductase inhibitors, PKC inhibitors, Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), anticonvulsants, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, are the other prescribed medications. However, the related side-effects (hallucinations, drowsiness, memory deficits), cost, poor pharmacokinetics and drug resistance brought the trust of patients down and thus herbal renaissance is occurring all over the word as the people have shifted their intentions from synthetic drugs to herbal remedies. Medicinal plants have widely been utilized as herbal remedies against number of ailments in Indian medicinal history. Their bioactive components are very much potent to handle different chronic disorders and complications with lesser-known side effects. Therefore, the current article mainly concludes the etiology and pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, it also highlights the important roles of medicinal plants and their naturally occurring bioactive compounds in addressing this disease.Graphical abstract
... Olive oil and Extra Virgin olive oil contain oleic acid, phenolic constituents such as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol exhibiting antioxidant activity by inhibiting platelet aggregation, reducing pro-inflammatory molecule formation such as thromboxane B2 and leukotriene B4 and impeding the use of oxygen in human neutrophils (Santangelo et al., 2017). Extra virgin olive oil consists of oleocanthal which helps in reduction of inflammation associated with RHA by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production and iNOS expression and suppressing lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α expression (Dasgupta, 2019). ...
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RHA) is one of the most prevalent complex, chronic, inflammatory diseases, manifested by elevated oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. Prolonged administration of NSAIDs, steroids, and DMARDs, used in the treatment of RHA, is associated with deleterious side effects. This necessitates the urge of new and safe approaches for RHA management, based on the complementary and alternative system of medicine. Documented evidences have suggested that supplementation with nutritional, dietary, and herbal components; can play a crucial role as an adjuvant, in the alleviation of the RHA symptoms, through their influence on the pathological inflammatory processes. Dietary phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids, and alkaloids with their ability to modulate prooxidant and pro‐inflammatory pathways, have been effective in delaying the arthritic disease progression. Moreover, in scientific explorations, herbs containing phenolic compounds, alkaloids, carotenoids flavonoids, spices such as ginger, turmeric, Ayurvedic formulations, different diets such as Mediterranean diet, vegan diet, beverages, and oils such as sesame oil, rice bran oil, vitamins, and probiotics are proven to modulate the action of inflammatory molecules, involved in RHA pathology. Subsequently, the purpose of this review article is to summarize various in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies in RHA, which have documented remarkable insights into the anti‐inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and immunomodulatory, bone erosion preventing properties of dietary, nutritional, and herbal components with the focus on their molecular level mechanisms involved in RHA. Even though major findings were derived from in vitro studies, several in vivo and clinical studies have established the use of diet, herbal, and nutritional management in RHA treatment. Practical applications Thickening of the synovial membrane, bone erosion, and cartilage destruction is known to trigger rheumatoid arthritis causing inflammation and pain in bone joints. Continuous intake of NSAIDs, steroids, and DMARD therapy are associated with detrimental side effects. These side effects can be overcome by the use of dietary, nutritional, and herbal interventions based on the complementary and alternative therapy. This concept portrays the food components and other natural components having the potential to promote health, improve general well‐being, and reduce the risk of RHA.
... Amongst them, turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) is especially popular worldwide because of its attractive culinary, cosmetic and medicinal uses [3]. Specifically, the interest of this tuberous species resides in its exploitation as a colouring and flavouring agent, as well as in its numerous pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, neuro-and dermoprotective, antiasthmatic or hypoglycaemic [4][5][6][7][8][9][10], being recently reported that turmeric can even potentially contribute against the life-threatening viral disease COVID-19 by inhibiting the main protease enzyme [11]. Most of these interesting features and properties principally come from the rhizome [3,12], a horizontal underground stem from which the shoots and roots arise [13]. ...
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Curcuma longa L. rhizome essential oil is a valuable product in pharmaceutical industry due to its wide beneficial health effects. Novel applications in the agri-food industry where more sustainable extraction processes are required currently and safer substances are claimed for the consumer are being investigated. This review provides information regarding the conventional and recent extraction methods of C. longa rhizome oil, their characteristics and suitability to be applied at the industrial scale. In addition, variations in the chemical composition of C. longa rhizome and leaf essential oils regarding intrinsic and extrinsic factors and extraction methods are also analysed in order to select the most proper to obtain the most efficient activity. Finally, the potential applications of C. longa rhizome oil in the agri-food industry, such as antimicrobial, weedicide and a food preservative agent, are included. Regarding the data, C. longa rhizome essential oil may play a special role in the agri-food industry; however, further research to determine the application threshold so as not to damage crops or affect the organoleptic properties of food products, as well as efficient encapsulation techniques, are necessary for its implementation in global agriculture.
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: The Symphytum genus has been mainly used in traditional medicine, containing its anti-inflammatory activity. Symphytum spp.’s active components, such as allantoin, polyphenols, flavonoids, and alkaloids, can act on several intentions in the signaling pathway, constrain pro-inflammatory enzymes, reducing the construction of inflammatory chemokine’s and cytokines, and decreasing oxidative stress, which afterward suppresses inflammation procedures. Preclinical and clinical trials have reported the prevailing anti-inflammatory effect of several Symphytum species. This review presents an overview of the anti-inflammatory activities of different products and bioactive constituents in this genus. The papers with the English language were gathered from 2000 to 2021. This review may provide a scientific base for establishing innovative and alternative techniques for isolating a single individual from this genus to attenuate inflammatory disorders. The Symphytum genus is waiting for researchers to develop safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents for additional investigation of other different mechanisms of action.
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e global consumption of plant-based cosmetics has shown spectacular growth in recent years because of rising consumer awareness regarding the long-term health benefits of natural ingredients. As the global demand for herbal cosmetics increases, there are ample opportunities for Sri Lanka as a tropical Asian country to expand its productions and global exports along with its unique biodiversity and inherited traditional knowledge. erefore, the present review attempts to give an overview of the widely used medicinal plants in the global herbal cosmetic industry and strengths, challenges, and possible solutions for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry of Sri Lanka. Information was collected using electronic search (using Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, TEEAL, and Scopus) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, industrial reports, market surveys, and library search for local books on ethnobotany. Important plant-derived ingredients used in the global herbal cosmetic industry are essential oils, colorants, oils, fats, and waxes. e traditional usage of 108 medicinal plant species (belonging to 58 families) in cosmetic treatments was identified from the local books of Sri Lanka. Of these, 49 plant species were reported as new ingredients for the herbal cosmetic industry. However, the lack of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys to identify the cosmetic potential plants, insufficient or absence of continuous supply of raw materials for production in line with the existing demand, the lack of quality control of raw materials and finished cosmetic products, improper systematic cultivation systems for medicinal plants, poor postharvest practices, and the lack of innovations are major challenges encountered in Sri Lanka for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry. In conclusion, addressing these vital knowledge gaps is a timely requirement of the country for the sustainable development of the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, assembling of the multidisciplinary cooperation of botanists, chemists, toxicologists, researchers, and biologists is crucial to analyze the interesting functional properties, efficacy, and effectiveness of documented medicinal plants with cosmetic potential.
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Resumen La menstruación ha tenido diferentes significados en diversas culturas a lo largo de la historia. Desde Regnier de Graaf en el siglo xvii hasta la fecha, pasando por la médica norteamericana Mary Putnam Jacobi a finales del sigloxix, un buen número de pioneros científicos estudiaron el sistema reproductor femenino con el fin de entender la fisiología del ciclo menstrual. En el Nuevo Reino de Granada, durante los siglos xviii yxix, se desarrolló por parte de médicos y boticarios una receta médica a base de agentes herbarios y de origen animal con el fin de regular el ciclo menstrual, disminuyendo de esta forma síntomas asociados a esta condición para evitar el estigma sociocultural que esta condición implicaba para la mujer en aquel entonces. Esta receta se encuentra en la actualidad consignada en el archivo histórico Cipriano Rodríguez Santamaría en la biblioteca Octavio Arizmendi Posada de la Universidad de La Sabana en Chía, Colombia. La redacción y autoría de esta receta no es del todo clara, y su uso se basa eventualmente en la experiencia y observación de quienes en esa época la utilizaron, sin bases científicas para respaldar su eventual efecto modulador y terapéutico.
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The hyperplastic growth of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and inflammatory response are pathological hallmarks of RA. It has been reported that Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) possess appreciable anti-inflammatory activity against adjuvant-induced arthritis. Nevertheless, little is known about the role and detailed mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of APS in RA. This study demonstrated that administration of APS dose-dependently impaired cell viability, increased cell apoptosis by decreasing Bcl-2 expression, increasing Bax expression and Caspase3 activity in IL-1β-stimulated RSC-364 cells and RA-FLS. Simultaneously, IL-1β-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly decreased after APS treatment. Furthermore, preconditioning with APS dramatically enhanced autophagy activity by increasing Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3I expression coupled with decreasing p62 expression and augmenting the number of LC3 puncta in IL-1β-stimulated RSC-364 cells. More importantly, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) partly abolished APS-triggered inhibitory effects on cell growth and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. APS also repressed the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in IL-1β-stimulated RSC-364 cells. Moreover, treatment with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), an activator of PI3K/Akt signaling, partly reversed the therapeutic effects of APS in IL-1β-stimulated RSC-364 cells. Collectively, we concluded that APS might attenuate the pathological progression of RA by exerting the pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in IL-1β-stimulated FLSs by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR-autophagy pathway.