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The Pros And Cons Of Distance Learning

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https://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.157
18th PCSF 2018
Professional Culture of the Specialist of the Future
THE PROS AND CONS OF DISTANCE LEARNING
Nina A. Sokolova (a)*, Alexander A. Pylkin (b), Olga A. Stroganova (c), Karina G. Antonian
(d)
*Corresponding author
(a) Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), Polytechnicheskaya 29, Saint Petersburg, 195251
Russia, alonsa@inbox.ru , +7911 7452245
(b) Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), Polytechnicheskaya 29, Saint Petersburg, 195251
Russia, apylkin@yandex.ru
(c) Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), Polytechnicheskaya 29, Saint Petersburg, 195251
Russia, stroganova.olga88@gmail.com
(d) Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Moyka Embankment, 48, St-Petersburg, Russia, duas2@list.ru
Abstract
Distance education is becoming more and more in demand in the Russian higher educational
institutions and all over the world. This study is devoted to the analysis of both positive and negative
features of distance education. The positive features include: access to education for a wide range of
people; the chance to learn from home; the opportunity for students to save money on transport,
accommodation, textbooks, etc. as well as for universities to spend less on renting lecture halls and
salaries for a large staff. Students can also save time by studying only those subjects that seem necessary
for them. Other positive features are: the opportunity to check the acquired information and receive
feedback from the authors of the course; organization of training courses for working professionals with
greater convenience. Besides distance courses form the ability to search and process information
independently and develop the need for self-education, essential in the future career of a student. The
negative features of distance education include: the absence of a continuous live communication between
subjects of the educational process; insufficient time for developing skills, revision of the material;
imperfection of the test system for assessing the knowledge gained; rapid obsolescence of lecture
materials and, consequently, the need for their constant updating. The need for proctoring final attestation
of students and constant moderation of the educational process together with unpreparedness of teaching
staff of the majority of universities to create distance learning courses pose other serious problems.
© 2018 Published by Future Academy www.FutureAcademy.org.UK
Keywords: Distance learning, education, innovative technologies in teaching, problems of distance learning, the advantages of
distance learning, teaching in higher educational institution.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.157
Corresponding Author: Nina A. Sokolova
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the conference
eISSN: 2357-1330
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1. Introduction
The modern world sets new development vectors for universities, in particular, the need to
implement more modern methods of teaching, one of which is the method of distance learning.
Distance learning implies distant interaction between lecturer and students. At the same time the
lecturer has the opportunity to communicate with students both on-line and off-line. Students can also ask
their questions about the material which they have studied and receive feedback. Distance learning
involves video clips with the recording of lectures, audio and video conferences, chats, forums for
discussion. Besides e-mail communication between students and lecturers can be used (Tsai & Machado,
2003).
"The great popularity of the Internet and the widespread use of mobile information and
communication technologies has significantly changed the social environment and social communication"
(Bylieva, Lobatyuk, & Rubtsova, 2017, p. 226). This process has also affected the education system, in
which an increasing share is allocated to distance education.
Currently, distance forms of education are becoming increasingly popular. The number of courses
offered on the Internet is growing rapidly as well as the number of people who want to learn remotely. In
Russia, these processes are only beginning to gain momentum. It happens in parallel with the
advancement of such values as freedom and self-expression, the realization of which is facilitated by
distance education (Pozdeeva, Trostinskaya, Evseeva, & Ivanova, 2017). An actual problem is the
analysis of positive and negative features of distance learning in order to understand the mechanisms of
interaction between students and lecturers, carried out without direct contact, and to create the most
effective model of distance educational process. This study is devoted to understanding the advantages
and problems of distance learning within the framework of higher education.
2. Problem Statement
In modern society, the need for distance learning has matured in connection with the increased
popularity of higher education and sometimes the great difficulty of getting it remotely, living outside the
metropolis. In addition, teaching staff working in the universities of these megacities often face the
problem of "clip-thinking", through the prism of which students perceive information. One can keep their
attention only by giving out the material in small portions of 10 to 15 minutes, between which one has to
make short breaks for direct interaction with the students, provoking them to ask questions and answering
them. After all, modern young people are used to clicking on links on the Internet: whenever they are
interested in something, they want to learn more about this and if the lecturer does not satisfy their
curiosity, there is a high probability that they will redirect their attention to electronic devices using
which, via wireless communication, they will immediately begin to search for answers on the Internet.
Within the framework of distance learning the material of each individual lecture is presented in the form
of a short video accompanied by subtitles and supplemented with a detailed summary in a format suitable
for reading.
In addition, most of the modern students actively use the Internet to find the information necessary
for the successful mastering of the material of a particular course. Electronic information carriers are
much more convenient and customary for them than print media (Bylieva, 2015).
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.157
Corresponding Author: Nina A. Sokolova
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the conference
eISSN: 2357-1330
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At the same time, some lecturers, who do not understand such preferences, tend to restrict students
in using Internet resources, try to encourage them to find information in traditional libraries. However,
such tactics are doomed to failure from the outset. In today's society, the search for material (including,
educational) on the Internet is a faster, more economical, democratic way than any other means of
obtaining information (Aladyshkin, Kulik, Michurin, & Anosova, 2017). Moreover, search on the Internet
becomes especially actual when it is necessary to find the latest information on the disciplines which are
characterized by rapid development and, consequently, rapid obsolescence of information (Belyayeva,
2013).
Within the framework of distance learning, these materials are deliberately selected and provided
to students by professionals in one field of knowledge or another. Moreover, the materials are not simply
uploaded, but are structured in a certain way. Their presentation has been thought out, arranged correctly
from a methodological point of view. From time to time the material can be updated: not only its content,
but also form and structure, which is done to help students to master the material of the course more
efficiently.
At the same time, the representatives of the "clip-thinking" can cope with the simultaneous
processing of fairly large blocks of information, provided that it is presented to them competently. As
modern scholars convincingly show, "the essence of the clip thinking is the ability of a person to quickly
switch between disjointed semantic fragments, and its most important advantage is the high speed of
information processing" (Grineva, 2012, p. 26). "The modern era is the era of total visualization of
information. A person receives the information necessary to him, not through words and meanings, but
through vivid images and simple signs" (Simakova, 2017, p. 107). Accordingly, if you fill the video
lectures with bright visual images, visual diagrams, maps, memorable photos, short clips illustrating the
material, the level of students’ assimilation of information and memorization in comparison with usual
lectures can be much higher.
Thus, distance learning allows solving a number of primary problems, which modern society poses
to universities, and meets the needs and opportunities of modern students. But, like any method, distance
learning has its own strengths and weaknesses.
3. Research Questions
The research questions, the answers to which we try to find in this study, are:
1. What are the positive aspects of distance education in the university?
2. What are the negative aspects of distance education in the university?
3. Does distance education contribute to the development of students' independence and skills of
self-education?
4. Can the traditional form of teaching in universities be replaced with distance learning?
4. Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this article is to identify and analyze the positive and negative features of distance
learning.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.157
Corresponding Author: Nina A. Sokolova
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the conference
eISSN: 2357-1330
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In the future, this will contribute to understanding the mechanisms of distant interaction between
students and lecturers, and creation of the most effective model of the distance learning process.
5. Research Methods
As a methodological basis in this study, a descriptive method is used that enables to examine the
problems and advantages of distance learning from different sides. Besides general scientific methods of
analysis, comparison and generalization are used in the article.
6. Findings
Let us analyze the positive and negative features of distance education.
The undoubted advantages of distance learning include the following.
Firstly, it is an opportunity to study remotely, at a time convenient for the student and, most
importantly, anywhere in the world. To do this, he/she only needs a computer (or a smartphone, a tablet)
with Internet access. The student decides when and where he will study the material. Also interested in
the distance form of education are "people who do not have the opportunity to receive educational
services in the traditional education system because of the limited capacity of this system, the inability to
combine study with work and other specific conditions (villagers, sportsmen, etc.)" (Khuziakhmetov &
Nasibullov, 2012, p. 44).
In addition, due to the opportunity to study remotely, there is an opportunity to save money on
training, transportation costs, as well as accommodation in a metropolitan area for students. Distance
education today is the most democratic in price. Students do not have to pay for textbooks, additional
literature, do not rent a house or live in a hall of residence. There is no need to spend a lot of money on
moving between a place of residence and a university.
For higher educational institutions, the undoubted advantages of distance learning are the cost
savings on providing and maintaining classrooms and lecture halls in due form.
It is also worth noting that scientific and technological progress gives a lot of opportunities for
effective presentation of the material. A computer with Internet access, an electronic board, a multimedia
projector, video and audio equipment are among the technical means used by lecturers of virtually any
discipline. Providing this equipment for all the classrooms can sometimes be a task beyond the power of
the university administration. Within distance learning, the amount of the equipment necessary for the
learning process is greatly reduced.
Another positive aspect of distance education is "the possibility of attracting the most professional
lecturers, or simply well-known people, to work in the framework of the distance education in an
interactive educational process" (Khuziakhmetov & Nasibullov, 2012, p.72). In its framework, scientists
with a world-wide name will be able to transfer their knowledge and tell students about their discoveries,
thereby making the science more "live", open, aimed directly at students. Undoubtedly, this experience
will be of great value in the eyes of many participants in the educational process, and the very opportunity
to communicate with the luminaries of science will attract more students to the university.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.157
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eISSN: 2357-1330
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Along with students, universities lecturers can also be trained remotely, increasing their
qualifications in this or that field of knowledge. It will also be important for them to have the opportunity
of such interaction with outstanding scientists.
The next positive moment of distance learning is connected with the peculiarities of people's
perception of information. All students perceive the material differently. One needs to spend a lot of time
understanding and mastering it, the other does it quite quickly. The distance learning system is very
flexible in this regard. Being at a lecture in real time, students cannot make the lecturer pause to
comprehend a particular information block. The laws of psychological perception are such that intensive
work for 15-20 minutes requires a 5-10-minute break for "digesting" information. If at that time a new
stream of unknown material falls upon the student, the assimilation of this material is difficult. If you
imagine what happens to a modern representative of clip-thinking during an hour and a half lecture that
goes on without a break, distance learning may well seem to be a better alternative to full-time education.
In addition, if some students have misunderstood something, they do not always dare to ask a
question to a lecturer, embarrassed by their classmates. Within distance learning, shy students feel more
comfortable. At the same time, students who need more time to think about information than their
classmates can listen to the lecture more than once, take a long time to reflect on the material provided,
and after that, if something still remains incomprehensible, ask the lecturer.
Another positive feature is the ability to receive quick feedback from students. As the researchers
write: "Monitoring student satisfaction with education quality has become an integral part of the
educational process not only in a number of European universities <…>, but also in Russian universities,
which are interested in education quality improvement" (Razinkina, Pankova, Trostinskaya, Pozdeeva,
Evseeva, & Tanova, 2018). And distance learning allows you to get feedback from a large number of
students quickly.
In the context of distance learning, information is provided in a concise form, without digressions.
The lecturer orientates the students in the literature, helps to work out the necessary material using a
testing system. In real (not virtual) classes, not every student takes initiative and actively participates in
the assimilation of the material. Some students postpone the period of their activity until the session.
Within the framework of distance learning all the necessary material is divided into blocks, for each of
which the student is obliged to perform proof tests within one to two weeks. If the student is lazy and
does not do this, the deadline is over, and the opportunity for further progress is lost. At the end of the
course the student writes the final test. As a result, he actively assimilates information, revises the learnt
material.
The lecturer is not just a "talking textbook". Each student has the opportunity to ask questions to
the lecturer, discuss the topics that interest him/her at the forum both with the lecturer himself and with
other listeners (in case they are also interested and want to answer him). Distance learning takes place in
an interactive form, so it is aimed at a dialogue. The latter, of course, is also beneficial for students.
Another positive feature of distance learning is that it is an ideal alternative to full-time education
for people with disabilities. Such students have to make a lot of physical, emotional, financial efforts to
get education. They do not always have the opportunity to physically attend classes due to poor health,
the need to undergo treatment in a hospital (Sidorova, 2017). Some need specially equipped ramps for
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.157
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Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the conference
eISSN: 2357-1330
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wheelchairs, which, in turn, puts before the university the problem of creating special devices and
increases the cost of maintaining and equipping the premises.
Within distance learning, students with disabilities get full access to knowledge at a time
convenient for them. Administration of the university, in turn, saves money on the equipment of premises.
In addition, according to a number of authors, as a result of remote participation in the educational
process, "students are oriented toward independence and self-education, besides a sense of responsibility
for the results of their own educational and cognitive activities is formed" (Kosarchuk, 2015, p. 72).
And also in our volatile world, where information is the main productive force, a specialist in any
field should be ready for continuous education during all his/her life long. But distance learning is not
without its drawbacks, among which we can distinguish the following.
First, despite the opportunity to ask any questions to the lecturer, the student is deprived of live
communication both with the lecturer and with other students. The most interesting questions, provoking
a deeper unfolding of the thought of the lecturer, are born in the polylogue, in which a whole group of
students participate, which occurs here and now, in real time. It is thanks to them that the lecturer, who
delivers a speech not in a virtual mode, understands the level of preparedness of the audience, its mood,
can link the chain of associations with new material which the students have already studied in the class
in other subjects. Based on the content of these issues, he can correct the flow of information, touch upon
particular topics, speak on them in a more detailed way, present them from a different angle. The lecture,
delivered without live participation of recipients, loses much in the semantic content and in the emotional
presentation, because not every lecturer is able to be inspired by looking at the black box of the video
camera aimed at him during the shooting, instead of human eyes (Kolomeyzev & Shipunova, 2017).
Secondly, modern young people are accustomed to spending most of their time on the Internet
using a variety of gadgets.
In the modern globalized world technical progress forces a person to introduce technical devices
into his life, thus immersing himself in a digital reality, different from the natural one. "The individual
loses his personal space in totalitarian universe of technical rationality. He has no alternative, he has to
integrate into digital technological structure" (Shipunova, Rabosh, Soldatov, & Deniskov, 2017, p. 1227).
A dialogue with the interlocutor is gradually disappearing from the sphere of communication. Students
are much more used to communicating with their peers via the Internet (Floridi, 2014). But this is a very
specific way of communication, with its help it is almost impossible to learn how to work in a team.
However, such skills are worth developing in the university. Within distance learning there is no live
communication. Another negative aspect of distance learning is the fact that shy students (who are
represented in academic groups in large numbers) who feel more comfortable with remote interaction will
never cease to be afraid of expressing themselves and their thoughts in the presence of other people, will
not get used to live communication (Bordovskaia & Kostromina, 2014).
The next negative point is related to the time during which new material is given. 20-40-minute
presentation cannot be compared with a one and a half hour lecture. In the context of distance learning,
the lecturer strives to compress the material as much as possible, to give only the most essential. But it is
not always the presentation of the key points which causes interest of listeners. Probably, it is possible to
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.157
Corresponding Author: Nina A. Sokolova
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the conference
eISSN: 2357-1330
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enthrall them, to keep attention, to awaken the desire for an independent study of the subject, even within
20 minutes, but not in case of the widest coverage of the key points.
At the same time, if we compensate for the lack of time given in a video lecture with a large
amount of additional literature, there is a high probability that students will not study it, delving into
many nuances independently.
Tests play an important role in the final assessment of the learning of the material by students in
the framework of distance education. The test system is very convenient for remote assessment, but is not
suitable for developing the ability to think independently, to assimilate the material, trying somehow to
apply it to your own life. Accordingly, the results given to the student as a result of his mastering the
material will not always reflect the level of his knowledge of the questions and topics he has studied.
The modern world is very dynamic, information in it quickly becomes obsolete, and each lecturer
from year to year updates the material that he gives to students, adjusting it in accordance with the
accumulated changes in this or that field of science. There is one important requirement to the program of
many courses: the literature recommended to students should be published not earlier than 5 years before
the program's release. Video-lectures within the framework of distance learning are shot for an indefinite
period. It is unlikely that the administration of the university will support the idea of re-shooting lectures
at least once in a five-year period.
The creation of courses aimed at distance learning of students is a very energy-intensive process
and is often met with resistance from lecturers who are accustomed to conducting classes in a traditional
manner. As the authors write, studying the attitude to distance learning within the teaching environment
of the university: "It is especially important to create positive motivation for lecturers who prepare
materials for and conduct e-learning. <…> In addition, a long time working on the computer has a
negative impact on health, eyesight, spine" (Dmitriev, Dmitrieva, & Serezhkina, 2016, p.115).
There is also a purely technical moment. It is necessary to establish a system of proctoring, in
which the activity of the student is monitored on the network and it is forbidden to open several windows
(for example, training material and test tasks) or peeking into the textbook while doing tests. Without this
protection, assessing students' work on assignments will be inadequate. The introduction of such
protection requires the use of a certain number of specially trained personnel whose function is to
supervise the students performing the tasks.
At present, there is an exponential acceleration of technological progress. Technology is being
introduced into a person's life more and more actively, influencing his self-identification and interaction
with people around him (Nikiforova, Bylieva, Lobatyuk, & Petrova, 2017). The problem of anonymity in
the network is another important issue in the distance learning system. A person who is used to behaving
politely in everyday life, in the network is in a situation of permissiveness: his real name is hidden by a
nickname, on the other side of his screen are completely unfamiliar people, who in his view differ little
from robots. In this situation, some students allow themselves to bring down their entire flow of negative
emotions to any subject of communication, including lecturers (Bylieva, Lobatyuk, & Rubtsova, 2018).
To such outbursts of aggression in the network you need to be ready, having prescribed the rules in
advance and setting sanctions for violators.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.157
Corresponding Author: Nina A. Sokolova
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the conference
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7. Conclusion
In the modern globalized world, distance learning begins to play a leading role in the field of
education (Almazova, Khalyapina, & Popova, 2017).
Thus, distance learning has both its negative and positive aspects, which must be taken into
account when developing courses aimed at distance learning. It is more suitable for part-time students, for
lecturers who need to improve their qualifications, as well as for people who have health restrictions. For
full-time students, distance learning courses should be supplemented with lectures and seminars, where
students should be given the opportunity to have live communication with both members of teaching staff
and their groupmates.
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unveiling the ambiguity in current terminology. E-learn Magazine, Vol. 3, 26. Retrieved from
http://elearning.org/subpage/sub_page.cfm?section=3&list_item=6&page
... ne or internetbased devices. (Febrialismanto, 2021), (Nurdin and Anhusadar , 2021). Therefore, students are required to be able to utilize the various media well in order to achieve the expected competencies. In addition, the learning process in distance education or the open distance learning (ODL) is done in face-to-face and online mode (Nina A. Sokolova, et. al, 2018), (Tatminingsih, 2021). With these skills, students will be able to easily assess lectures and material. In addition to these two things, there are other things that also need to be considered in distance education, namely the place where students live or domicile. Why is this important? One of the things that makes this important variab ...
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This article will describe a part of the results of the research that aims to analyze the relationship between literacy skills, domicile and learning outcomes of the Mataram Universitas Terbuka (UT) students. This research was conducted using a correlational survey method. The data were collected with an instrument in the form of a questionnaire. The population is the 2020 Early Childhood Education Teacher (ECET) Program students as many as 982 students. The sample is an ECET Program new students who are in the odd and even semesters of 2020 as many as 213 students. All samples are respondents. The results show that there is no significant relationship between domicile, and student learning achievement and I-literacy with student learning achievement. This is because student learning achievement are based on their ability to read and master the Basic Materials Book. Recommendations that can be conveyed are to prepare new students to study independently, train how to learn to use print and non-print media, including how to understand the content of the Basic Materials Book.
... The four scales of our research were constructed in order to measure the level of agreement on distance education in general and its main disadvantages as they are being described at the relevant literature (Coman et al. 2020;Ferri et al., 2020;Hassenburg, 2009;Jara & Mellar, 2007;Lozovoy & Zashchitina, 2019;Simonson et al. 2012;Sokolova et al. 2018;Xu & Jaggars, 2010). On that basis, the scales reflect the main negative characteristics of distance education, focusing on the experience that university students had while studying remotely during COVID-19 pandemic. ...
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Undoubtedly the pandemic of COVID-19 had a great impact globally on our daily activities. Whereas to face this unprecedented situation all the educational institutions were compelled to keep the lessons conducted over the internet. Under the current circumstances this quantitative research detects, describes, and measures attitudes of 807 students of 5 Greek universities towards the distance learning process. The data that was collected by using a 5-point Likert scale reflects the strong agreement of the students that face-to-face teaching cannot be replaced by distance learning, especially when it comes to laboratory training. The consensus is also that remote learning has abased pedagogical relationships between professors and classmates and among the latter as well. Findings indicate that students come to a meeting of minds about the educational inequalities which are worsened by the lack of digital equipment and undeveloped technological infrastructure. Furthermore, this study reveals a correlation between the responses of the sample and their demographic and social characteristics, something that offers possibilities for additional research.
... Distance education is most acceptable for people who are improving their skills, students with disabilities for health reasons. It is necessary to conduct in-depth research of students' involvement in the use of IT and review the content of courses (Bylieva et al., 2019;Sokolova et al., 2018). ...
... Online learning systems are currently growing rapidly and are increasingly in demand by many universities in the world (Sokolova, et.al., 2018). This learning system accommodates many people's learning needs that are constrained by distance and time (Traxler, 2018) and facilitates teachers to improve their competencies (Nguyen, 2017). ...
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This purpose paper describes a pattern of micro teaching in teacher education through online learning programme using the moodle application. This article was the result of a study with qualitative paradigm. Research method with survey and data collecting using structured interviews and questionnaires. The research subjects were students who took online tutorial in Strengthening Teaching Courses (STC) in The Early Childhood Teacher Education in Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia in 2018. The finding of the research are online micro teaching patterns in the Online STC that have similarities with face-to-face tutorials. Teaching practices should be a cycle: planning, implementation, evaluation and reflection on their own teaching practices. In addition, to evaluate themselves, students can also be evaluated by the others students and peers by online. In online tutorial, the pattern of micro teaching developed is simpler to understand by students independently and can be an alternative practice teaching course in online teacher education program
... Pastinya media video pembelajaran harus didukung dengan teknologi untuk mengfasilitasi penggunaannya (Basilaia and Kvavadze, 2020). Dan tidak hanya itu tentunya peserta didik juga diharapkan memiliki akses internet sehingga akan sedikit sulit saat diterapkan di daerah tertentu yang tidak terjangkau jaringan internet (Sokolova et al., 2018). ...
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Puji syukur kepada Tuhan karena hanya oleh Anugerah-Nya maka penulis bisa menyelesaikan buku ini dengan judul Dampak Pandemi terhadap Kehidupan Manusia. Pada kesempatan ini, penulis mengucapkan terima kasih kepada seluruh pihak yang telah membantu serta memberikan banyak masukan dalam penyusunan buku ini dan diharapkan saran dan kritikan dalam rangka penyempurnaan buku ini. Akhirnya, penulis berharap buku ini bisa berguna bagi para pembaca dan memberikan sumbangsih bagi kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan.
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In the context of new coronavirus COVID-2019 infection spread, many students in numerous higher education institutions have undergone the transition to education applying distance learning technology while medical students undergo partially remote education. It is worth noting that in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, remote education is the best prevention measure for decrease in incidence of the new coronavirus infection among students.
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Science popularization is a specific public activity of scientists, the purpose of which is education and self-realization. The article emphasizes the fact that this activity is self-organized in Russia, and the key role in its development is played by technical and technological improvement and the Internet. Media development contributes to the uncontrollable spread of pseudoscientific and unscientific theories as well as their criticism. The study is focused on the showization of science, which is presented to the public in the form of spectacle and entertainment. The forms of popularization of science in sociocultural practice begin to fulfill the function of intellectual leisure for the public. Popularization in the context of media development enables scientific knowledge to become public knowledge by means of publishing popular science literature, organizing online and offline lecture halls, web portals with scientific and educational content, which is evidence of the democratization of science in general and the activities of the scientist in particular. The activities of popularizers in modern Russia are consolidating, traditions are being developed, shaped by stable rituals, and recognizable authoritative “stars” are appearing. Thus, the popularization of science seems to be an ambiguous phenomenon of modern Russian culture, which reveals the features of a centralizing sociocultural institution.
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Introduction. In the modern era of media development, the social and cultural status of the book is inevitably rethought. The dominant means of transmitting and preserving information in culture as a whole, as well as in the educational system, today are digital devices, which, it would seem, are completely capable of replacing a book. The study aims to problematize the very concept of "book culture", as well as to identify the relevance of book culture in the context of the medial turn of the last third of the XX - beginning of the XXI centuries, in particular in the education system.Methodology and sources. Methodologically, the work is based on a cultural philosophical analysis of research literature.Results and discussion. The phenomenon of "book culture" is considered, transforming under the influence of new digital technologies and digital devices. The situation is analyzed when a generation of teachers of book culture and book-like thinking is faced with the need to master digital technologies and learn in a digital environment at a time when the generation of digital native comes to schools and universities, for which digital culture is not a subject of learning, but the natural habitat from birth.Book culture, like media culture or oral tradition, forms a certain type of perception of the world, sets the logic of thinking, which is especially important in the pedagogical process, when the skills of meaningful thoughtful work with text are formed. With the book, the reader enters into a dialogical relationship, it is individualized, which cannot be said about digital devices that are perceived and used to a greater extent exclusively functionally. Filling the pedagogical process with digital devices and visual information does not still exclude the enormous importance of the teacher's personality, but requires observation and reflection in order to understand the consequences (pluses and minuses) of such mediation.Conclusion. It can be assumed that the book will remain the main form of knowledge representation and the foundation of the educational process. However, book culture, as an integral and valuable attitude to the world, is inferior to the primacy of media culture, which should entail the adjustment of teaching methods and techniques, as well as the refinement of educational goals.
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The study of a person existence in Internet space is certainly an actual task, since the Internet is not only a source of innovation, but also the cause of society's transformations and the social and cultural problems that arise in connection with this. Computer network is global. It is used by people of different professions, age, level and nature of education, living around the world and belonging to different cultures. It complicates the problem of developing common standards of behavior, a system of norms and rules that could be widely accepted by all users. On the other hand, the Internet space can be viewed as a new form of existence where physical laws do not work, and in connection with this, social ones are often questioned. This paper focuses on how social norms regulate relations in Internet space. The authors represents the typology of deviant behavior in the network. The empirical basis of the research includes the sociological survey of students of the senior courses in the Institute of Computer Science and Technology of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. Sociological survey allows to identify students’ understanding of Internet space. The selection of students is conditioned by the fact that IT professionals are considered simultaneously as ordinary users of the network and as future professionals in this field.
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Topicality of the research is confirmed by increasing student involvement into the educational process, when not only the academic staff and administration participate in the improvement of higher education institution’s activity, but also education customers – students. This adds a new dimension to the issue of monitoring education quality and student satisfaction with higher education. This issue echoes the ideas of M. Weber about the relationship between such components as cognitive motivation, personal development and student satisfaction with higher education. Besides, it is essential to focus on the approach of R. Barnet to defining the quality of education with the emphasis on a priority of development of an educational institution as the system that meets customers’ needs. Monitoring student satisfaction with education quality has become an integral part of the educational process not only in a number of European universities, which have used this monitoring for decades, but also in Russian universities, which are interested in education quality improvement. Leading universities in Russia, including Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, are implementing policies targeted at increasing student satisfaction with higher education quality. Education quality monitoring as a key element in the system of providing feedback to students contributes greatly to this process.
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E-learning, web-based learning, online learning, and distance learning are widely used as interchangeable terms. However, these terms represent concepts with subtle, yet consequential differences. In this article, we reveal the differences, review the meanings of these terms, and suggest definitions.
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This article describes methods and results of study of personal features and research potential of Russian students. We revealed differences in these characteristics in 245 students of different years and fields of education. We found out differences in levels of research potential development between bachelor students, master students and specialist students of humanities and natural sciences. We defined and described those personal features which promote active students’ involvement in research and hence - research potential realization, independently of university and educational field. We characterized personal features of students with high level of research potential. Obtained results are a psychological basis for masters’ instruction differentiation, scientific supervision style selection and psychological support of students’ individual learning and scientific work organization.
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Who are we, and how do we relate to each other? This book argues that the explosive developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is changing the answer to these fundamental human questions. As the boundaries between life online and offline break down, and we become seamlessly connected to each other and surrounded by smart, responsive objects, we are all becoming integrated into an "infosphere". Personas we adopt in social media, for example, feed into our 'real' lives so that we begin to live, as Floridi puts in, "onlife". Following those led by Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud, this metaphysical shift represents nothing less than a fourth revolution. "Onlife" defines more and more of our daily activity - the way we shop, work, learn, care for our health, entertain ourselves, conduct our relationships; the way we interact with the worlds of law, finance, and politics; even the way we conduct war. In every department of life, ICTs have become environmental forces which are creating and transforming our realities. How can we ensure that we shall reap their benefits? What are the implicit risks? Are our technologies going to enable and empower us, or constrain us? This volume argues that we must expand our ecological and ethical approach to cover both natural and man-made realities, putting the 'e' in an environmentalism that can deal successfully with the new challenges posed by our digital technologies and information society.