Smoking is Associated with Increased Risk of Major Bleeding: A Prospective Cohort Study

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Background Tobacco smoking represents the most preventable cause of several fatal and disabling diseases worldwide. Several ingredients in tobacco have been suspected to cause changes in the arterial wall leading to instability of blood vessels. The association of smoking with major bleeding is largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that smoking and high tobacco consumption are associated with increased risk of bleeding. Materials and Methods This is a prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 5.9 years including 99,359 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with a questionnaire including self-reported smoking status and information on smoking intensity in cigarettes per day and pack-years. In this study, 17,555 were current smokers, 40,182 former smokers and 41,622 were never smokers. Results Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for current smokers versus never smokers were 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38–1.61) for any major bleeding, 1.71 (1.37–2.13) for intracranial bleeding, 1.35 (1.14–1.60) for airway bleeding, 2.20 (1.84–2.62) for gastrointestinal bleeding and 1.39 (1.26–1.55) for urinary bleeding. Increased smoking intensity was also associated with increased risk of any major bleeding, where > 40 pack-years in current and former smokers compared with never smokers had a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio of 1.59 (95% CI: 1.45–1.73) (p for trend across four groups: < 0.001). Also, current smokers smoking > 20 cigarettes per day compared with former and never smokers had a corresponding hazard ratio of 1.67 (1.51–1.85) (p for trend across four groups: < 0.001). Conclusion Current smokers have an increased risk of any major bleeding as well as of intracranial, airway, gastrointestinal and urinary bleeding. Also, increased smoking intensity was associated with increased risk of major bleeding.

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... Biological complications, such as bleeding on probing [29] were reported in 19.8% of patients, whilst mechanical complications were observed in 27.1% of cases. These data are better than what has been reported in the main literature on this matter [29][30][31][32]. ...
... As concern the marginal bone loss, the association between smoke and bone metabolisms has been known for a long time [30]. In particular, smoke is currently recognized as a risk factor for osteoporosis and associated to a significant reduction of the activities of the osteoblasts [31,32]. Similarly, smoking could be associated with some of the observed biological complications as bleeding [31,33]. ...
... In particular, smoke is currently recognized as a risk factor for osteoporosis and associated to a significant reduction of the activities of the osteoblasts [31,32]. Similarly, smoking could be associated with some of the observed biological complications as bleeding [31,33]. In line with these data, a significant association was also found between the incidence of biological completions and the loss of marginal bone. ...
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(1) Background and Objectives. Currently, there are no definitive long-term data about clinically significant difference in the failure of prosthesis and implant or marginal bone loss related to the rehabilitation of the completely edentulous mandible by all-on-four treatment concept. The main aim of present investigation was to report the long-term outcomes (10-years follow-up) of complete-arch mandibular rehabilitations based on the all-on-four concept. (2) Materials and Methods. Patients in need of extractions of teeth due to the occurrence of caries and/or severe periodontal disease and patients presented with edentulous mandibles were enrolled to the study. A total of 96 participants (mean follow-up period after intervention of 3185.2 days) were enrolled in the study. Participants were evaluated at the first visit, 10 days after intervention and every year after the intervention. Implant and prosthesis survival, bone loss and both local biological and mechanical complications were evaluated during the follow-up period. (3) Results. An implants’ survival rate of 97.9% was observed at the end of the follow-up period. Biological complications were reported in 19.8% of patients, whereas mechanical complications were reported in 27.1% of cases. The average marginal bone level at baseline was −0.03 mm. A significant marginal bone loss was observed after 10-years follow-up (2.5 mm). Binary logistic regression analysis showed significant association between smoke and both marginal bone loss and local biological complications. Lastly, a significant association was observed between bruxism and mechanical complications. (4) Conclusions. The high implant and prosthesis survival rate and the moderate incidence of biological and mechanical complications observed in present investigation can be associated to several factors such as high implant primary stability, prosthetic design, and control of the occlusal forces.
... [1] Several ingredients in tobacco have been suspected to cause changes in the arterial wall leading to instability of blood vessels with increased risk of major bleeding. [2] [3] This study is aimed at assessing the relationship between smoking and the incidence of haematoma formation in patients who underwent abdominoplasty surgery. ...
... Thirdly, important candidate predictors may not have been evaluated in our models. Specifically, our source data does not include information on alcohol use, tobacco use, ethnicity, over-the-counter aspirin use or labile INR (factors highly associated with bleeding) [24, 73,74]. Despite the large populational data source, our sample size constrained our ability to identify ICH predictors. ...
Aim: Real-world predictors of major bleeding (MB) have been well-studied among warfarin users, but not among all direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) users diagnosed with atrial fibrillation (AF). Thus, our goal was to build a predictive model of MB for new users of all oral anticoagulants (OAC) with AF. Methods: We identified patients hospitalized for any cause and discharged alive in the community from 2011 to 2017 with a primary or secondary diagnosis of AF in Quebec's RAMQ and Med-Echo administrative databases. Cohort entry occurred at the first OAC claim. Patients were categorized according to OAC type. Outcomes were incident MB, gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), non-GI extracranial bleeding (NGIB) and intracranial bleeding within 1 year of follow-up. Covariates included age, sex, co-morbidities (within 3 years before cohort entry) and medication use (within 2 weeks before cohort entry). We used logistic-LASSO and adaptive logistic-LASSO regressions to identify MB predictors among OAC users. Discrimination and calibration were assessed for each model and a global model was selected. Subgroup analyses were performed for MB subtypes and OAC types. Results: Our cohort consisted of 14,741 warfarin, 3,722 dabigatran, 6,722 rivaroxaban and 11,196 apixaban users aged 70-86 years old. The important MB predictors were age, prior MB and liver disease with ORs ranging from 1.37-1.64. The final model had a c-statistic of 0.63 (95% CI 0.60-0.65) with adequate calibration. The GIB and NGIB models had similar c-statistics of 0.65 (95% CI 0.63-0.66) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.64-0.70), respectively. Conclusions: MB and MB subtype predictors were similar among DOAC and warfarin users. The predictors selected by our models and their discriminative potential are concordant with published data. Thus, these models can be useful tools for future pharmacoepidemiologic studies involving older oral anticoagulant users with AF.
Tobacco use will kill a projected 1 billion people in the 21st century in one of the deadliest pandemics in history. Tobacco use disorder is a disease with a natural history, pathophysiology, and effective treatment options. Anesthesiologists can play a unique role in fighting this pandemic, providing both immediate (reduction in perioperative risk) and long-term (reduction in tobacco-related diseases) benefits to their patients who are its victims. Receiving surgery is one of the most powerful stimuli to quit tobacco. Tobacco treatments that combine counseling and pharmacotherapy (e.g., nicotine replacement therapy) can further increase quit rates and reduce risk of morbidity such as pulmonary and wound-related complications. The perioperative setting provides a great opportunity to implement multimodal perianesthesia tobacco treatment, which combines multiple evidence-based tactics to implement the four core components of consistent ascertainment and documentation of tobacco use, advice to quit, access to pharmacotherapy, and referral to counseling resources.
BACKGROUND Although smoking is associated with several postoperative complications, a possible association with surgical bleeding remains unclear. We examined if smoking is associated with a higher risk of surgical bleeding. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We included patients from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2007‐2016 from 680 hospitals across the United States. Patients with information on age, sex, surgical specialty, and smoking status were included. Surgical bleeding was defined as 1 or more red blood cell (RBC) units transfused intraoperatively to 72 hours postoperatively. The association between smoking and surgical bleeding was examined using logistic regressions adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, comorbidities, laboratory values, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, type of anesthesia, duration of surgery, work relative value unit (surrogate for operative complexity), surgical specialty, and procedure year. RESULTS A total of 5,452,411 cases were recorded, of whom 19% smoked and 6% received transfusion. Odds ratios for transfusion were 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05‐1.07) for smokers versus nonsmokers and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.04‐1.09) for current smokers versus never‐smokers. Odds ratios for cumulative smoking were 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95‐1.00) for greater than 0 to 20 versus 0 pack‐years, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01‐1.07) for greater than 20 to 40, and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.09‐1.15) for greater than 40 (p for trend < 0.001). Hazard ratios for reoperations due to any cause and to bleeding were 1.28 (95% CI, 1.27‐1.31) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.93‐1.04). CONCLUSION Smoking was associated with a higher risk of RBC transfusion as a proxy for surgical bleeding across all surgical specialties combined.
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