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Elements of Hard Landscape Design and New Approaches on Their Use

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Research Article Kastamonu Uni., Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 2018, 18 (3): 327-340
Kastamonu Univ., Journal of Forestry Faculty
Doi:10.17475/kastorman.349918
327
Elements of Hard Landscape Design and New Approaches on Their
Use1
Esra ŞENTÜRK*, T. Hakan ALTINÇEKİÇ
Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Program of Landscape Architecture, Department of
Landscape Planning and Design, Bahcekoy/Istanbul
*Corresponding author: esrasntrk28@gmail.com
Received Date: 07.11.2017 Accepted Date: 16.11.2018
Abstract
Aim of study: The objective of the research is classification of hard landscape design materials and
reveal the new approaches in their usage.
Area of study: This study was conducted in different cities of Europe, Turkey and America.
Material and Methods: First stage of the study method consists of determination of the research
subject and its areas. Subsequently literature research was carried out and studies conducted within our
country and abroad were examined. After sufficient information was obtained, it was proceeded to field
work. At this stage, hard landscape design elements were examined and photographed from different
cities Europe, Turkey and America to determine the new approaches in current usage.
Main results: It is observed, in line with the evaluations made, that hard landscape designers can
respond to contemporary approaches, new expectations and applications and are intertwined with other
disciplines such as natural and social sciences as well as technical, visual, artistic and architectural,
disciplines compared to the past.
Research highlights: It has been tried to bring new offers as regards the usage of hard landscape
elements in landscape design work to be carried out in Turkey. Moreover, ecological use (selection of
light colored materials, usage as to water saving and etc.) in addition to their functional and aesthetic
usage possibilities have also been included.
Keywords: Elements of hard landscape design, horizontal elements, vertical elements, landscape
design
Sert Peyzaj Tasarım Elemanları ve Kullanımlarındaki Yeni
Yaklaşımlar
Öz Çalışmanın amacı: Sert peyzaj tasarım elemanlarının sınıflandırılması ve kullanımlarındaki yeni
yaklaşımları ortaya koymaktır.
Çalışma alanı: Bu çalışma Avrupa, Türkiye ve Amerika'nın farklı şehirlerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir.
Materyal ve Yöntem: Çalışma yönteminin ilk aşamasını araştırma konusunun ve alanlarının
belirlenmesi oluşturmaktadır. Ardından literatür araştırması yapılmış, konu ile ilgili yurt içinde ve dışında
yapılan çalışmalar incelenmiştir. Yeterli bilgiler elde edildikten sonra arazi çalışmasına geçilmiştir.
Güncel kullanımlarındaki yeni yaklaşımları belirlemek amacıyla Avrupa, Amerika ve Türkiye’den
değişik kentlerde görsel saptamalar yapılmış ve sunulmaya çalışılmıştır.
Temel Sonuçlar: Yapılan değerlendirmelerde sert peyzaj tasarım elemanlarının çağdaş yaklaşımlara,
yeni beklentilere ve uygulamalara cevap verebildiği, geçmişe oranla doğal ve sosyal bilimlerle, teknik,
görsel, sanatsal ve mimari gibi diğer disiplinlerle iç içe olduğu görülmektedir.
Araştırma vurguları: Türkiye’de yapılacak peyzaj tasarım çalışmalarında, sert peyzaj elemanlarının
kullanımına yeni öneriler getirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca fonksiyonel ve estetik kullanım olanaklarına ek
olarak ekolojik kullanımlarına da (açık renkli malzeme seçimi, su tasarrufuna yönelik kullanımları, vb.)
yer verilmiştir.
Anahtar kelimeler: Sert peyzaj tasarım elemanları, yatay elemanlar, düşey elemanlar, peyzaj tasarımı
This article is based on a master's thesis submitted by Esra ŞENTÜRK to the Department of Landscape Planning and
Design at İstanbul University Institute of Graduate Studies in Science and Engineering. Prof. Dr. T. Hakan
ALTINÇEKİÇ served as thesis supervisor.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
License.
Citation (Atıf): Şentürk, E. & Altınçekiç, T. H. (2018). Elements
of hard landscape design and new approaches on their use.
Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty, 18 (3),
327-340.
Kastamonu Uni., Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 2018, 18 (3): 327-340 Şentürk and Altınçekiç
Kastamonu Univ., Journal of Forestry Faculty
328
Introduction
Humans have been primarily involved in
activities related to earth subsequent to
passing to sedentary life with a view to meet
their fundamental requirements such as
provision of shelter and food. Over time,
humans have created gardens in line with
cultural and sociological developments with
the desire of enjoying the areas they live in
and turned their involvement with earth
into art (Akdoğan, 1974).
Landscape design elements have
been classified as soft and hard landscape
design elements and subsequently
dimensions of these elements have reached
urban scales from small scales such as house
gardens while it is also observed in contrast
that vertical garden systems are also utilized
in our houses as in the form of terrariums or
in other words miniature gardens. This
situation comprising different subjects and
scales indicates the versatility of landscape
design elements. This study reveals the fact
that hard landscape design elements have a
significant place in terms of providing a
positive contribution in terms of improving
the visual quality of the environment,
creation of more livable places and
development of urban identity.
Classification of hard landscape design
elements and examination of hard landscape
design elements in terms of quality and usage
have been made primarily in this study.
Furthermore, new approaches in current use
have also been photographed at their places
of application and presented in addition to
classic understanding of usage in landscape
design. Ecological uses (selection of light
colored materials, usage related to saving
water and etc.) as well as functional and
aesthetic usage possibilities have also been
included.
New proposals as regards the utilization
of hard landscape design elements in
landscape design works to be carried out in
Turkey have been tried to be brought forward
as a consequence of the study.
Hard landscape, to put it simply, denotes
bricks, flooring plates, wooden fences, metal
railings, structures and all other non-living
outdoor landscape elements (Blake, 2015).
Albeit their contribution to the visual
quality of the environment as well as their
significance in terms of maintenance and
resistance in the long run, hard landscape
design elements are mostly considered as a
concept to be included later in the design
process and are not given the importance
they deserve. Significance of hard floor
landscape within the urban context and urban
furniture within the use of public should be
highlighted with principles. These principles
should be in compliance with the content in
design plans, their functions should be
fulfilled as required, their social usage should
be supported and cleaning, maintenance and
moving of these materials should be easy and
their connection parts should be used. It
should also be noted that material quality of
hard landscape design elements is an
important issue. Much as high quality
products are obviously more expensive than
standard products their being long-lasting as
well as their low maintenance costs close the
cited gap (Punter and Carmona, 2011).
While plants have a significant emphasis
in landscape design works, hard landscape
design elements also have an important
effect. Hard landscape design elements
provide entertainment and recreation thereby
increasing open space possibilities. Hard
landscape design elements also provide a
focal point within the landscape and solve
secrecy and security issues. A good
planned hard landscape design ensures a
more livable and easy maintainable
landscape. A good selected and established
hard landscape elements help to increase the
value of the land (Sagers, 2005).
Several factors should be considered
while selecting hard landscape
materials. These factors include the
following:
Fitness for content: Materials should
contribute to the feature of local
distinctiveness and must complete the
appearance of the environment.
Fitness for purpose: Materials should be
designed in a way to meet requirements.
Sustainability: Materials should be selected
and built in a way to minimize need for
maintenance in future. Repair
and replacement requirements should be
taken into account during selection and
building.
Work quality: Work quality must be applied
Kastamonu Uni., Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 2018, 18 (3): 327-340 Şentürk and Altınçekiç
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at the highest standards. Otherwise, high
quality materials can be broken or worn out
quickly.
General construction costs: Material costs
and required expenditures must be taken into
consideration.
Environmental effect: Production sources
of materials and energy effects, their use and
recycling are also issues
which require attention. (Landscape SPD,
2011).
When we observe classification of hard
landscape elements we see that there are
various classifications. Some of them are
listed below:
According to Başer (2002) the
classification of hard landscape elements is
made as flooring elements, accessory
elements, water elements and rocks.
Hard landscape elements (artificial
landscape design elements) are classified as
base elements, limitation and containment
elements, water elements and accessory
elements (city furniture) according to Genç
(2006).
According to Shakouri (2010) hard
landscape elements (Structural Elements
Used in Landscape) are classified as floor
elements, vertical elements, cover elements
and accessory elements.
According to Bird (2014) the
classification of hard landscape elements is
made as horizontal elements and vertical
elements.
According to Yıldızcı (2001), city
furniture is classified as follows in line with
their functions:
1. Floor coverings (concrete, stone, wood,
asphalt, brick and etc.),
2. Sitting units (benches, chairs, seating
components group),
3. Lighting elements (way illuminators, field
illuminators),
4. Signs and information plates (guides, place
indicators, information communication
panels),
5. Bollard sand (deterrents, bollards
, pedestrian barriers, traffic barriers, etc.),
6. Water elements (ornamental ponds,
fountains, pumps, ducts, fire taps and etc.),
7. Shelter items (bus-stops, shades, pergolas),
8. Sales units (kiosks, exhibition pavilions,
buffets etc.),
9. Art objects (statues),
10. Other items (flag poles, trash cans, mail
boxes, public toilets, flower beds,
ticket vending machines, bicycle parking
racks, park meters, vegetal items).
As is seen, because all the classifications
made for hard landscape design elements
cover completely urban furniture, it was
considered based on the classification made
by Bird (2014) that it would be more
appropriate to classify the hard landscape
design elements as horizontal elements and
vertical elements which would also be
compliant with all the works carried out in
the recent years.
Horizontal Elements
Design studies in landscape architecture
works begin with horizontal elements namely
the floor elements which are considered to be
the first and basic element of space.
Vertical Elements
Vertical elements include a building, a
pot, a sculpture or an attractive tree. If there
is nothing to be focused on, your eye
wanders aimlessly and the "picture" becomes
meaningless (Alexander, 2009). As such,
vertical elements have more visuality than
horizontal elements unarguably. Vertical
elements have been classified as
lighting units, signs and information plates,
sitting units, bollards, water element, shelter
items, sales units, artistic objects, playground
elements and other elements.
Qualifications and Usage of Hard
Landscape Design Elements
It will not be the right choice to use the
same hard landscape design elements in a
small scale landscape project and urban scale
landscape project. Each material and design
element must be suitable and fit for the
feature of the place where the landscape
project will be made.
Qualities and functions of hard landscape
design elements are as follows:
-They create connections between the
gardens, houses and buildings,
-They surround the space and give a meaning
to the space and create privacy and
comfort. They also provide safety
-They provide vehicle and pedestrian entry of
Kastamonu Uni., Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 2018, 18 (3): 327-340 Şentürk and Altınçekiç
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circulation in some areas while they prevent
vehicles and pedestrians,
-They create integrity with the environment
they are placed in terms of aesthetic,
appearance and function so that when they
are designed they provide an aesthetic look
instead of a disorganized look,
-They provide a versatile combination. For
example: traffic plates, traffic lights, barriers
and lighting elements can be combined with
each other,
-Floor differences, ramps, audible traffic
lamps and etc. provide support to disabled
people,
-Furthermore, it should be noted that they
need maintenance because they reflect the
sun's rays and usually cause reflections.
Moreover, there are some issues to be
considered in the hard landscape design.
They are as follows:
1) Usage of brick different forms in and
contrasting textures as well as the use of
creative floor works such as terrazzo,
mosaics, contemporary art or handicrafts and
etc.,
2) Fixation of large, flat flags, paving stones
and stones used in vehicle roads,
3) Usage of metal railings or
metal fences reduce the risk of attack
compared to walls and wooden fences,
4) Provision of access to everywhere
(provision of level changes by virtue of steps,
ramps and handrails, use of flooring material
suitable for wheels and considering the
widths and etc.),
5) Choosing the place of hard landscape
design elements (for example: banks must
provide options according to change of air
conditions like in sunny, shaded or enclosed
areas),
6) Fixed, strong, durable and non-slip
surfaces must be used to ensure safety,
7) Use of lighting which highlights hard and
soft landscape details but avoidance of
creating deep shadows,
8) Provision of drainage to reduce the flow at
the surface level (Punter and Carmona,
2011).
Material and Methods
The subject of the research is
classification of hard landscape design
elements and revealing new approaches in
their usage. Studies conducted as regards the
subject were examined firstly with a view to
make this classification. Subsequently, visual
detections were made in different cities in
Europe and America to determine the new
approaches in current usage. The examples
we examined in the detections comprise
photographs taken from the places we
examined. The examples in cities within our
country and abroad specified in terms of
functional, aesthetic and ecological use of
hard landscape design elements were utilized
as material. First stage of the study method
consists of determination of the research
subject and its areas. Subsequently literature
research was carried out and studies
conducted within our country and abroad
were examined. After sufficient information
was obtained, it was proceeded to field work.
At this stage, hard landscape design elements
were examined and photographed from cities
abroad such as Vienna (Austria), Prague
(Czech Republic), Budapest (Hungary),
Bratislava (Slovakia), Chicago (United
States), Southampton (England),
Bournemouth (England), Brighton
(England), Bristol (England), London
(England), New Forest (England), Oxford
(England), Portsmouth (England), Salisbury
(England), Winchester(England),
Amsterdam(Netherlands), Den Haag
(Netherlands), Wageningen (the
Netherlands), s-Hertogenbosch
(Netherlands), Liége (Belgium),Florence
(Italy), Nessebar (Bulgaria), Varna(Bulgaria)
and various cities within our
country (Istanbul, Hatay, Eskişehir,
Bozcaada). In the light of all these data, the
evaluation of the quality and use of hard
landscape design elements was performed in
line with the purposes of the research. At the
end of the study new proposals as to the use
of hard landscape design elements in
landscape design works to be carried out
within our country were brought in line with
approaches in the world (Figure 1).
Kastamonu Uni., Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 2018, 18 (3): 327-340 Şentürk and Altınçekiç
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Figure 1. Stages of the study
Results
This part includes the findings and
detectionsobtained subsequent to literature
and field study and providing the data related
to the subject within the scope of the study.
Classical Usage Approach in Hard
Landscape Design Elements
Space denotes limited spaces. Space is
loaded with emotions, expectations and
aspirations and gain a meaning in the process
of its being experienced (Sancak, 2009). The
spaces exist as long as they can be perceived
by people. Perception occurs by touching and
smelling but primarily by senses of hearing
and seeing. In other words, all of our sense
organs provide us with information as to the
places we live in.
We make the classification of architectural
space and natural space according to the
difference of the items which restrict the
space. If these items include the walls,
ceilings and floors, pillars, columns and
beams then we classify this space as an
architectural space. If these items include the
earth, sky, horizon, bushes, trees and clouds
then we classify this space as natural space
made by nature. Urban spaces which are the
special situation of architectural space or
natural and architectural space are limited
with streets, buildings or green areas, trees
and etc. with them (Altan, 1992).
Landscape architecture targets discipline
and creation of aesthetic and functional spaces
which at the same time are compatible with
humans and nature. Ensuring the comfort of
the city and facilitation of human life in terms
of functional, aesthetic and psychological
aspects can be realized by designing of all
kinds of materials, equipments and plants
used in the city according to anthropometric
measures. A person is in continuous
interaction with the landscape elements
around him in the city where he lives. He
walks on sidewalks, sits on benches, uses bus
stops and garbage cans and signs as well as
utilizing directional plates and plants (Bilen,
2004).
User requirements in urban open spaces
include experiences and activities which
people think they like and it may vary from a
comfortable entry which will allow them to
enter the field easily to functions that will
make them have a good time in an active or
passive way. When an open space design is
applied without considering these
requirements well it is inevitable that there
will be conflicts between the users and the
space and the limited use of the space will
lead to loss. The most important requirement
in creation and maintenance of an open space
in a successful way is to ensure people’s
utilization and enjoyment. Previous studies
carried out on urban open space like parks and
squares have revealed the fact that the
prerequisite for a successful space is based on
providing the basic requirements of people
(İnan, 2008).
Current Usage Approaches of Hard
Landscape Design Elements
When we examine the current use of hard
landscape design elements, we see they are
very different from the past. Fifty years ago
hard landscape design elements consisted of
limited materials such as walls, floors, pools
and sculptures while in our day hard
landscape design elements sometimes become
a focal point or an artistic object or design
thanks to the advantage of structural material
diversity with economic, environmentalist,
modern and other similar features. Most of the
time, the materials we know are experienced
in different roles.
This phase of the study is not related with
a city and it has been planned to select more
than one city and country in order to be able
to examine influential and different hard
landscape design elements, design disciplines,
cultures, user behaviors and similar behaviors.
Selected cities and countries have features
such as being traditional, touristic and
residential cities and countries in addition to
their features as to nature. Current usage
approaches of hard landscape design elements
Determination of Study Field
and Areas
Literature Research
Field Work
Evaluation of Research Areas
Relation with the Subject
Bringing Proposals Related
to Current Use
Kastamonu Uni., Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 2018, 18 (3): 327-340 Şentürk and Altınçekiç
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in United States, Europe and Turkey have
been examined in a comprehensive manner as
horizontal elements (floor elements) and
vertical elements and some examples have
been included in summary below in this
study.
Examination of Examples from Europe
and the United States of America
We can explain the current examples from
Europe and the United States of America as
regards research subject as follows:
Permeable flooring materials which allow
rainwater to drain are used in parking lots in
our day in which environmental awareness is
gradually increasing (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Permeable gravel filled parking lot
of Bristol & Bath Science Park in
conformance with the principles of SuDS for
200 cars (Gravel-filled porous car parking,
2016)
Reduction of the heat island effect in the
cities with high reflectance value (with high
albedo) floor surfaces and minimized hard
surfaces (Figure 3).
Figure 3: Emerald Cities "cool pavement
coatings" reflecting the sun and "cold slurry
seal" which are cold bituminous mortar
coatings, first examples of which were
observed in Phoenix Arizona, decrease
asphalt surface temperature to -6 ° to 4 ° and
provide CO2 rate ate high temperatures
(Emerald Cities Cool Pavement, 2016)
In squares where the soil does not allow
plant growth or where there is not enough
soil, there are solutions by usage of the
flooring elements like giant pots which can
take plant roots inside on the pavements and
which are aesthetic at the same time (Figure
4, Figure 5)
Figure 4: Pedestrianized street of
Hundertwasser House, Vienna which attracts
many tourists (Photo: Altınçekiç, 2015)
Figure 5: A similar example of application on
a sidewalk in London Wall region where
pedestrian traffic and the number of tourists is
quite intensive, London (Photo: Şentürk,
2014)
Mulch applications which have began to
be frequently seen in squares, terraces
and even walking trails (Figure 6).
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Figure 6: Example of Place de la Cathédrale,
Liege (Photo: Şentürk, 2015)
Bicycle ramp applications are used to
move bicycles up or down the stairs located
near subways, train stations or open spaces in
cities where bicycles are used extensively
(Figure 7).
Figure 7: An example of a bike ramp in
Westlangracht, Amsterdam (Photo: Şentürk,
2015)
It is given importance to give aesthetic
function to stairs to bring activity to the place
besides their functional characteristics in
urban outdoor spaces (Figure 8).
Figure 8: An example of stairs used for sitting
outside its main function, Chicago (Photo:
Altınçekiç, 2010)
There are applications in various cities of
Europe and America as regards the usage of
hard floors with concrete or different ground
which serve as ornamental pool or for
different recreational purposes in the summer
and for ice skating in the winter (Figure 9).
Figure 9: McCormick Tribune Plaza in
Chicago. The picture above was taken in
winter where it is used as the ice-skating rink
(Ice Skating in Chicago’s Millenium Park,
2011) while the picture below was taken in
summer (McCormick Tribune Plaza & Ice
Rink, 2008)
The sitting units which are designed, in
addition to considering their function, by
taking into account their aesthetic properties
like the natural or artificial materials used and
their color and shape (Figure 10).
Figure 10: Sitting units compatible with
lighting and garbage containers made of pink
color and metal material contrasting with
green and gray, Amsterdam (Şentürk, 2015)
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Designs of sitting units are made with
original, aesthetic and versatile usability
features making positive contributions to
urban aesthetics and identity in addition to
their sitting function (Figure 11).
Figure 11: Versatile sitting units on which
tired people can comfortably rest, Vienna
(Photo: Altınçekiç, 2015)
Integration of technological developments
with urban furniture (Figure 12).
Figure 12: Solar powered palm tree (Robarts,
2015) in Dubai which provides wi-fi, by
which phones and tablets can be charged,
weather and sea conditions can be learned and
which can be used as night lighting (Robarts,
2015).
Bollards, which are compatible with
material and design of the texture of the area
where they are used, have been used for
protecting people, trees, structures from
moving vehicles in areas where there is
intensive vehicle traffic or traffic is dangerous
and for separating spaces from each other
(Figures 13, 14).
Figure 13: Examples of bollards compatible
with architecture of the Hundertwasser
house, Vienna (Photo: Altınçekiç, 2015)
Figure 14: Examples of gabion walls which
we recently see often in our day, Den Haag
(Photo: Şentürk, 2015)
As in all hard landscape design elements,
feature of being aesthetic and functional is
also an important issue in water elements.
Aesthetic practices which do not have bad
appearance when water does not flow or when
there is no water are applied (Figure 15).
Figure 15: Examples of water elements made
with humoristic approach. Den Haag (Photo:
Şentürk, 2015)
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We observe sales units in the form of
booths, newspaper sales elements, sales and
rental kiosks, ATMs and modular cabin units
at places where pedestrian circulation is
intense (Figure 16).
Figure 16: Paper House in Royal Borough,
Sloane Square, and Earl's Court made by
Heatherwick Studio, London (Photo: Senturk,
2015)
Application of artistic objects, which
increases the visual value of landscape,
renders design more effective and
perceptible, meets psychological and
sociological requirements of users and are
used as hard landscape design elements have
begun (Figure 17,18).
Figure 17: The Watcher 'Man at Work’
sculpture which has become one of the
symbols of Bratislava (Photo: Altınçekiç,
2015)
Figure 18: Chicago's world-famous
digital public art collection where
social inclusion is not disregarded (Untitled,
Millennium park led screen, 2016)
Applications of contemporary children's
playgrounds are made increasingly instead of
conventional playing elements (Figure 19).
Figure 19: Examples from Bijlmerpark with
an area of 8400 m2, Amsterdam (Hi-design
International Publishing, 2014)
Applications of bicycle parking elements
designed to ensure bicycle users to easily park
their bicycles are often seen in line with the
increase in bicycle rental places (Figure 20).
Figure 20: Bicycle parking elements which
have began to be used in residential areas in
London (London Cycling Campaign, 2013)
Kastamonu Uni., Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 2018, 18 (3): 327-340 Şentürk and Altınçekiç
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City gates which are in the form of plates,
signs, sculptures or door frames in appearance
and architecture have begun to give identity
to urban spaces due to their location both at
entrance or exit of streets and at entrance or
exit of cities (Fig. 21).
Figure 21: The door frame at the entrance
of Chinatown in Soho district one the one
hand indicates the location and on the other
hand surrounds the street (Bathe, 2012)
Pantomime artists performance as
living statues on the urban squares or designs
and practices that attract the attention of
tourists can be given as current examples
(Figure 22).
Figure 22: An example of a street artist in the
streets of Prague (Photo: Altınçekiç, 2015)
Examination of examples from Turkey
We can show the current examples of hard
landscape design elements used in parks,
green spaces, squares and similar areas made
in Turkey related to the subject of the study at
this stage as follows:
Applications made with sustainable landscape
elements instead of asphalt are recently
observed in the parking lots (Figure 23).
Figure 23: Live green grass Ecogrid paving
of parking lot with protection for grass used
in Yenikapı City Park rally site (Ecological
ground, 2016)
The idea of creating an artificial beach
with real sea sand in order to meet the beach
requirement of people who cannot go to
holiday which has started in important city
centers like Milan and Paris in Europe has
been in service in Kentpark of Eskişehir
province in Turkey since 2008 (Figure 24).
Figure 24: A view from Turkey's first
artificial beach created by using real sea sand,
Eskişehir (Photo: Altınçekiç, 2015).
Unique, aesthetic and versatile designs
providing positive contributions to urban
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aesthetics and urban identity, in addition to
their sitting function, have started to be
applied (Figure 25).
Figure 25: Sitting units designed in Sıshane
Park (Sıshane Park, 2014)
Sheltering items providing shadow, rain
protection, rest and passive recreation
possibilities give aesthetic properties to the
areas where they are located (Figure 26).
Figure 26: Examples of sheltering items for
children's playground, Sultanbeyli Pond Park
(Photo: Şentürk, 2015)
Artistic object applications, used as hard
landscape design elements, making design
more effective and perceptible and meeting
psychological and sociological requirements
of users increase the visual value of the
landscape (Figs. 27, 28).
Figure 27: Examples of art objects in the 60th
Year Park of Göztepe district (Göztepe 60th
Year Park, 2016)
Figure 28: An example in a street of Eskişehir
province (Photo: Altınçekiç, 2016)
Applications of contemporary children's
playgrounds instead of conventional playing
elements increase each and every day (Figure
29).
Figure 29: Examples from the children's
playground at Zorlu Center (Zorlu Playground
Carve Landscape Architecture, 2014)
Kastamonu Uni., Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 2018, 18 (3): 327-340 Şentürk and Altınçekiç
Kastamonu Univ., Journal of Forestry Faculty
338
Flowerpot applications, made by recycled
materials providing positive contributions to
street art. (Figure 30).
Figure 30: Examples from the Streets of
Bozcaada district (Photo: Altınçekiç, 2015)
City gates which are becoming
increasingly common have begun to give
identity to urban spaces due to their location
both at entrance or exit of streets and at
entrance or exit of cities (Fig. 31).
Figure 31: An example of city gate in Balık
pazarı (Fish market) district of Istanbul
(Photo: Şentürk, 2015).
Designs which attract the attention of
people and tourists are made in areas such as
urban squares, streets and parks (Figure 32).
Figure 32: A caftan (a man's long belted tunic,
worn in countries of the Near East.) in
Gülhane Park for taking photos by placing
your head and arms on it, Istanbul (Photo:
Şentürk, 2016)
The street art called moss graffiti or
green graffiti combining plants in the urban
environment without damaging with hard
landscape design elements and making them
more visible can be given as current examples
as to the subject of research from our country
(Figure 33).
Figure 33: An example of wall with moss
graffiti in Bozcaada island (Photo: Altınçekiç,
2015)
Discussion and Conclusion
Hard landscape design elements both
establish the connection between nature and
people and the connection between streets and
people. Approaches as to information, designs
and experiences transferred from the past as
to landscaping has changed due to rising of
living standards in the recent years and this
case has also changed the expectations from
hard landscape design elements. On the other
hand factors such as decrease in green spaces
in line with the high amounts of concrete
usage in cities and climate changes have
caused the emergence of ecological and
sustainable design approaches as regards hard
landscape design elements to contribute to the
ecosystem of the city. It is seen that some
hard landscape design elements designed and
used in our country pace with new
developments and we can list new proposals
which can contribute to the use of hard
landscape design elements in addition to these
developments as follows:
Hard landscape design elements should be
designed by considering energy efficient
landscaping and arid landscape approach. It is
Kastamonu Uni., Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 2018, 18 (3): 327-340 Şentürk and Altınçekiç
Kastamonu Univ., Journal of Forestry Faculty
339
necessary to increase the utilization of
permeable surfaces for saving water as an
alternative to standard flooring materials, in
pedestrianized ways and areas which will not
affect groundwater in a negative way. Water
accumulation on the surfaces will be
prevented by the utilization of permeable
surfaces and feeding of groundwater will be
ensured through leakage or storage. Low
border applications, which are also made
within the context of rain water management,
create a remarkable design opportunity in the
field which is applied by their similarity to
pots due the usage of grids in addition to the
ecological benefits provided thereby.
Use of high-albedo material should be
given importance in order to prevent or
reduce the effect of formation of urban heat
island effect. Furthermore, it has been
revealed that use of light colored materials
leads to savings in night lighting.
It is necessary to ensure the re-use of
materials and stuff in the area in an
arrangement made for the area.
It should be started to make applications
such as the use of modular hard landscape
design elements such as recycled aggregate,
concrete, lock paving stone or narrowing of
traffic routes in order to reduce material
consumption.
Priority should be given to the
construction of separate lanes for public
transport vehicles and bicycle lanes with a
view to reduce energy consumption.
Furthermore, it is also important to give
importance to the consumption of electricity
which has very high cost. Lamps with less
consumption and solar-powered lighting
elements should be preferred.
Policies as to the use of recycled garbage
bins, raising awareness in people and
participation of the people should be followed
in order to create a healthy environment with
hard landscaping elements.
More attractive maintenance covers with a
specific standardization and size symbolizing
the city in which they are placed or its history
should be used in historical, touristic and
official areas in Turkey like abroad.
“Design flexibility” should be prioritized
in design of hard landscape design elements
and designs which can adapt to conditions
that may change in the future should be made.
General conclusions as to new approaches in
hard landscape design elements and their use
can be listed as follows:
It is observed that the arid landscape
understanding, which is one of the new
approaches, is adapted to hard landscape
design elements due to excessive increase of
hard surfaces in urban areas. We see that
permeable flooring is preferred, rain gardens
are made and drainage systems are combined
with curbs and grass plate stones in many
cities of the world. Similar implementations
should be realized urgently in our country.
Differences were created in guide roads
with different colors and textures in entering
and existing settlements from vehicle roads, at
the intersections without traffic signs, on
pedestrian passing zones, in traffic speed
cutter applications, in the pedestrianized roads
and parking lots for visually impaired people.
In addition to the use of embossed stones as a
guide road for individuals with disabilities, it
should be given importance to use of them as
a danger warning in dangerous places for all
users.
Efforts should be made to apply and
increase flexibility in design, sustainable and
ecological designs, universal and
unobstructed designs, and designs created by
public participation as well as human-focused
designs.
The use of hard landscape design
elements which are in harmony with each
other and with the historic buildings and
structures that exist in historical places and
which reflect the history, culture and
traditions as well as the history of the area
should be emphasized.
Applications such as the use of low-energy
lighting (LED) or solar photovoltaic systems
to reduce energy consumption, as well as
combining traffic signs, lighting, flowerpots,
billboards and etc. on the same pole must be
realized since this will require fewer
infrastructures and prevent bad appearance.
As a result, the following factors have a
significant effect on design of hard landscape
design elements of our day: geography and
climatic conditions, history, culture,
traditions, people's lifestyle and behaviors,
developing technology and changing cultures
in line with it and the ecological situation of
the world.
Kastamonu Uni., Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 2018, 18 (3): 327-340 Şentürk and Altınçekiç
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340
Approaches in the use of hard landscape
design elements seen in cities of developed
countries must be applied in a widespread
way in our entire country like they are
especially applied in İstanbul and Eskişehir.
Only in this way, hard landscape design
elements can be functional, aesthetic and
ecological and provide the comfort of the
users, contribute to the urban identity and
respect the nature.
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