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... Another characteristic of contemporary academia is a focus on accountability [5,6], which is manifested in the implementation of quality assessment schemes [7]. Research shows that, in different geo-linguistic contexts, scholars' promotions, career opportunities, and rewards depend on their publication efficiency [8][9][10]. ...
... Other researchers warn that policies to reward publications in top journals in English work against scholars who are committed to sharing knowledge with the local community in the local language [25,26]. These concerns are supported by many studies of research writing practices by multilingual speakers in non-Anglophone countries [5,18,27]. ...
... Lower quality of publications in Russian, lack of publication venues in the local language, and lack of readership, mentioned by the interviewees, may be regarded as the consequences of such policies. A low value of publications in local languages, as previous studies have shown, is a common trend in many non-Anglophone countries [5,18,[25][26][27]. ...
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This paper reports on the study of multilingual speakers’ perception of their research writing practices in English and in their local language—Russian—and the publication process in English. It is based on interviews with 18 scholars from social sciences and humanities working in a leading university in Russia. The study discusses social factors influencing multilingual scholars’ choice of languages as well as their personal motivation to choose English as the main language of publication. Special attention is given to their attitude to proofreading as part of the publication process. The interview results suggest that, from the participants’ perspective, the benefits they gain by publishing research in English seem to outweigh costs they experience in the process of writing and publishing. The study contributes to the on-going debate about the position of multilingual scholars in the competition to publish in top-rated journals, suggesting that the traditional doctrine of linguistic injustice, from the participants’ point-of-view, does not seem to be relevant for every multilingual scholar.
... El inglés se considera la lingua franca en la mayoría de las disciplinas (Salö 2017;Debatin et al, 2019;Hultgren, 2019;Dippold et al, 2019) y esto es un gran reto formativo para los estudiantes mexicanos y en general, para todos los que no tienen inglés como lengua materna (L1), pues se configuran en una doble complejidad: la complejidad del lenguaje y la complejidad del contenido (Bailey, Maher & Wilkinson2018) pues no se trata del dominio del inglés, sino de un inglés específico, lo que obliga a reconocer el señalamiento de Stoller & Robinson (2014) respecto a que la variación lingüística existe no solo a través de disciplinas, profesiones u ocupaciones sino dentro de los géneros que se manejan en ellos. ...
... Los principales resultados fueron que el inglés es la segunda lengua que debería solicitarse (73.14%), no es sorpresivo que sea la lengua más mencionada para la formación de investigadores; primeramente, porque al ser México un país no anglófono y en la vecindad del más poderoso país anglófono, el inglés se valora altamente socialmente, como ocurre en otros países no anglófonos (Ke & Cahyani, 2014) y existe una gran influencia cultural y pragmática para dominarlo. en segundo lugar, porque es innegable que, en la ciencia, la gran mayoría de las publicaciones indizadas en journals y bases de datos reconocidas (web of science, Scopus) están escritas en inglés (Yu, Su & Xiao, 2018) lo que ha convertido a esta lengua en la lingua franca de la ciencia, la tecnología, y los negocios (Debatin et al, 2019;Hultgren, 2019;Salö, 2017). ...
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About the STEAM proposal, there is no doubt that post-grade is the par excellence niche of science and technology. The linguistic abilities of talent formed in such level, so much in maternal language (L1) as in a second language (L2), are fundamental. Especially in L2, there is few discussions with respect to which language this should be, and why. This paper presents a response to such questions, supported by 351 questionnaires applied (231 students, 83 researchers, 11 post-grade program coordinators, 13 executives, 12 were not responded). Women represented 56.28 % of the respondents, mean age of 34.41 years (standard deviation of11.11, minimum 22 and maximum 70 years of age). The author found that English was the primary L2 that should be required (73.14%), followed by French (7.4%), Chinese (4.9%), Portuguese (4.3%), and native languages, including náhuatl, (3%). The three main reasons of a second language were in decreasing order: access to scientific information, international publication of results, and worldwide events attendance, revealing the instrumentality of English. From this classification, the hierarchical order of promotion and requirement of L2 should be reading comprehension, writing, and finally, oral production and listening comprehension.
... Whereas the praxis for doing and valuing research in political science have largely adapted to what is framed as 'international standards,' Swedish scholars in history have only recently begun to adapt to this trend. As a consequence, the current praxis for doing and valuing research in history has been described as in flux (Salö 2017). ...
... According to Salö (2017), the current changes in publication and evaluation practices within the field of history in Sweden open up for junior scholars to invest differently than their senior peers. This is supported by the findings in this study. ...
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There is a lack of objective evaluative standards for academic work. While this has been recognized in studies of how gatekeepers pass judgment on the works of others, little is known about how scholars deal with the uncertainty about how their work will be evaluated by gatekeepers. Building upon 35 interviews with early career academics in political science and history, this paper explores how junior scholars use appraisal devices to navigate this kind of uncertainty. Appraisal devices offer trusted and knowledgeable appraisals through which scholars are informed whether their work and they themselves are good enough to succeed in academia. Investigating how early career academics rely upon appraisals from assessors (i.e., 'academic mentors'), the study adds to existing literature on uncertainty and worth in academic life by drawing attention to how scholars' anticipatory practices are informed by trusting the judgment of others. The empirical analysis demonstrates that early career academics are confronted with multiple and conflicting appraisals that they must interpret and differentiate between. However, the institutional conditions for dealing with uncertainty about what counts in future evaluations , as well as which individuals generally come to function as assessors, differ between political science and history. This has an impact on both valuation practices and socialization structures. Focusing on what I call practices of appraisal devices, the paper provides a conceptual understanding of how scholars cope with uncertainties about their future. Furthermore, it expands existing theory by demonstrating how scholars' self-concept and desired identities are key to the reflexive ways appraisal devices are used in the course of action.
... In fact, the spread of English as a global language is a major consequence of globalization (Crystal, 2000), which acts as a "driving force to strengthen" this position (Chang, 2006, p. 515), and has succeeded in introducing English to the world as official, foreign, and second language as well as the lingua franca (Salö, 2017). The evidence that English has achieved the unrivaled status of global language (Pennycook, 2007;Park & Wee, 2012) is the reality that "only onefourth of all English users worldwide are native speakers, and most non-native speakers using English do so in the absence of native speakers" (Seidlhofer, 2011, p.1). ...
... Phillipson (2008, p. 4) points out that "global English" seems to be an appropriate term since English is widely used in the "global linguistic market" and its purpose is becoming "the dominant language of international communication in an increasing number of countries worldwide," which itself results in the extinction of many languages (Crystal, 2000). In other words, the value of national languages declines in transnational communications, to the extent that the global language prevails (Salö, 2017). In a nutshell, opponents of English globalization, hold that English language growth is a policy which intends to destroy the smaller languages in the world, to homogenize the world culture, and to inject the beliefs, dispositions, values, and practices of English native speakers to the communities of English users (Bhatt, 2010). ...
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Language marginalization is one of the main concerns of many nations. Several driving forces may endanger indigenous languages including globalization, hegemonic ambitions such as colonialism, and the lack of proper language planning and policy at national and international levels. This research is an ethnographic study to explore the status of Persian compared to English among the members of an Indian community residing in Iran. The data of this qualitative study was collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 teachers and parents of the students in the, as well as one-year observations of this school, accompanied with detailed field notes, and general investigation of the Persian and English course materials taught at this school. Thematic analysis of the data revealed that English holds the highest status among the members of this Indian community. This is while, on the one hand, members of this community are in urgent need for Persian due to their communicative and educational demands during their residence in Iran, and on the other hand, the Iranian Act of Foreign Citizen's Schools has required quality Persian instruction and supervision in Iranian Schools for International Citizens. This study illustrates how Persian is marginalized in its homeland because of the postcolonial remnants and neocolonial forces of English dominance which lead to over-appreciation of English among members of this community, along with the absence of Iranian language policies' implementation monitoring, and poor Persian instruction.
... The internationalization of academia has a number of language-related effects. Simultaneously, it renders higher education institutions (HEIs) into multilingual spaces (Gimenez & Morgan, 2017;Kuteeva, Kaufhold, & Hynninen, 2020;Liddicoat, 2018), while it bolsters the position of English in core practices such as teaching and publishing (Airey, et al., 2017;Carli & Ammon, 2007;Englander & Corcoran, 2019;Salö, 2017). In the latter research strand, it has recurrently been implied, although not unanimously, that English has become 'all that counts', often at the expense of national languages. ...
... In this paper, concurring with the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1988Bourdieu ( , 2004, we conceptualize academia as a social space where advancement in career trajectories hinges upon competition over recognition. Academics more or less willfully engage in capital accumulation and conversion, and gradually increase their possession of capital with which academic positions, research grants and the like can be obtained (see Salö, 2017). Accordingly, the logic we subscribe to is attentive to cumulative chains of transactions, whereby forms of capital are changed into other forms of capital (Bourdieu, 1986). ...
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In this paper we examine the value held by national languages, here Swedish, in the scholarly career trajectories in non-Anglophone countries. To this end, we analyze the language policies of Swedish higher education institutions and the narrated perceptions of two international recruits. Adopting Pierre Bourdieu's distinction between scientific and academic capital, we argue that Swedish language skills constitute a vital asset in processes of accruing power in Sweden's scientific world. Hence, as we maintain, English is not all that matters, despite internationalization being high on the agenda.
... We have all heard first-hand from these scholars regarding the trials and tribulations associated with writing for publication in an additional language, particularly from global locales such as Latin America and Eastern Europe which are outside traditional centres of knowledge production. This is not to say that there is a neat binary between plurilingual vs. monolingual or native vs. non-native English users; there most certainly is not (Habibie, in press;Hyland, 2016;Salö, 2017). In fact, we acknowledge that there is currently heated debate about how much advantage is bestowed upon those who use English as their first language (see recent debate in the Journal of Second Language Writing between Hyland and Pohlitzer-Ahles et al.). ...
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This introductory chapter sets the stage for the contributions on global scholarly writing for publication pedagogies and policies presented in this edited volume.
... It is of course known that these factors play a role (e.g. Huang, 2010;McCulloch, 2017;Hyland, 2015;Salö, 2017). ...
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The role of discipline in shaping writing for publication has been widely acknowledged in EAP research, and a wealth of studies that seek to characterise and differentiate disciplinary writing have been published. However, a conceptualisation of disciplines as clearly demarcated territories may be outdated given the “constantly changing and dynamic […] contemporary university” (Manathunga & Brew, 2014, p.45). In light of these changes, our article interrogates the centrality of discipline in research-based writing, from the academics' perspective. To do so, we adopt Trowler’s (2014a) reconceptualization of discipline as an analytical framework. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven scholars in two social sciences. Interview data was supplemented by an analysis of the participants’ research-based outputs. The results highlight the contested nature of disciplinary affiliation and reveal the range of factors that participants perceive to be “shapers” of writing for publication, beyond discipline: epistemological/methodological, structural and individual. Based on the results, we argue that Trowler’s new metaphor of discipline enables us to account for our findings, and conclude with recommendations for EAP writing for publication interventions. Keywords: discipline; writing for publication; ethnography; variation
... In this chapter, concurring with the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1988Bourdieu ( , 2004, we conceptualize academia as a social space where advancement in career trajectories hinges upon competition over recognition. Academics more or less willfully engage in capital accumulation and conversion, and gradually increase their possession of capital with which academic positions, research grants and the like can be obtained (see Salö, 2017). Accordingly, the logic we subscribe to is attentive to cumulative chains of transactions, whereby forms of capital are changed into other forms of capital (Bourdieu, 1986). ...
Chapter
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In this chapter we examine the value held by national languages, here Swedish, in the scholarly career trajectories in non-Anglophone countries. To this end, we analyse the language policies of Swedish higher education institutions and the narrated perceptions of two international recruits. Adopting Pierre Bourdieu’s distinction between scientific and academic capital, we argue that Swedish language skills constitute a vital asset in processes of accruing power in Sweden’s scientific world. Hence, as we maintain, English is not all that matters, despite internationalization being high on the agenda.
... 305). In the case of academic publishing, it is important to consider access to material and symbolic resources in defining the ways international publication spaces are shaped [28,29]. In sum, it can be argued that the native/non-native dichotomy is insufficient, and we should also be looking at scholars' means of production, their capacity to access well-resourced libraries, and their opportunities to engage meaningfully with relevant members of their discourse communities [30]. ...
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This article analyzes the discourse of what have been termed 'predatory publishers', with a corpus of emails sent to scholars by hitherto unknown publishers. Equipped with sociolinguistic and discourse analytic tools, we argue that the interpretation of these texts as spam or as legitimate messages may not be as straightforward an operation as one may initially believe. We suggest that English L2 scholars might potentially be more affected by publishers who engage in these email practices in several ways, which we identify and discuss. However, we argue that examining academic inequalities in scholarly publishing based exclusively on the native/non-native English speaker divide might not be sufficient, nor may it be enough to simply raise awareness about such publishers. Instead, we argue in favor of a more sociologically informed analysis of academic publishing, something that we see as a necessary first step if we wish to enhance more democratic means of access to key resources in publishing.
... Based on the notion of "impact" and the significance of the number of scholars reached by academic publications, English has become a top priority in academic writing for pursuing individual interests, professional gains, and especially within the competition for better positions in ranking systems (Flowerdew, 1999;Meneghini & Packer, 2007). However, a concern about the role of gatekeeping in indexing systems and the use of English as the language of research communication is how English can encounter local languages in this regard, and the bias in favor of native English speakers (Curry & Lillis, 2017b;Maniati, 2014;Muresan & Pérez-Llantada, 2014;Salö, 2017). ...
... Another factor is the researchers' own first language: one could guess that publications in German, Swedish and Italian are written by teachers and researchers with those as first languages (and as such a consequence of the number of scholars from these countries employed at any time). A factor that has only come into the picture lately through research done in Sweden (Salö 2017) is that younger researchers publish more in English than the local language since the bibliometric system built up in recent years is heavily biased towards English-language publications, which is why publications in English further a scholar's career more than publications in other languages. This is obviously of more concern to scholars in their early career. ...
... Across disciplines, value is awarded to research (and researchers) published in selected journals, i.e. those included in indexes such as the Web of Science (formerly Thomson Reuters, now curated by Clarivate Analytics) or Scopus. Though robust publication occurs in other languages ( Curry and Lillis, 2017 ;Gotti, Chapter 13 in this volume;Hamel, 2013 ;Salö, 2017 ), more than 90% of the journals included in these indexes are published in English ( Liu, 2017 ). In the knowledge economy, publication in indexed journals is recognized at three scales: the individual researcher, their institution of higher education, and the country where they work ( Englander and Uzuner-Smith, 2013 ). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, pedagogies for supporting scientists who publish research in English as an additional language (EAL) and live outside “centre” countries are examined. We first draw attention to the burgeoning field of English for Research Publication Purposes (ERPP), where research into challenges of global scientists is rapidly expanding, highlighting the particular strengths, needs, and challenges of EAL scientists. Next, we present contrasting pedagogies for supporting EAL scientists, drawing a distinction between “critical” and “pragmatic” approaches. Drawing on the extant literature from the fields of applied linguistics, writing studies, and education—including our research into the experiences of Latin American scientists—we then present an adaptable pedagogical approach that challenges monolingual ideologies and practices in global science writing, adjudication, and support. We conclude this chapter by presenting a set of principles that promote greater equity and diversity in global scientific knowledge production by supporting EAL scientists in targeted ways that recognize both their strengths as plurilingual communicators as well as the distinct challenges they face in a complex, metric-heavy science world where English is privileged. APA Citation: Corcoran, J. N. & Englander, K. (2021). Pedagogies for Supporting Global Scientists’ Research Writing. In C. Hanganu-Bresch, M. Zerbe, G. Cutrufello, & S. Maci (Eds.) Handbook of Scientific Communication. (pp. 348 – 358) London: Routledge.
... A student's repertoire can be related to the Bourdieusian notion of linguistic capital in that the ability to apply some type of language uses might constitute cultural capital because this use is associated with higher symbolic capital on the linguistic market of higher education (Bourdieu, 1991). What counts as appropriate language use in higher education institutions is the result of historical developments and ongoing change (Barton & Hamilton, 2000;Salö, 2017) and is regulated on disciplinary, national and institutional levels (Hynninen, 2018). Beliefs about the value associated with specific language uses are expressed as language ideologies, as mentioned above. ...
Chapter
The chapter explores the lived experience of students with diverse linguistic and educational backgrounds in Swedish higher education through in-depth interviews with three students who migrated to Sweden. Reflections on language ideologies and practices across social spaces in multilingual university settings are discussed. While the students align with the monolingual ideologies of the institution especially with regard to high-stakes tasks, such as assignments, this position is not fixed. The study reveals how various languages can play significant roles for learning in different social spaces. It also highlights the role of previous academic knowledge for the transition into tertiary education irrespective of language codes used. Harnessing the use of some of the translingual learning strategies might support a more inclusive course design.
... . Other recent authors who have studied the challenges related to Englishlanguage academic publishing include KenHyland (2016) and LinusSalö (2017). ...
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The term “transnational” developed over the 20th century to describe cosmopolitan, multicultural societies that stem from migration; the concept of transnational feminist translation studies adds references to postcolonial feminisms to this term, offering new collaborative avenues of research and publication. This article reports on the challenges such collaborations pose, and how they have impacted an early attempt to produce an anthology of scholarly texts in the area of transnational feminist translation studies (Flotow and Farahzad, 2017). It develops a number of specific areas of difficulty: the “hegemony” of English in academic publishing and how this affects the circulation of feminist texts from beyond the Anglo-American Eurozone; the issue of power relations between editors and authors, cultures, and languages; questions of inclusion and exclusion, especially as different religious/cultural backgrounds affect scholarly discussion; and the importance of women’s/feminist diversity as well as the risks/benefits of a universalizing discourse. While the article is concerned with “challenges”, it ends with a call for more such collaborative transnational work to re-energize and promote the field of feminist translation studies worldwide.
... There is little consensus on the validity of plurilingual EAL scientists' claims of such bias in adjudication (Flowerdew, 2001(Flowerdew, , 2008(Flowerdew, , 2019Hyland, 2019;Politzer-Ahles et al., 2016;Starfield & Paltridge, 2019;van Parijs, 2007). Indeed, there are a growing number of voices-predominantly from the fields of sociolinguistics and applied linguistics-who have cast doubt on those attempting to position plurilingual scientists' additional burden as a "language" issue (Blommaert, 2010;Hultgren, 2019;Hyland, 2016Hyland, , 2017Salo, 2017), suggesting the scholarly writing for publication challenges for scholars are similar regardless of L1. In particular, Hyland (2016Hyland ( , 2017Hyland ( , 2019 argues that because novice L1 scholars often have difficulty getting their papers published and because there are increasing numbers of L2 scientists achieving publication of their work, there is no specific "privilege" accrued to having English as one's L1 (for another critique of this position, see Flowerdew, 2019). ...
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This article outlines findings from a case study investigating attitudes toward English as the dominant language of scientific research writing. Survey and interview data were collected from 55 Latin American health and life scientists and 7 North American scientific journal editors connected to an intensive scholarly writing for publication course. Study findings point to competing perceptions (scientists vs. editors) of fairness in the adjudication of Latin American scientists’ research at international scientific journals. Adopting a critical, plurilingual lens, I argue that these findings demand a space for more equity-driven pedagogies, policies, and reflective practices aimed at supporting the robust participation of plurilingual scientists who use English as an additional language (EAL). In particular, if equity is indeed a shared goal, there is a clear need for commitment to ongoing critical self-reflection on the part of scientific journal gatekeepers and research writing support specialists.
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In this article, I deal with the notion of ‘academic identity’ holistically, seeking to bring together the teacher and researcher roles of academics in the neoliberal university. The article begins from the perspective of early-career academics who occupy the majority of fixed-term, teaching-only contracts in Higher Education, arguing that such casualisation of academic labour entrenches the role of the academic as Homo economicus . Drawing on the work of Foucault, I demonstrate how a neoliberal governmentality is now not only exerted upon academics from without, but increasingly they are subjecting themselves to the logic of efficiency and effectiveness too. The neoliberal governmentality of the university thus influences and shapes academic subjectivities, such that what it means to be an academic is confined to this marketised logic. Despite the pressures placed on academics to ‘produce’ measurable outputs and demonstrate their impact, I argue that moving beyond Homo economicus is possible, arguing instead for a re-claiming of ‘the academic’ as Homo academicus . The idea of Homo academicus can only be supported when three conditions are present: collegiality is afforded greater importance than competition; the discourses of ‘productivity’ and performativity are balanced against simply ‘doing good work well’ (Pirrie in Virtue and the quiet art of scholarship, Routledge, London, 2019), and; academics are mindful to practice the ‘quieter’ intellectual virtues, including the virtue of ‘unknowing’ (Smith in J Philos Educ 50:272–284, 2016).
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Notions of research quality are contextual in many respects: they vary between fields of research, between review contexts and between policy contexts. Yet, the role of these co-existing notions in research, and in research policy, is poorly understood. In this paper we offer a novel framework to study and understand research quality across three key dimensions. First, we distinguish between quality notions that originate in research fields (Field-type) and in research policy spaces (Space-type). Second, drawing on existing studies, we identify three attributes (often) considered important for ‘good research’: its originality/novelty, plausibility/reliability, and value or usefulness. Third, we identify five different sites where notions of research quality emerge, are contested and institutionalised: researchers themselves, knowledge communities, research organisations, funding agencies and national policy arenas. We argue that the framework helps us understand processes and mechanisms through which ‘good research’ is recognised as well as tensions arising from the co-existence of (potentially) conflicting quality notions.
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The Stockholm Conference 1972 drew the world’s attention to the global environmental crisis. To the inhabitants of Sweden, however, this threat to the planet and to humanity was nothing new. Anyone who regularly read newspapers, listened to the radio, or watched the television news would have encountered the issues. Five years earlier, in the summer of 1967, things were very different. At that time, it was not at all self-evident that humans were in the process of destroying their own living environment. Hence, in a short period of time, a radical change took place: an ‘environmental turn’. It had major and far-reaching consequences. But what was it that opened people’s eyes to the environmental crisis? When did it happen? Who set the ball rolling? And what does this historical process mean for us today? David Larsson Heidenblad’s book sheds new light on the emergence of modern environmentalism in Sweden and provides fresh insight to challenges that concerns us all.
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The growing dominance of English as an international language of scientific communication in the world has been widely acknowledged. However, its effect in the relevant discourse community in Latvia is still to be explored. A case study was undertaken to improve upon the current understanding of the choice of scientific publishing language in Latvia and explore historical factors underpinning the current predominance of English as the lingua franca of the scientific community. It has been concluded that with a strong focus on international publishing in indexed databases, the role of English in scientific communication in Latvia has an increasing tendency to grow. Although currently English does not pose an existential threat to the use of the Latvian language in scientific publications, there is alarming evidence of the increasing hegemony of English in Latvia.
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It has often been claimed that English has emerged as the lingua franca of teaching and research at universi- ties across the globe. This entry provides an overview of language use within higher education internationally, with a particular view to highlighting conditions within the human sciences—that is, the social sciences and the humanities. The entry centres on English as the medium of research, understood primarily as publishing, and English medium instruction (EMI). It begins by providing a brief historical overview.
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This chapter investigates the ways in which various discursive processes within and about Swedish Higher Education (HE) are rendering some value-laden linguistic practices and processes invisible. Previous studies in the field of Language Policy and Panning (LPP) have focused on the ‘internationalisation’ of HE with a pre-occupation for opposing linguistic systems, for example Swedish and English. However, this study reveals how such dualistic thinking can (re)produce essentializing and highly ideologized monolingual and monocultural categories, over-simplifying what is understood by the ‘international’ and ‘national’ in contemporary HE. Drawing on data from an interview-based study carried out in a sciences department at a major Swedish university, this chapter demonstrates the potential in taking a multilingual approach when seeking to better understand the affordances and constraints of internationalization.
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The purpose of this text is manifold. The primary purpose is to look into the effects of marketization of academia on the reading habits of academics, which also demands a problematization of reading and its role in the process of creating new knowledge. The second purpose is to discuss and problematize the citation as a sign of intellectual debt. And the third, but not least important, purpose is to write a text that demands the reader to read in a manner that is necessary to learn, instead of writing it in a manner that is adapted to promoting "citability". And so of course, what I would like more than anything to teach the reader is that the only possible way forward, the only method of reproducing real scholarship in a commodified setting, is to live it yourself. This way of writing a text is my way of living eal scholarship. If this does not agree with you - don't bother citing me.
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This chaptergives an overviewofrecentresearch conductedamong academics working at Swedish universities and offers insights into their research and publication practices. Sweden provides an interesting case due to its high general proficiency in English as an additional language (ranked first in Europe and in the world, according to the most recent English Proficiency Index). At the same time, recent developments in language policy indicate a strong emphasis on the importance of the national language(s) in high-stakes domains such as research and education. The research reviewed in this chapter includes major findings of two surveys carried out at major Swedish universities and two case studies of humanities scholars working across three disciplines. It is demonstrated that English has been firmly established as an academic language at Swedish universities and is present in practically all disciplines, although to different extents. English-medium research and publication practices are the least common in the humanities, but ultimately language choice is pragmatically determined by external factors such as the target audience. Overall, the informants of the studies reviewed here show critical awareness of English use in academic communication and, in most cases, do not perceive themselves to be disadvantaged by their non-native status. Particularly those informants whose research involves international cooperation or an international audience consider themselves to be full members of their respective academic communities and view English as an academic lingua franca or, as one informant put it, "nobody's land". At the same time, Swedish is used for outreach and for academic publications dealing with topics of local interest and significance.
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This chapter presents a sociological account of the language ideological representations underpinning discourses about perceived threats from English in Sweden. The objective is to contextualize the conceptual history of “domain loss” within Sweden’s field of language planning, in conjunction with crossing discourses about minority languages and EU membership. With Bourdieu, the safeguarding of Swedish is comprehended as linked to struggles where the role of the nation-state is set in flux, opening up linguistic markets beyond its control. As a product of the relation between agents’ habitus and the field, domain loss has served to legitimize discourses about the disestablishment of the national language regime, which is interpreted as a strategy to defend the market into which agents have invested capital.
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This paper adopts a Bourdieusian approach to discourse in contemporary Swedish academia. Habitus, entextualization, and translingual practice are employed as epistemological perspectives for investigating the place of Swedish in the text trajectories of two disciplines where English prevails in publishing. Data from meeting recordings, email correspondence, and interviews show that Swedish is the legitimate language throughout in the text production and that discipline-specific Swedish is practiced so long as it encompasses all participants' repertoires. In fact, the researchers point to an almost physical awkwardness linked to the unwarranted use of English among themselves. Following Bourdieu, it is argued that these sensibilities pertain to the linguistic sense of placement of socialized agents and that the unease of being out of place prevents them from lapsing into what is socially perceived as unacceptable discourse in their translingual practices.
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We investigate the current position of English in the language ecology of Swedish academia, with a special focus on the humanities. Semi-structured interviews with 15 informants from the fields of Anthropology, General Linguistics and History were carried out to explore how non-native speakers of English experience using academic English in their research. In contrast to other recent findings, our study shows that while some differences along disciplinary lines emerged, on the whole, English does not pose a significant challenge for scholars when writing for publication. Furthermore, our informants do not perceive themselves to be disadvantaged by their non-native status. The study casts some doubt on Swales’ well-known dinosaur metaphor; while English does indeed dominate in the sphere of international publication in terms of production, multilingual research practices are evident within the research and publication process.
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Denna studie har till uppgift att undersöka hur i synnerhet biblio- metriska indikatorer har kommit till bruk i lärosätenas interna resurstill- delning. Eftersom resurstilldelningen påverkar lärosätenas budgetar och lärosätena får ökade resurser när dess forskare presterar enligt deras inrikt- ningar, så vore det inte förvånande om tekniker att fördela efter biblio- metrisk prestation också kommer att utnyttjas i lärosätenas interna fördel- ning ner på fakultets-, institutions- och kanske till och med individnivå. Då det inte finns någon översikt över detta fenomen som täcker flera läro- säten och som dessutom går på djupet genom att undersöka dess effekter på olika nivåer inom lärosätena så utgör detta arbete en första ansats att fastställa i vilken mån lärosätena faktiskt har anammat bibliometriska indikatorer och hur detta har gått till. Syftet med denna studie är att skapa en översikt över prestationsbase- rade modeller för resurstilldelning i vilka en bibliometrisk komponent används vid ett urval svenska lärosäten. Vidare vill vi undersöka på vilken nivå detta sker samt vilka indikatorer och metodiker som används. Slut- ligen vill vi kritiskt diskutera eventuella fallgropar, men också förtjänster som kan framträda när bibliometriska indikatorer kommer i bruk för att mäta prestationer på allt lägre nivå i forskarsamhället.
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The thesis investigates the scientific citation and its various functions in the scientific community and develops it as a tool for research in theory of science, scientometrics and science studies. Through empirical and theoretical studies that utilize both quali-tative and quantitative methods the citation’s history, method, as well as its use in research policy is examined. Through a historical study the thesis shows three stages of development as required for the construction of the citation as an indicator of intrinsic aspects of science. These consisted of a) citations as technology, within the citation index, b) the citation as a research method as theorised within Mertonian sociology of science, and c) the citation as a research subject. Following this the “citation debate” in Science and Technology Studies (STS) is described and analysed, which questions the use of generalized quantitative methods. Inspired by an STS approach a performative model of “the mangle of the citation practice” is developed. This aims to understand the citation existing in a context where researchers, articles and the citation index are mutu-ally creating and recreating each other. The thesis uses the HistCite scientometrics tool to develop a novel methodology that highlights local dynamics of citation prac-tices between scientific authors and texts using a visual approach of identifying patterns of citations in graphic representations of articles and their citation patterns. For this a “citation typology” is created to identify specific patterns and phenomenon in HistCite graphic representations. The last empirical study is of the introduction of quantitatively based performance-based models for funding of research in Norwegian and Swedish research policy 2003-2010 which problematizes the part played by the citation in a research policy setting as “unobtrusive” indicators of scientific practice. The thesis demonstrates the significance of the citation in research through its design as a reflection of the scientific reference, and result of it being constructed – and used – as an indicator of scientific quality. Furthermore, it shows an emerging awareness in the scientific community that quantifiable indicators of scientific achievement – of which the citation is perhaps the main element – has gained a prominent role in both internal and external domains of scientific practice.
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This work aims to introduce the reader to Pierre Bourdieu's theory of fields,to evaluate it critically and, through case studies, to test its implementation in the analysis of new objects. While the use of Bourdieu's concept of the habitus has given rise to countless discussions, the literature strangely remains more silent on the theory of fields, although it lies at the heart of his work. A series published by Editions du Seuil, started and initially edited by Bourdieu, includes a number of monographs that apply the theory of fields;r some journals have devoted whole issues to explicitly mobilizing the theory in order to study specific areas, and a growing number of works make use of it. However, critical discussions that seek to give an account of this theory both in general terms and in particular areas remain rare. The aim of this work is to fill that gap. One of the hypotheses put forward in this book is that the theory of fields constitutes an adequate tool for explaining and understanding the social world but that its use must be rigorously circumscribed and correspond to certain methodological principles.
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Research funding, promotions, and career trajectories are currently increasingly dependent on the emerging economy of publications and citations across the globe. Such an economy encourages scholars to publish in international journals that are indexed in databases such as Scopus and Web of Science. These developments place an increased emphasis on the question of who is allowed to publish in the journals listed there and whose research counts as valuable. Based on bibliographic data from articles submitted to three main journals in the field of adult education research between 2005 and 2012, we scrutinize the extent to which the emerging economy of publications and citations is dependent on national and regional boundaries. Our results show how four Anglophone countries dominate the field in relation to both published articles and the share of most cited articles and where the publication pattern of these authors are national and regional rather than international.
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Disciplinary differences in the use of English in higher education: reflections on recent language policy developments Maria Kuteeva • John Airey Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013 Abstract In post-Bologna Europe, there has been a noticeable increase in English- medium instruction. In this article we take the case of Sweden as an illustrative example of the wider disciplinary issues involved in changing the teaching language in this way. By 2008 the use of English in Swedish higher education had risen to such an extent that it had to be regulated at the governmental level and through university language policies. Such policies have attempted to provide generalised pragmatic guidelines for language use across educational programmes. In this paper we argue that such general policies fail to take into consideration fundamental disciplinary differences and their potential impact on language use. We present a theoretical argument about the knowledge structures of dis- ciplines, relating these to the disciplinary literacy goals of educational programmes. We then illustrate our argument using data from an extensive survey carried out at a major Swedish university. We conclude that the disciplinary variation in the use of English can be seen as a product of different knowledge-making practices and educational goals. This conclusion problematises ‘‘one-size-fits-all’’ language policies which only deal with gen- eral features of language use and do not allow for discipline-specific adjustments. Keywords Disciplinary differences 􏰀 Disciplinary literacy 􏰀 Disciplinary knowledge structures 􏰀 Teaching in English 􏰀 Language choice 􏰀 Language policies 􏰀 Parallel language use
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This volume tackles head-on the controversy regarding the tensions between the principles underlying Academe on the one hand, and the free market on the other. Its outspoken thesis posits that seemingly irresistible institutional pressures are betraying a core principle of the Enlightenment: that the free pursuit of knowledge is of the highest value in its own right. As ‘market principles’ are forced on universities, inducing a neoteric culture of ‘managerialism’, many worry that the very characteristics that made European higher education in particular such a success are being eroded and replaced by ideological opportunism and economic expediency. Richly interdisciplinary, the anthology explores a wealth of issues such as the phenomenon of bibliometrics (linking an institution’s success to the volume and visibility of publications produced). Many argue that the use of such indicators to measure scientific value is inimical to the time-consuming complexities of genuine truth-seeking. A number of the greatest discoveries and innovations in the history of science, such as Newton’s laws of mechanics or the Mendelian laws of inheritance, might never have seen the light of day if today’s system of determining and defining the form and content of science had dominated. With analytical perspectives from political science, economics, philosophy and media studies, the collection interrogates, for example, the doctrine of graduate employability that exerts such a powerful influence on course type and structure, especially on technical and professional training. In contrast, the liberal arts must choose between adaptation to the dictates of employability strategies or wither away as enrollments dwindle and resources evaporate. Research projects and aims have also become an area of controversy, with many governments now assessing the value of proposals in terms of assumed commercial benefits. The contributors argue that these changes, as well as ‘reforms’ in the managerial and administrative structures in tertiary education, constitute a radical break with the previous ontology of science and scholarship: a change in its very character, and not merely its form. It shows that the ‘scientific thinking’ students, researchers, and scholars are encouraged to adopt is undergoing a rapid shift in conceptual content, with significant consequences not only for science, but also for the society of which it is a part.
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Human language has changed in the age of globalization: no longer tied to stable and resident communities, it moves across the globe, and it changes in the process. The world has become a complex 'web' of villages, towns, neighbourhoods and settlements connected by material and symbolic ties in often unpredictable ways. This phenomenon requires us to revise our understanding of linguistic communication. In The Sociolinguistics of Globalization Jan Blommaert constructs a theory of changing language in a changing society, reconsidering locality, repertoires, competence, history and sociolinguistic inequality. • There is great interest in the issue of globalization and this book will appeal to scholars and students in linguistics, sociolinguistics, applied linguistics and anthropology • Richly illustrated with examples from around the globe • Presents a profound revision of sociolinguistic work in the area of linguistic communication
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The present chapter attempts to describe the move into what can be called the era of the academic research industry. To write and “produce” more in less time has become a value in itself, rhetorically accompanied by claims that it needs to be “cutting edge” and to achieve excellence. Because research is much like performing arts, the advantages of scale, however, are illusory. The equation of more and better research in less time is hard to achieve because of the inherent logic of creativity in research: the time-consuming activities of experimentation and failure. The overall perils of the industrialization of academic research lie in that these insights, that we need to allow for risk-taking and the acceptance of genuine uncertainty, are buried in all the more elaborate efforts of time and space management that deceptively make us feel as if we are in control. As a consequence of the “slippery-slope” effect, where you do not notice each individual step along the treacherous path, academic researchers more or less tacitly accept these efficiency practices and norms evolving within the research industry, practices that actually may destroy or irrevocably damage necessary preconditions for original research, innovation, and discovery.
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This essay analyses the growth of an “innovation paradigm” in Swedish research policy from the 1990s and analyses how this paradigm is expressed in the government’s recent research policy bill that is currently being implemented. The discussion of the bill highlights some apparent paradoxes. First, the bill uses the notions of basis research and innovation interchangeably. Thus, for example, it proposes to increase the Swedish Research Council’s resources for supporting basic research, but it also demands that the council direct more of its resources to support work that is important for the country’s high-tech industry. Second, the bill strongly emphasises economic as well as academic competition. Scientific and economic competitions are described as if there were no significant difference between the two. The bill assumes, for instance, that the quality of research can be measured by its success on a (publishing) market. The analysis of the bill relies on the notion of performativity. The bill is seen as a performative act aiming simultaneously to change the practices of research and the language in which it is discussed. If the bill’s policies succeed, the paradoxes mentioned above will fade away as traditional research practice disappears.
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The unifying theme of the contributions to this volume is a perceived transfiguration in higher education and research, which the authors and editors of this volume believe is related to markets and marketisation. The transformation of the global economy into an amorphous network transgressing national borders is the prime mover in the present reorganisation of ‘knowledge production’, which has the effect of undermining the legitimacy of the university as an essential component in the project of modernity. Whether or not the modern research university ever actually lived up to the aim of the disinterested and universal quest for knowledge for the common good without regard to partisan interests or political ambitions, this role was part and parcel of its self-understanding and its mission and as such was a cornerstone of its activities. On the one hand, the loss of that self-understanding can be seen as a loss of innocence, which we are better off without. The realisation that the university is no more unfettered than the rest of society can thus be regarded as a new realism and thus as inevitable if not beneficial. On the other hand, if the ideal of value-free (or at least value-neutral) science is disavowed in favour of the norm of science on demand, what will the consequences be? The choice seems to stand between research and teaching faculty actively arguing and fighting for the right to be non-partisan and universalist, in practice enacting the ideal of the democratic university, or we have to hope and trust that some contingent of individual scientists and teachers will continue to exercise scientific judgement and that these will constitute a large enough community to make a difference.
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This chapter takes at its starting point that an academic scientist or scholar, regardless of discipline, must be to produce knowledge, rather than mere opinion. By virtue of his fulfilling this mission, he also supports and contributes to a form of deliberative dialog, the sine qua non for citizenship in liberal democracies, in which argument on the basis of fact and coherence, rather than rhetorical tricks and powers of persuasion, is decisive. Demands for social relevance and usefulness ought to be seen in light of this mission, rather than in terms of political utility or commercial gain. In this sense, the requirement that the university produce useful knowledge is entirely commensurable with academic freedom, provided that politicians, administrators, and business leaders recognize that they cannot determine what questions ought to be asked or how best to answer them, but leave that matter to scientists and scholars to decide.
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The article presents a constructionist perspective on the emergence of scientific discourse and text genres. In order to give an exemplary picture of the emergence and development of medical written discourse, the dynamic process is discussed in relation to cognitive, social, and societal types of activity. Sociohistorical changes as to text patterns and linguistic expressions of evaluation are related to three scientific stages: the preestablishment stage, the establishing stage and the specialized stage.
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The global spread of English both reproduces and reinforces oppressive structures of inequality. But such structures can no longer be seen as imposed from an imperial center, as English is now actively adopted and appropriated in local contexts around the world. This book argues that such conditions call for a new critique of global English, one that is sensitive to both the political economic conditions of globalization and speakers' local practices. Linking Bourdieu's theory of the linguistic market and his practice-based perspective with recent advances in sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology, this book offers a fresh new critique of global English. The authors highlight the material, discursive, and semiotic processes through which the value of English in the linguistic market is constructed, and suggest possible policy interventions that may be adopted to address the problems of global English. Through its serious engagement with current sociolinguistic theory and insightful analysis of the multiple dimensions of English in the world, this book challenges the readers to think about what we need to do to confront the social inequalities that are perpetuated by the global spread of English.
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The English language is spreading across the world, and so too is hip-hop culture: both are being altered, developed, reinterpreted, reclaimed. This timely book explores the relationship between global Englishes (the spread and use of diverse forms of English within processes of globalization) and transcultural flows (the movements, changes and reuses of cultural forms in disparate contexts). This wide-ranging study focuses on the ways English is embedded in other linguistic contexts, including those of East Asia, Australia, West Africa and the Pacific Islands. Drawing on transgressive and performative theory, Pennycook looks at how global Englishes, transcultural flows and pedagogy are interconnected in ways that oblige us to rethink language and culture within the contemporary world. Global Englishes and Transcultural Flows is a valuable resource to applied linguists, sociolinguists, and students on cultural studies, English language studies, TEFL and TESOL courses.
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This paper will show, on the basis of valid and reasonably representative data, that even in applied linguistics (where it might be expected least of all) the predominance of a single language, English, in international scientific communication excludes contributions from various non-Anglophone quarters and, consequently, contributes to skewed scientific development, especially neglecting Japanese and Chinese, but also French, German, Italian and Russian approaches (because of serious linguistic barriers and refusal to participate in linguistically “unfair” scientific communication, respectively). The paper will also submit proposals on how the situation could be improved and problems be mitigated such as, among others, regular linguistic support offered by publishers and conference organizers.
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Författaren analyserar relationen mellan psykologin som vetenskap och filosofi i allmänhet och språkfilosofi i synnerhet. Bl.a. hävdar han att psykologin inte kan vara utan filosofin och ett nära samarbete med denna disciplin om psykologin ska kunna utvecklas som vetenskap.
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In recent discussions about the increased use of English at European universities, English is often referred to as the “the new Latin”. The current article puts this comparison to the test by presenting a critical historical overview of the use of Latin, Danish, English and other languages at Danish universities from 1479 to the present day. The article argues that the current use of English in Danish academia cannot, despite some apparent similarities, be compared to the use of Latin at earlier stages of Danish university history. Most importantly, the article argues that the motivation for using English today is radically different from the motivation behind the use of Latin at the early stages of Danish university history as well as the motivation for the use of Danish in more recent history.
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Given the increased role of bibliometric measures in research evaluation, it is striking that studies of actual changes in research practice are rare. Most studies and comments on 'a metric culture' in academia focus on the ideological and political level, and there is a clear shortage of empirical studies that analyze how researchers handle demands for accountability in context. In adopting a mixed-methods approach involving both bibliometric data and answers form questionnaires, we provide an in-depth study of how researchers at the faculty of Arts at Uppsala University (Sweden) respond to the implementation of performance-based research evaluation systems. Publication patterns from 2006 to 2013 show that journal publications, especially English-language ones, are increasing, and the proportion of peer-reviewed publications has doubled. These changes are in line with the incentives of the evaluation systems under study. Answers to the survey confirm that scholars are conscious about this development, and several respondents articulate a disagreement between disciplinary norms and external demands. However, disciplinary background as well as career stage or academic age appears to have a significant influence on how individual researchers react to the instigation of evaluation systems. Finally, responses to national and local evaluation regimes are complex, localized, and dependent on many factors. In-depth contextualized studies of research practices are needed in order to understand how performance-based funding systems influence academic research on the ground. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: [email protected] /* */
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In the last decade, Sweden has emerged on the other side of the 1990s crisis with, if not its self-image intact, then at least a reasserted confidence as, once again, the most modern country in the world. Crisis management in the 1990s seemed to have succeeded. The Swedish bumblebee - the unthinkable animal that flies despite its high taxes and large public sector - flew again. The 'Swedish model' was back after a decade as the punch bag of neoliberalism. Throughout the European centre left - from the debate on the European social model to Segolene Royal and Gordon Brown - Sweden has reemerged as 'Nordic light', proof that a better world is possible. This reappraisal in the eyes of the world has paradoxical consequences in Sweden, since it seems to overwrite the uncertainty and insecurity of crisis with assertion and confidence, while leaving many questions unanswered. It also leads to new definitions of what Sweden is. The paper suggests that Sweden post-1990s suffers from a particular kind of nostalgia, in which the famous Model emerges as a kind of paradise lost with uncertain links both to past and future. While Sweden yet again becomes the utopia of others, it is a kind of future past to itself.
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This book reports on almost a decade of ethnographic research on the academic writing and publishing practices of 50 scholars of education and psychology located in central and southern Europe.
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Parallel language use has been accepted as the guiding principle for university language policy writers in the Nordic region. However, the extent to which parallel language use reflects the actual publication practices of academics is yet to be established. This study begins to address the gap by investigating the languages used for academic and outreach publication in three departments at a major Swedish university. Questionnaire and database trawl results reveal that English, Swedish and other languages are used for academic and outreach publication, although Swedish dominates in the outreach domain. Furthermore, results derived from semi-structured interviews with 15 informants suggest that language practices are primarily determined by pragmatic forces such as intended audience, publication outlet, topic and genre, rather than by ideological or language-political factors.
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Since the 1990s, universities in South Korea have participated in an aggressive movement to globalize their institutions through the medium of English by hiring English-proficient faculty. To attain tenure, faculty must publish in international indexed journals (IIJs), which results in a de facto language policy of publishing in English because most IIJs require English. Requiring faculty to publish in IIJs yields consequences on several levels. For professors, who may or may not be proficient in English academic writing, they must find time to handle teaching and administrative responsibilities, in addition to navigating academic publishing within a limited time period. This policy also serves larger agendas, notably to boost a university’s international ranking. In this paper, we examine the publishing requirements at one of South Korea’s leading universities. We approach language policy through a critique of neoliberalism to uncover how these requirements are interpreted at this university. Based on analyses of university policy documents and interviews with faculty, our research demonstrates that in this climate of heightened competition, publishing in English is sustained by monetary incentives as it is instrumental in elevating a university’s status as a reputable center of knowledge production. These findings further perpetuate the neoliberal viewpoint that the continual upgrading of oneself and, in turn, the university, will be rewarded, while negating the value of one’s publications in languages other than English, including Korean.