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Abstract

The presented study deals with the historical development of Czech (en)clitics (AuxP). Based on the data from the previous research (Kosek 2015a,b, 2017), it focuses on the development of one group the Czech (en)clitics – on the preterite auxiliary forms. In the article, three hypotheses are formulated and then tested on the data gained from selected parts of historical Czech Bible translations. The suggest that there were two significant word order position of historical Czech (en)clitics: 1. the post-initial position, i.e. after first word / phrase, 2. the contact position, i.e. an (en)clitic is located immediately before (pre-verbal position) or after (post-verbal position) its syntactically or morphologically superordinate item (the post-verbal position is the more frequent variant of the both variants of the contact positions). Since the time when the oldest analyzed text was translated, the post-initial position has had the status of the basic word order position of the Czech (en)clitic, while the contact position has had the status of a stylistically, pragmatically or textually motivated position. It seems that the contact position begins to retreat only in 19th century and hence the definitive historical change of Czech auxiliary (en)clitics in the sole second position clitics was realized not before 19th or 20th century.

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... Therefore, in a recent series of papers several properties of enclitics in Old Czech and their historical development were explored (cf. Kosek et al., 2018aKosek et al., , 2018bKosek et al., , 2018cKosek et al., , 2018d, with the aim of obtaining a diachronic perspective of their characteristics. This paper represents a further step in this endeavour. ...
... Therefore, in a recent series of papers several properties of enclitics in Old Czech and their historical development were explored (cf. Kosek et al., 2018aKosek et al., , 2018bKosek et al., , 2018cKosek et al., , 2018d, with the aim of obtaining a diachronic perspective of their characteristics. This paper represents a further step in this endeavour. ...
Conference Paper
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The paper is focused on the short pronominal forms that have status of so called stálá enklitika (‘permanent enclitics’ or enclitica tantum) in Modern Czech: mi ‘me’, ti ‘to you’, si ‘to myself / to yourself etc.’, sě (> se) ‘myself / yourself etc.’, tě ‘you’, ho ‘him’, mu ‘to him’. The analysis is based on the material gained from the selected books of the oldest complete Czech Bible translation from the half of the 14th century. The first part of the study deals with the frequency of the analyzed forms, especially with the lack of the forms si, ti and the low frequency of the short forms ho, mu (developed from the disyllabic forms jeho > jho > ho, jemu > jmu > mu). The next part is focused on the word order properties of the analyzed pronominal forms that are dependent on a finite verb. The article interprets them in the light of the main competing positions of Czech enclitics during the development of the language: 1. the postinitial position, i.e. when an enclitic is located after first word / phrase; 2. the contact (verb-adjacent) position, i.e. when an enclitic is located immediately before (preverbal position) or after (postverbal position) its syntactically or morphologically superordinate item. In the last part of the article, the question of the change of the previously orthotonic forms sě, tě into the permanent enclitic forms is examined.
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