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Nutrient content evaluation of dried poultry waste urea molasses block (DPW-UMB) on In-vitro analysis

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p> The research purpose was to determine nutrient content of dried of poultry waste urea molasses block (DPW-UMB). The research method was used completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 5 replicates. The treatments used for research were T1 (10% manure of laying chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (15% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses). The data analysis was the analysis of variance (anova) and continued by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that treatments has significantly difference (P<0.01) on dry matter, crude protein, and ash. It could be concluded that dpw-umb contained sufficient levels of nutrients. it could be used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation with the required nutrients. </p
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Nutrient Content Evaluation of Dried Poultry Waste Urea Molasses Block (DPW-UMB)
on In-vitro Analysis
D. N. Adli* and O. Sjofjan
Feed Animal Nutrition Department, Animal Science Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java
ABSTRACT
The research purpose was to determine nutrient content of dried of poultry waste urea molasses block (DPW-UMB).
The research method was used completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 5 replicates. The treatments used for
research were T1 (10% manure of laying chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (15% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses),
and T3 (20% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses). The data analysis was the analysis of variance (anova) and
continued by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that treatments has significantly difference (P<0.01) on dry
matter, crude protein, and ash. The result of nutrients will stimulate the process of rumination and rumen contractions, which
in turn will improve the fermentation process the fiber feed. It could be concluded that DPW-UMB contained sufficient levels
of nutrients. It could be used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation with the required nutrients.
Kata kunci: Manure, DPW-UMB, Urea, Molasses
Evaluasi Kandungan Nutrien Kotoran Ayam Kering Molasses Blok (Kamblok) Secara In-
Vitro
ABSTRAK
Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kandungan nutrisi dari kotoran ayam kering molasses blok
(KAMBLOK) secara in-vitro. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 3 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan.
Perlakuan yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah P1 (10% kotoran ayam kering dan 25% molasses), P2 (15% kotoran
ayam kering dan 30% molasses), P3 (20 % kotoran ayam kering dan 30% molasses). Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis
ragam dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan. Hasil menunjukan perlakuan berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01) terhadap bahan
kering, protein kasar, dan abu. Hasil daripada ini dapat menstimulasi dan meningkatkan proses ruminansi. Kesimpulan dari
penelitian ini adalah kamblok dapat digunakan sebagai pakan potensial untuk suplementasi
Keywords: Kotoran ayam kering, Kamblok, Urea, Molases
INTRODUCTION
The number of beef cattle population decreased
during dry season (Andi and Wahdi, 2011). The feedlot
system is not supported by the balance of quality and
feed availability in dry and rainy season. The large
quantity of forage was available in rainy season but
limited in the dry season. Therefore, the fattening of
beef cattle was restricted due to the use of rice straw for
feeding. Normally, rice straw was given to beef cattle
during dry season.
According to Andi and Wahdi (2011) rice straw is
a by-product from grain production. Rice straw
contains low protein, low fibre and nitrogen. Low
nutrient content decreases rumen microbial population.
Supplementation from feed which consisted of energy,
mineral, vitamin, protein and non-protein-nitrogen
(NPN) was essential in fattening process (Andi and
Wahdi, 2011). Urea molasses block (UMB) is one type
of feed supplement which contains microelements.
Supplementation from the molasses block containing
soluble carbohydrates provides NPN as a source of
ammonia and minerals to enhance the formation of
microbial protein. Bacteria produce enzymes which
digest crude fibre and synthesize protein as feed source
for microbial protein. Siti et al. (2012) stated that UMB
consisted of rice bran, pollard, salt, lime, and mineral
can be used for feed supplementation.
In addition, Andi and Wahdi (2011) stated that the
nitrogen element on urea-molasses block is useful in
protein synthesis. The principal of digestion in regard
to forages is the rumen, where the feed is retained for
substantial periods of time and subjected to extensive
microbial fermentation. Waste are derivation by
product of processing that still containing a lot nutrient.
The utilization of urea NPN as animal feed provided in
layer chicken manure (Vatta et al., 2007). Boushy and
Poel (2000) stated layer manure chicken consists of
pathogenic microorganism. The low content of
essential amino acid and metabolic energy from the
manure is suggested to its utilization less than 5% of
total ration (Sinaga and Silalahi, 2012).
FAO (2010) stated the poultry industry produced
22 million tons of manure from over 18 billion
population of poultry. The high poultry waste
production caused negative effect to the environment
from ammonia content, thus it needs to be recycled.
One method to recycle is by drying the poultry waste
and used it as source of nitrogen in the urea-molasses
block. The research purpose was to determine nutrient
content of dried of poultry waste urea molasses block
(DPW-UMB).
*Penulis Korespondensi: Danung Nur Adli
Alamat: Jl. Veteran, Universitas Brawijaya 65145
E-mail: danungnuradli1994@gmail.com
Sains Peternakan Vol. 16 (2), September 2018: 50-53 www.jurnal.uns.ac.id/Sains-Peternakan
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20961/sainspet.v16i2.21264 pISSN 1693-8828 eISSN 2548-9321
Nutrient Content Evaluation… (Adli and Sjofjan) 51
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The materials used for this manufacture of dried
poultry waste urea-molasses block (DPW-UMB) are
gloves, bucket capacity 10,000 g, plastic 500 g, UMB-
block 500g with shape round and love, pressing tool,
and analytic scale. The principal ingredients were
molasses, manure layer chicken, rice bran, limestone,
cement, brick, salt, water, urea, and mineral mix. The
research method was used completely randomized
design with 3 treatments and 5 replicates. The
treatments used for research were T1 (10% manure of
laying chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (15% manure of
laying chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20%
manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses). The
poultry waste obtained from a layer farm on Magetan
Regency, East Java. The poultry waste was collected
from under the battery cages of laying house
accommodating approximately 50,000 hens. The
poultry waste collected was fresh and was not subjected
any treatment on the farm. It was placed in clean plastic
bags and transported to the Janggan Village, Magetan
Regency. The poultry waste was drying at temperature
105oC for 2 hours.
The variables observed were nutrient
compositions (Dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre,
fat, ash, gross energy). The data analysis using analysis
of variance (anova) and continued by Duncan’s
Multiple Range Test (Steel and Torrie, 1992).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSSION
Dry Matter (DM) of Dried Poultry Waste-Urea
Molasses Block (DPW-UMB)
Based on Table 1 result from the research on the
dry matter are significantly different (P<0.01). The
content of dry matter (DM) of dried poultry waste urea-
molasses block T1 is lower than T2 and T3 that table
show 61.42% lower than 90.92% and 92.04%. Dried
poultry waste urea-molasses block packaged and sun
drying for seven days. Sinaga and Silalahi (2012) stated
the greater availability of dissolved carbohydrates
causes increased activity of fermentation by bacteria to
produce lactic acid. The fermentation activity causing
loss dry matter in the dried poultry waste urea-molasses
block. Decreasing dry matter is affected by respiration
and fermentation respiration will cause a lot of the
nutrients to break down and reduce the dry matter,
while fermentation will produce lactic acid and water.
The higher water produced during made of DPW-UMB,
then loss of dry matter increase. Nurhayu et al. (2010)
reported that molasses stimulated dry matter digestion,
and even when relatively large quantities. Subsequent
animal trials Wayne et al. (2003) demonstrated that the
digestibility of molasses block combined with forage
was noticeably reduced by molasses.
Crude Protein (CP) of Dried Poultry Waste-Urea
Molasses Block (DPW-UMB)
Based on the results of the research (Table 1)
administration the crude protein results are
significantly different (P<0.01). The several factors
affected are processing, formulation, and kind of
material from one place. The table show the content of
the DPW-UMB on crude protein (CP) T3 highest than
T1 and T2 the result is 13.34% compared with 10.05%
and 10.33% this is because the percentage of
formulation layer manure is 20% than T1 and T2 15%
and 10%. The highest are due to the level dried poultry
waste given with level manure are highest than T1 and
T2. Nurhayu et al. (2010) stated urea molasses block
(UMB) nutrient content consist urea and molasses
showed crude protein is 12.76%. Crude protein (CP) on
T3 is 13.34% using dried poultry waste combining with
molasses the statistics better than urea molasses block
(UMB).
The rapidly digested nature of the sugars in
molasses increases the animal’s ability to utilize soluble
proteins increasing microbial growth and maximizing
microbial production. Comparison crude protein
content on the dried layer chicken is 13.47% and dried
broiler excreta is 21.59%. The result was similar to
Sinaga and Silalahi (2012) stated the content of protein
in the dried poultry waste is 12-31% layer chicken. The
negative effect that sugars and molasses appear to have
on supplementation digestibility has been shown to be
related to the crude protein content of the diet. Wayne
et al. (2003) showed that the negative effect of glucose
supplementation on the digestibility of crude fiber in
hay diets of yearling cattle was completely eliminated
by increasing the protein content of the diet.
Crude Fiber (CF) of Dried Poultry Waste-Urea
Molasses Block (DPW-UMB)
Tabel 1
. DPW-UMB nutrient content
Variables Treatments
T1
T2
T3
Dry matter (%)
61.42±1,76
a
90.92±0,32
ab
92.04±0,38
ab
Crude protein (%)
10.05±0.23
a
10.33±0,05
a
13.34±0,05
ab
Crude fiber (%)
17.41±0.43
a
8.20±0.48
a
13.39±0.52
a
Ash
27.26±0,04
a
31.69±0,19
a
37.16±0,17
ab
Fat
(%)
3.51±0.60
a
3065.8±9.85
a
3.95±0.38
a
2949.50±6,54
a
3.44±0.35
a
2631.63±6,56
a
Gross energy (kcal/kg)
a,b,c The different superscript in the same row showed significantly different (P< 0.01) T1 (10% manure of laying chicken and 25% molasses),
T2 (15% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses)
52 Sains Peternakan Vol. 16 (2), 2018
Based on the results of the research (Table 1)
administration of crude fiber did not significant effect
(P>0.05). Crude fiber from dried poultry waste urea-
molasses block on the T1 is higher than T2 and T3 from
the table show 18.41% higher than 8.20 and 13.39%.
The T1 are highest due to the level of the dried poultry
waste given that increasing the crude fiber. Crude fiber
will stimulate the process of rumination and rumen
contractions, which in turn will improve the
fermentation process the fiber feed. The main result of
the fermentation of fibrous carbohydrates is acetic acid.
Crude fiber content of high feed can be a limiting factor
for consumption. Crude fiber that is both bulky feed
will stay longer in the rumen and can suppress
consumption. As will be discussed later, the feeding of
molasses, significantly reduces the apparent
digestibility of protein. In view of the above
interrelationships between levels of molasses, dietary
crude protein and the digestibility of fiber, the
inhibition of molasses on protein metabolism
apparently is occurring in the rumen.
Nurhayu et al. (2010) stated urea molasses block
(UMB) nutrient content consist urea and molasses
showed crude fiber (CF) is 6.65%. Crude fiber (CF) on
T3 is 18.41% using dried poultry waste combining with
molasses the statistics better than urea molasses block
(UMB). Crude fiber is also an indicator of the low
digestibility of a feed material. The digestibility of
crude fiber depends on the content of crude fiber in
formulations. The result match with Wayne et al. (2003)
stated supplementation in the solid form effect same
with the concentrate because both have a function to
increase growth and number of rumen microbes.
Further it increases the palatability of the ration,
reduces dustiness and serves as an economical carrier
for many ingredients.
Ash of Dried Poultry Waste-Urea Molasses Block
(DPW-UMB)
Based on Table 1 result from the research on the
ash are significantly different (P<0.01). Ash content
from dried poultry waste urea-molasses block on the T3
is highest than T2 and T1 from the table show 37.16%
higher than 31.69% and 27.26%. Those condition due
to the dried poultry waste formulation. The ash content
from dried poultry layer waste is 6.95% combining with
dried broiler waste 6.49%. Ash is residues remaining
after all the combustible material has been turned off.
The nutritionally ash values have little importance on
DPW-UMB in this component salt and limestone given
the content of ash. The cement function in the DPW-
UMB is for source silica (micro-mineral) and hardener.
The ash content has positive correlation with crude
protein (CP) content in dry poultry waste urea-molasses
block. Nurhayu et al. (2010) stated urea molasses block
(UMB) nutrient content consist urea and molasses
showed ash is 14.04%. Ash on T3 is 37.16% using dried
poultry waste combining with molasses the statistics
better than urea molasses block (UMB). Determination
of total ash can be used for many purposes for this case
to determine whether or not a treatment on this case
made of dried poultry waste urea-molasses block. The
total ash knowing type of material composed, and as a
determinant of the nutritional value parameters of a
feedstuff.
Fats of Dried Poultry Waste-Urea Molasses Block
(DPW-UMB) UMB)
Based on the results of the research (Table 1)
administration of fat did not significant effect (P>0.05).
Lipids or fats are a heterogeneous group of organic
compounds found in living microorganism. Lipid are
soluble in the organic solvents like ether or chloroform.
Fats are required for a long term storage of metabolic
energy to supply essential fatty acids and to carry fat
vitamin. Fat in the dried poultry waste urea-molasses
block on the T3 is lower than T2 and T1 from the Table
1 show 3.44% lower than 3.95 and 3.51% its because
condition happen from rice bran while the rice bran as
gave the fats condition to the feedstuff and increase the
content of the fat. Nurhayu et al. (2010) stated urea
molasses block (UMB) nutrient content consist urea
and molasses showed fat is 2.51%. Fat on T3 is 3.44%
using dried poultry waste combining with molasses the
statistics better than urea molasses block (UMB). The
rice bran provides some key nutrients including fat and
phosphorus. Rice bran helps absorbent for the moisture
contained in molasses and gives structure to the block.
The fats are high digestible and reducing dustiness.
Gross Energy (GE) of Dried Poultry Waste-Urea
Molasses Block (DPW-UMB)
Based on the results of the research (Table 1)
administration of gross energy did not significant effect
(P>0.05). Energy is defined as the ability or capacity to
work in living organism. Energy is essential for the
maintenance of life processes including cellular
metabolism, growth, reproduction, and physical
activity. Gross energy (GE) is the quantity of heat
resulting from the complete oxidation of food, feed, or
Tabel
2
. Manure of layer and molasses nutrient content
Variables Ingredients
Manure of layer Molasses
Dry matter (%) 89.94 67.50
Crude protein
(%)
13.47
3.50
Crude fiber (%)
8.38 10.50
Ash (%) 6.95 5.67
Fat (%) 3.95 2.51
Gross energy (kcal/kg)
1657
2234
Nutrient Content Evaluation… (Adli and Sjofjan) 53
other substances. Gross Energy (GE) from dried
poultry waste urea-molasses block on the T1 is higher
than T2 and T3 from the table show 3065.82 cal/kg
higher than 2949.50 cal/kg and 2631.63 cal/kg. The
level of gross energy highest depend on the molasses
content in the feedstuff that given the sources of the
energy.
Molasses is residual crop from sugarcane in the
liquid form and bagasse is solid form the content of the
molasses is providing energy and source of
carbohydrate. The molasses taken from Rejosari
sugarcane industry. The molasses is reached maximum
during dry season and residues cannot utilize well in the
Magetan Regency. The molasses gave 25% for T1 and
30% for T2 and T3. The result of T1 higher because
during the mixing with other feedstuff molasses absorb
well into dried poultry waste urea-molasses block.
Molasses can be used to fulfill a portion of the energy
provided by starch.
The method during made of DPW-UMB is the
factor to given the result of content DPW-UMB. The
result matches with Mubi et al., (2013) stated molasses
and sugar are sources of energy for ruminants.
Molasses can increase microbial growth in the rumen.
Bata (2008) give additional information stated the main
uses of molasses are as a binding agent or binder in
feedstuff. The molasses act granules to improve
palatability in feedstuff ration. Wayne et al. (2003)
stated microbial production is high-quality by-pass
protein and drastically altered rumen VFA. The result
giving additional statement from Arnita et al. (2010)
stated rumen microbial growth requires N availability
as much as 1.28% N or equivalent with 8% protein.
CONCLUSION
It could be concluded that DPW-UMB contained
sufficient levels of nutrients. The T3 were the best due
to the nutrients. It could be used as feedstuff for
ruminants for supplementation with the required
nutrients.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research has been supported by
RISTEKDIKTI that qualified in the national scientific
paper (PIMNAS 28) at Haluoleo University Kendari.
The authors thank to Janggan Farmer group as our
partner for this research.
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... Duck demand increase due it easy and fulfillment in development countries like Indonesia. The statistically data demand on the poultry market increased nationally (Adli et al., 2018). The data until fourth quarter 2019, broilers increased about 4.9% compared to the population in 2018 (1.4 billion heads) (BPS-RI, 2020). ...
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Adli DN. 2020. Short Communication: Growth performance, and blood profile of kampong chicken fed diets containing Moringa oleifera powder and liquid. Asian J Agric 3: 72-75. The research purpose is to carry out the possible effect of Moringa oleifera on Growth performance, and intestinal properties of Lohmann broiler. 80 one-day-old kampong were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments and 4 replicates of 5 birds per cage. Four treatments used for research were dietary with control (T0), basal diet + M. oleifera 80 g (T1), Drinking water + 2 mL/L M. oleifera (T2), and basal feed + M. oleifera 80 g+ drinking water 2 mL/L M. oleifera (T3). The results showed that using M. oleifera presented no significant difference (P < 0.05) on body weight gain at 1-35 days and intestinal properties. The microstructure didn't affect negatively to its structure. In conclusion, addition of M. oleifera does not impact growth performance, and but can reduce amount of glucose of kampong chicken.
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This study was carried out with the cooperation of farmers owning communally grazed indigenous goats in southwestern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, where farmers had identified poor reproductive performance in their herds as one of their major problems. The aim was to quantify the effects of 3 interventions and the interaction between these interventions on goat productivity and gastrointestinal nematode infection. The interventions were: urea-molasses block supplementation during the dry winter seasons of 2004 and 2005, tactical anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin (400 microg/kg) during the wet summer period (on 3 January 2005) and symptomatic treatment with ivermectin (400 microg/kg) of all goats judged anaemic throughout the entire study period. The FAMACHA system was used as a gauge of anaemia. It was noted that goats considered anaemic tended to remain so throughout the study period. The tactical anthelmintic treatment was effective as it markedly reduced (P = 0.066) the summer peak in faecal egg counts and is therefore recommended. By contrast, while the urea-molasses block supplementation appeared to reduce the faecal egg counts immediately following the 2004 supplementation (P < 0.05), this did not hold true in 2005. Interestingly, in the tactically treated anaemic goats, the improvement in the number of kids suckled per doe year-on-year tended to be greater than in the non-anaemic goats. It is considered that the routine symptomatic treatment of anaemic goats may have been a key factor. More detailed investigations into the routine symptomatic treatment of anaemic goats are therefore recommended.
Peningkatan reproduksi sapi induk Brahman cross post-partum dengan pemberian pakan supplemen multinutrient block plus medicated
  • S Andi
  • A Wahdi
Andi, S., and A. Wahdi. 2011. Peningkatan reproduksi sapi induk Brahman cross post-partum dengan pemberian pakan supplemen multinutrient block plus medicated. Jurnal Ilmiah Aplikasi Isotop dan Radiasi 1907: 127-143.
Agricultural handbook: poultry meat and eggs. 1st edn, FAO Investment Centre Division
  • A R Y Boushy
  • V D Poel
Boushy, A. R. Y. and V. D. Poel. 2000. Handbook of poultry feed from waste processing and use. 2 nd edition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherland. FAO. 2010. Agricultural handbook: poultry meat and eggs. 1st edn, FAO Investment Centre Division, Rome Italy.
Drying of poultry manure for use animal feed
  • A E Ghaly
  • K N Macdonald
Ghaly, A. E. and K. N. Macdonald. 2012. Drying of poultry manure for use animal feed. American Journal of Agriculture and Biology Science 7: 239-254.
Kajian pemanfaatan pakan lokal dan urea molasses blok (UMB) untuk penggemukan sapi potong di kabupaten pinrang sulawesi selatan
  • A Nurhayu
  • D Pasambe
  • M Sariubang
Nurhayu, A., D. Pasambe, dan M. Sariubang. 2010. Kajian pemanfaatan pakan lokal dan urea molasses blok (UMB) untuk penggemukan sapi potong di kabupaten pinrang sulawesi selatan Jurnal Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner 23: 194-199.