Article

Institutional challenges to the conservation of Arabuko-Sokoke Coastal Forest in Kenya

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Main aims of PFM include: (1) Directly engaging local communities in the management of natural resources; (2) Devolving management power from state to local people; 3. Improving livelihoods through alternative livelihood strategies that are mainly natural resource based; And, (4) The inclusion of traditional values and ecological knowledge in present resource management strategies (Kellert et al. 2000). However, the success of PFM is under debate, especially for Sub-Sahara Africa where there are often high levels of poverty, demographic pressure and broad ethnic diversity (Kellert et al. 2000;Schreckenberg et al. 2007;Busck-Lumholt and Treue 2018). The following factors may antagonize the success of PFM: (1) Weak governance structures and professional incompetence (Habel et al. 2017); (2) naïve assumptions underlining PFM and overestimated financial benefits (Fabricius et al. 2007); (3) elite-capture of PFM projects and benefits (Blomley et al. 2008a, b); (4) reluctance of states to devolve power in high value areas (Wily 2002); and, (5) different understandings of PFM by various stakeholders (Ming'ate and Bollig 2016). ...
... A prominent example of PFM in Sub-Sahara Africa is the region surrounding the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest (ASF) in south-eastern Kenya (Gordon and Ayiemba 2003;Busck-Lumholt and Treue 2018). The ASF is the largest remaining dry coastal forest of East Africa (Gordon and Ayiemba 2003) and provides suitable habitats to many endangered endemic animal and plant species (Kenyan Forest Service 2019). ...
... For example, the Kipepeo project (2019) focuses on butterfly farming, whereby local people catch and/or rear butterfly pupae from the forest and its margins for export to various butterfly houses across the world (Gordon and Ayiemba 2003). Other alternative income activities support bee keeping, tree planting, the cultivation of aloe-vera and mushroom, and small livestock farming (Ming'ate and Bollig 2016;Busck-Lumholt and Treue 2018). Despite these efforts, the decrease of habitat quality and biodiversity is still evident (Cuadros-Casanova et al. 2018) and income sources hinged on PFM remain precarious (Mang'ate and Bollig 2016;Busck-Lumholt and Treue 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Participatory forest management (PFM) is a major approach towards the reconciliation of biodiversity conservation and human livelihood needs. PFM was implemented around the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest (ASF), the largest remaining forest block of the East African coastal forest of southern Kenya, during the early 1990s. While forest cover has remained stable, there is evidence for persistent selective logging with subsequent reduction of habitat quality and a steady decline in biodiversity. We conducted structured surveys and semi-structured expert interviews to investigate the efficiency and acceptance of PFM by the local community. Hereby we considered two ethnic groups: The Waatha, the first known occupiers of the ASF, and the Giriama, recent settlers. We assessed the level of local awareness based on indigenous and modern ecological knowledge, peoples´ attitudes towards forest conservation, and their willingness to apply good environmental practices. Our quantitative analysis revealed low awareness of the uniqueness of biodiversity in ASF. Male respondents and those with higher formal education or indigenous knowledge, and long-term residents show significantly higher awareness. Majority (80%) of participants perceive the forest as being of high socioeconomic relevance and is a very important ecosystem service provider. However, less than half of the respondents express personal responsibility towards the conservation of this forest. The Waatha people show significantly higher scores on traditional ecological knowledge, willingness and personal responsibility towards forest conservation than the recent settlers, the Giriama. This study underlines that successful PFM depends on inter-ethnic relations and the history of the local people living in the ecosystem.
... Historical land injustices and recent unequal benefit-sharing combats positive attitudes towards nature conservation (Njogu, 2004;Githiru, 2007;Nzau et al. 2020;2021a). The promise of PFM to address these inequalities (see Kellert et al. 2000) has so far achieved mixed results in improving people's livelihoods around ASF (Ming'ate & Bollig, 2016;Busck-Lumholt & Treue, 2018) and Taita Hills (Hohenthal, 2018;Rülke et al. 2020), as well as in ecological conservation outcomes (Cuadros-Casanova et al. 2018;Bendzko et al. 2019;Schürmann et al. 2020;Teucher et al. 2020). We recorded low awareness on biodiversity for all three study sites, despite the fact that ASF and Taita Hills are listed as global biodiversity hotspots and still hold a large number of endemic endangered plant and animal species Rülke et al. 2020;Nzau et al. 2021a). ...
... In general, environmental information from governmental-and non-governmental organizations was met with distrust 2021a), while local chiefs were regarded as important sources of environmental information, even though they were hardly trained as environmental experts (Nzau, 2021). This distrust may arise from past alienation experiences with conservation agencies, and creates communication anomalies that derail the success of co-management conservation initiatives (Hohenthal, 2018;Busck-Lumholt & Treue, 2018;Nzau et al. 2020;2021a). Although the usage of all sources of environmental information was prevalent in Taita Hills, it coincided with a general distrust for all external sources of environmental information, which increased with age (Nzau et al. 2021a). ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous conservation activities in Africa have been of little effect. In this study, we investigate socio-economic trade-offs that might have been overlooked, yet may undermine conservation action in discret pathways. Data was collected in three study sites with fragile forest ecosystems in south-eastern Kenya, through locally adapted structured surveys and semi-structured expert guides. These analyses are drawn from 827 structured surveys and 37 expert interviews, which were done during 2016–2018. We found general coherences between age, gender, ethnicity, indigenous knowledge, formal education, and higher incomes, which shapes forest conservation attitudes. Indigenous knowledge is marginal, and most people with formal education in the rural setting are likely to be young without legal land rights or among the minority with off-farm employment. The reluctance to address historical land injustices and inequitable sharing of entitlements and management authority overrides positive attitudes and intentions towards forest conservation in all three study sites. However, we found considerable discrepancies among the three study sites. For Arabuko Sokoke forest, the awareness of forest conservation was relatively low when compared with the other two study sites. Forests play a major role against the backdrop of resource use in all three regions. But, different ecosystem services are used among the three study sites. For environmental education and communication, internet plays a comparatively minor role. Strategies to preserve forest differ among the three study sites: Reforestation is proposed in cloud forests of Taita Hills and riparian forests, whereas off-farm employment and alternative income sources plays a major role in Arabuko Sokoke forest. Our findings underline that locally specific conservation management is needed to conduct efficient nature conservation, particularly in countries with very heterogeneous ethnicities and environments.
... How these outcomes are shaped by underlying factors, such as socioeconomic conditions, market access, and biophysical location of villages remains, however, less well understood (Dasgupta, 2017;Gilmour, 2016;Hajjar et al., 2016;Min-Venditti, Moore, & Fleischman, 2017;Rasolofoson, Ferraro, Jenkins, & Jones, 2015). Impact evaluations have been implemented in multiple countries to better understand the role of various drivers in generating positive environmental and social outcomes from community forest management, including in Madagascar (Rasolofoson et al., 2015;Rasolofoson et al., 2017); Peruvian Amazon (Schleicher, Peres, Amano, Llactayo, & Leader-Williams, 2017); Uganda (Jagger, Sellers, Kittner, Das, & Bush, 2018); Thailand (Janmaimool, 2016); Bangladesh (Chowdhury, Zahra, Rahman, & Islam, 2018); Kenya (Busck-Lumholt & Treue, 2018); and Indonesia (Maryudi et al., 2012;Nurrochmat, Dharmawan, Obidzinski, Dermawan, & Erbaugh, 2016). Nevertheless, a review by Hajjar et al. (2016) of 697 cases of community forest management found that understanding about the impacts of community forestry remains limited, mostly because of three key trends. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many tropical countries continue to devolve forest management to forest-dwelling communities. The assumption is that local knowledge of forests and community engagement in forest management will attain multiple social and environmental co-benefits, such as poverty alleviation and reduced deforestation and fires. Evidence for this, however, is scant, commonly hampered by data availability and a lack of technical capacity for implementing statistically robust impact evaluations. Based on a practice-based review of policy implementation, impact evaluation of case studies and examples of counterfactual analyses from Indonesia, we demonstrate that it is increasingly feasible to determine the conditions under which community forest management will most likely achieve its social and environmental objectives. Adapting community forest management implementation based on feedback from accurate impact evaluation could lead to positive outcomes for people and environment in Indone-sia, and across the tropical realm.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated collaborative information behaviour of butterfly farmers working in the Integrated Conservation and Development Project (ICDP) located in the neighbourhood of Amani Nature Reserve, Tanzania. The study was motivated by the fact that despite extensive studies on collaborative information behavior in such domains as education, medical, and the military there is a knowledge gap in our understanding of farmers’ collaborative information behavior in the context of collaborative farming. The investigation sought to investigate the shared information needs of farmers in the ICDP project; the patterns of collaborative seeking, sharing and exchanging information of farmers in ICDP; and how butterfly farmers, ANR and TFCG officials in ICDP perceive the link between collaborative farming and collaborative information behaviour. The study applied qualitative approach in analysing group information behaviour guide by the social capital theoretical lens. The data were collected through interviews and observation and analysed using thematic categorisation. The findings of the study revealed that collaborative farming practices, formal structure of relationship between farmers and characteristics farmers were the factors which shaped the way farmers sought, shared and exchanged knowledge and information. It was further revealed that the interplay between collaborative information behaviour and collaborative farming practices were strong enough to support effective implementation of ICDP goals. The study has demonstrated the importance of using social capital factors particularly group structure, embedded resources and shared goals to understand human information behaviour. The findings also shed light to policy and decision makers in the sectors of agriculture and natural resources on the importance of understanding the relationships between information, conservation and development. With regard to practice, the findings have implications to stakeholders engaging on different ICDPs in understanding the role of information on promoting integrated and sustainable agricultural practices.
Article
Full-text available
We evaluate the livelihoods of member and non-members of Community Forestry Associations under Kenya's participatory forest management (PFM) programme. We use propensity score matching of households based on recall based data from before implementation of PFM from 286 households and comparison of current incomes (2012), as well as review of records and interviews. Results reveal that members have higher total and forest-related incomes than non-members and indicate that impacts derive from labour and market opportunities supported by donor institutions, more than from differential access to forest products. In terms of governance the Kenya Forest Service largely remains in control of decision-making. Thus, PFM resembles Integrated Conservation and Development Project (ICDP) approaches. We conclude that current forest governance approaches in Kenya appear not to support participation in practice. Further, we conclude that impact evaluations must examine both outcomes and participatory forestry to provide meaningful policy evidence.
Article
Full-text available
In Kenya, a Participatory Forest Management (PFM) approach was adopted through formation of Community Forest Associations (CFA) to improve forest cover and their livelihoods as provided for in the Forest Act 2005. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors influencing the level of CFA members’ participation in PFM activities in selected forests in Kenya. The study was undertaken on the Ontukigo and Ngare Ndare CFAs involved in participatory management of the Ontulili and Ngare Ndare forests respectively, located in the Eastern Conservancy, Buuri Sub County (Meru County) in Kenya. Semi structured questionnaires were administered to randomly selected 80 CFA and 80 Non CFA members. Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, including focused group discussions and community wealth characterization, were used to collect qualitative data for precise description of the quantitative data. The level of participation of CFA members in PFM activities was positively and significantly influenced by the level of perceived PFM benefits (χ2 = 38.73, P = 0.05); range of farm size (χ2 = 12.72, P = 0.05); and nature of the head-of-household (χ2 = 29.99, P = 0.001). As such, benefits gained from the forest play an important role as incentives to community participation in PFM.
Article
Full-text available
The coastal forests of Kenya are conservation priorities hosting high levels of biodiversity. Monitoring of biodiversity in these forests is therefore necessary to understand and reverse negative trends in good time. Using the Important Bird Area (IBA) monitoring framework, a participatory approach, state (habitat condition), pressure (threats) and response (conservation action) indicators of twelve coastal Kenya forest IBAs were assessed from 2004 to 2011. Trends for these indicators were assessed at six sites for which sufficient data existed: Arabuko-Sokoke, Dakatcha Woodlands, Gede Ruins, Lower Tana River, Shimba Hills and Taita Hills, and baselines were described for remaining six. Changes were always small, but state deteriorated in Gede, Lower Tana and Shimba Hills, remained the same (unfavourable) in Arabuko-Sokoke and Dakatcha, and improved in Taita Hills. Pressure reduced in Arabuko-Sokoke, Dakatcha and Taita Hills, deteriorated in Lower Tana and Shimba Hills and remained the same (medium) in Gede. Response improved in Dakatcha, remained the same (medium) in Shimba Hills, and deteriorated in the rest. As there was an apparent overall deterioration in the forests assessed, improved management of the protected sites and increased conservation action through community engagement around protected areas and within the nonprotected IBAs are recommended.
Article
Full-text available
The extent to which community forestry (CF) contributes to empowerment of local communities remains hotly contested. We develop a unified theory of empowerment at the intersection of asset-based agency and institution-based opportunity and apply it to examine the extent to which the implementation of CF has led to local empowerment. Our empirical data are drawn from review of national level policies and a field study of Ngare Ndare Community Forest Association (CFA) in Kenya. We investigated what types of powers were transferred to the local level, how representative the local institution was of the local community, and how its formation and composition affected the empowerment of socially and economically differentiated groups, with competing claims over the forest resource. We found that national forest policies and actors transferred minimal powers that enabled local communities to execute forest protection and conservation roles, while maintaining legislative powers and control of economic benefits centrally; and, that representation within the CFA was highly skewed in favor of small and already powerful local elites. We discuss the findings in the light of the literature on empowerment to develop insights about how to more effectively manage processes to empower local communities through appropriately representative institutions.
Article
Full-text available
Community Forest Management (CFM) is a widespread conservation approach in the tropics. It is also promoted as a means by which payment for ecosystem services schemes can be implemented. However, evidence on its performance is weak. We investigated the effectiveness of CFM at reducing deforestation from 2000 to 2010 in Madagascar. To control for factors confounding impact estimates, we used statistical matching. We also contrasted the effects of CFM by whether commercial use of forest resources is allowed or not. We cannot detect an effect, on average, of CFM compared to no CFM, even when we restricted the sample to only where information suggests effective CFM implementation on the ground. Likewise, we cannot detect an effect of CFM where commercial use of natural resources is allowed. However, we can detect a reduction in deforestation in CFM that does not permit commercial uses, compared to no CFM or CFM allowing commercial uses. Our findings suggest that CFM and commercial use of forest resources are not guarantees of forest conservation and that differentiating among types of CFM is important.
Article
Full-text available
Despite repeated pleas for participatory and deliberative governance of environmental resources, there is still a predominance of technocratic values in environmental decision-making. This is especially true in the context of forest management in the Global South where centralised and technically-oriented colonial approaches of the past continue to be reproduced and exclude affected people to have their say and share in forest related decision-making and benefit distribution. Taking a case study from Nepal's Community Forestry Program, this paper shows that despite major shifts towards practices of participatory forestry, the technocratic domination of forest science in governance has taken new and more subtle forms (considered “doxa” – taken for granted forms – after Bourdieu) of control over forestry practices. In this paper, techno-bureaucratic doxa is problematised as a key challenge to deliberative governance, and specific ways are illustrated through which it constrains deliberation in forest governance. Emerging moments of crisis in this doxa are also identified to explore possibilities for greater citizen-public official deliberation in forest governance.
Article
Full-text available
Commons projects, such as community-based natural resource management, have widespread appeal, which has enabled them to shrug off a mixed performance in practice. This paper discusses how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR) theory may have inadvertently contributed to the unfulfilled expectations of commons projects. The paper argues that the individual ‘rational resource user’, encapsulated in the CPR design principles, struggles to provide clear direction for meaningful consideration of local norms, values and interests in commons projects. The focus of CPR theory on efficiency and functionality results in a tendency in commons projects to overlook how local conditions are forged through relations at multiple scales. Commonly politically complex and changing relations are reduced to institutional design problems based on deriving the incentives and disincentives of ‘rational resource users. The corollary is that CPR theory oversimplifies the project context that it is seeking to change because it offers little or no direction to deal with the social embeddedness of resource use or implications of different stratifications.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents results from a comparative analysis of environmental income from approximately 8000 households in 24 developing countries collected by research partners in CIFOR’s Poverty Environment Network (PEN). Environmental income accounts for 28% of total household income, 77% of which comes from natural forests. Environmental income shares are higher for low-income households, but differences across income quintiles are less pronounced than previously thought. The poor rely more heavily on subsistence products such as wood fuels and wild foods, and on products harvested from natural areas other than forests. In absolute terms environmental income is approximately five times higher in the highest income quintile, compared to the two lowest quintiles.
Article
Full-text available
Although tropical forest conservation is a top priority for human and environmental health, deforestation persists, mainly because of food and economic needs. No community will totally give up economic activities for the sake of ecological integrity, unless it is given alternative economic activities from which to draw its livelihood. Beekeeping in the forest buffer zone instead of traditional destructive honey-harvesting from forest trees is one such option at Arabuko Sokoke Forest (ASF) in Kenya. ASF is a dry coastal forest which is home to endangered and threatened fauna and is a hotspot considered a priority for conservation. In order to find out whether honey quantity and quality differed with distance from the forest , we studied honey yield per harvest (kg) and obtained samples from hives placed at varying distances from ASF in two successive years. Honey yield increased with proximity to the forest. Indeed the yield almost doubled in hives placed less than 1 km from the forest compared to those placed more than 3 km from the forest. All the honey samples met internationally required quality standards, although sugar levels were at the lower limit. This study demonstrates that the conservation of tropical forest ecosystems can have real local economic benefits. The documentation of the services provided by nearby natural areas should help make conservation of these areas a priority, even for the local communities.
Article
Full-text available
The Kipepeo Project is a community-based butterfly farming project on the margins of Arabuko-Sokoke Forest on the north coast of Kenya. This forest is a globally important forest for biodiversity conservation. In the early 1990s, 54% to 59% of the local community wanted the entire forest cleared for settlement and the forest was invaded by farmers on several occasions. The Kipepeo Project was set up to change community attitudes to the forest by giving them a stake in its conservation. Kipepeo trained farmers living next to the forest to rear forest butterflies. Butterfly pupae were purchased from the farmers for export to the live butterfly exhibit industry in Europe and the United States. Cumulative community earnings from 1994 to 2001 exceeded $130,000 with significant positive effects on both livelihoods and attitudes. The project has been financially self-sustaining since 1999. Butterfly monitoring indicates that there have been no adverse effects on wild butterfly populations.
Article
Full-text available
Incentives used to encourage local residents to support conservation range from integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs), which indirectly connect improved livelihoods with biodiversity protection, to direct payments for ecosystem services (PES). A unique hybrid between these two strategies, the Arabuko-Sokoke Schools and Ecotourism Scheme (ASSETS), provides secondary-school bursaries to en-courage stewardship of a biodiverse highly-imperiled Kenyan forest. Household surveys and semi-structured interviews were used to assess the effectiveness of ASSETS by comparing attitudes and perceptions toward the forest among scheme beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. The most commonly identified benefit of the forest was resource extraction (for example fuelwood), followed by ecosystem services (such as source of rain). Those in favour of forest clearing tended not to be ASSETS beneficiaries, were less-educated, and were less likely to mention ecosystem services and tourism as forest benefits. ASSETS appears to shape pro-conservation attitudes among beneficiaries and foster a sense of responsibility toward the forest. Challenges for ASSETS are similar to those faced by many conservation and development projects, namely unsteady funding and the risk that the extremely poor may be overlooked. ASSETS may serve as an effective hybrid between the PES and ICDP approaches, and such educational support provides a promising conservation incentive.
Article
Full-text available
The involvement of local communities, as well as the private sector and the government in forest management is now an important principle of tropical forestry policy and practice and a major component of most international forestry aid programmes. This paper present an analysis on the Joint Forest Management Project initiated by two timber companies (Ghana Primewood Products Ltd and Dalhoff Larsen & Horneman) in collaboration with local people in Gwira-Banso of Ghana. Conditions required for enhancing responsibility for and commitment to local forest management, and for an effective local participatory process were also analysed. The study began with the premise that incentives and good communication will enhance participation in joint forest management. The assumption was valid and the results from the survey showed that five broad issues prioritised by respondents to be essential for co-partnership in forest management are communication, financial support, tree planting, multiple land use and benefit sharing. The Project enjoys a great deal of support from the local community, but a number of factors make the continued support of local people a challenging task, including questions of immediate livelihood sources and tenure arrangements. Although this participatory forest management has been implemented over a relatively short period, there is evidence that government and private sectors can successfully involve local people in sustainable management of the forests.
Article
Full-text available
Thirty-one articles on community forestry, encompassing 69 case studies worldwide, were reviewed for systematic data synthesis and hypothesis testing. The meta-study identifies 43 independent variables ranging from internal attributes of the community and resources to external factors. Variables with significant influence on the success of community forestry are tenure security, clear ownership, congruence between biophysical and socioeconomic boundaries of the resources, effective enforcement of rules and regulations, monitoring, sanctioning, strong leadership with capable local organization, expectation of benefits, common interests among community members, and local authority. These variables illustrate community–forest relationships, community ability to organize and continue collective activities, and protection of benefits, rights, and responsibilities in common resource management.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The term “access” is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as “the ability to derive benefits from things,” broadening from property's classical definition as “the right to benefit from things.” Access, following this definition, is more akin to “a bundle of powers” than to property's notion of a “bundle of rights.” This formulation includes a wider range of social relationships that constrain or enable benefits from resource use than property relations alone. Using this framing, we suggest a method of access analysis for identifying the constellations of means, relations, and processes that enable various actors to derive benefits from resources. Our intent is to enable scholars, planners, and policy makers to empirically “map” dynamic processes and relationships of access.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a critical assessment of the field of common prop-erty. After discussing briefly the major findings and accomplishments of the scholar-ship on the commons, the paper pursues two strategies of critique. The first strategy of friendly critique accepts the basic assumptions of most writings on common property to show that scholars of commons have discovered far more variables that potentially affect resource management than is possible to analyze carefully. The paper identifies some potential means to address the problem of too many variables. The second line of critique proceeds differently. It asks how analyses of common property might change, and what they need to consider, if they loosen assumptions about sovereign selves and apolitical property rights institutions. My examination of these questions concludes this review with an emphasis on the need to (a) attend more carefully to processes of subject formation, and (b) investigate common property arrangements and associated subject positions with greater historical depth.
Article
Full-text available
Levels of transaction costs in community-based forest management (CBFM) in four communities adjacent to the Ambangulu mountain forests of the north-east of Tanzania were assessed through questionnaire responses from 120 households. Costs and benefits of CBFM to the rich, medium and poor groups of forest users were estimated. Costs of CBFM were participation in forest monitoring and time spent in meetings. Benefits included forest products consumed at household level. Transaction costs relative to benefits for CBFM were found to be higher for poorer households compared with medium income and richer households. Higher income groups obtained the most net benefits followed by medium and poorer households. Community involvement in forest management may lower the transaction costs incurred by government, but a large proportion of these costs are borne by poorer members of the community. Transaction costs are critical factors in the success or failure of CBFM and need to be incorporated into policies and legislation related to community-based natural resource management.
Article
Full-text available
A community-based monitoring system that focuses on natural resource use and forest quality in montane evergreen forest and miombo woodland areas was developed and implemented in 23 villages in 2002 as part of a participatory forest management regime in Iringa District, Tanzania. The scheme was developed to suit the needs and capacities of locally-elected natural resource committees managing and monitoring natural forests. Rather than measuring biodiversity, the monitoring is focused on resource extraction and disturbance. High levels of commitment to the monitoring were displayed by village level managers, and the preliminary feed-back indicates that the monitoring scheme provides them with the relevant information needed to suggest appropriate management interventions. While external support has been essential to cover development costs, natural resource revenue generated at village level can provide most of the running costs. Once developed, the scheme can, however, be transferred to similar areas at significantly lower costs that can be met by Tanzanian District budgets. Natural resource revenue generated from montane forests is generally much lower than in woodland areas due to restrictions on resource extraction imposed as a consequence of national and international interests. Opportunities to provide economic incentives for montane forest managers through direct utilisation of the resource are limited and it remains to be seen whether other non-economic incentives can sustain long term commitment in these biodiversity rich areas. Findings indicate that the key elements of this local resource utilisation monitoring scheme are simplicity, incentive mechanisms, transparency and accountability, and autonomy for local managers. However, the methods may not provide sufficient data on changes in biodiversity values in the high value forests and may need to be augmented by conventional monitoring by scientists funded by national or international institutions. Elements of the scheme are now being institutionalised within the forestry sector in Tanzania.
Article
Full-text available
In 1990, Elinor Ostrom proposed eight design principles, positing them to characterize robust institutions for managing common-pool resources such as forests or fisheries. Since then, many studies have explicitly or implicitly evaluated these design principles. We analyzed 91 such studies to evaluate the principles empirically and to consider what theoretical issues have arisen since their introduction. We found that the principles are well supported empirically and that several important theoretical issues warrant discussion. We provide a reformulation of the design principles, drawing from commonalities found in the studies.
Article
Full-text available
"Collaborative forest management (CFM) is loosely defined as a working partnership between the key stakeholders in the management of a given forest—key stakeholders being local forest users and state forest departments, as well as parties such as local governments, civic groups and nongovernmental organisations, and the private sector. The paper reviews worldwide experience in CFM to date, considering the forms that it takes in different tenure situations. Overall, mechanisms of CFM are diversifying, reflecting a greater recognition of the need for partnerships in forest management. Due to entrenched power structures within both government institutions and communities, it is not easy to promote social justice and sustainable livelihoods through CFM. Nevertheless, examples exist of local people gaining a strong, legally backed voice in forest management. Whether or not CFM is financially viable depends very much on local circumstances—an important issue is the inclusion of all costs and values. CFM can clearly lead to better forest management, although examples of silvicultural innovations specifically designed to meet CFM needs are limited. Worldwide, the institutionalisation of CFM is proceeding at a different pace and to differing degrees. Whilst some of the most rapid recent CFM developments have taken place in the North, where government forest institutions are well funded and accountable, and civil society well organised, the most significant gains made to date probably lie in countries of the South and East, wherever local people have begun to enjoy real partnerships in forest management, based on recognised rights of use and access."
Article
Full-text available
Summary Based on a village study in Tanzania, the effects of decentralized forest management on forest conservation, rural livelihoods and good governance are evaluated. Tree growth is estimated to exceed harvest, and forest utilization appears effectively controlled. Forest revenues cover the costs of management and finance local public services, but the underlying taxes and regulations have made the poorest worse off. Governance outcomes are also ambiguous. Revenues are administered transparently, but village leaders are coercive toward forest dependent minorities. The case provides a rare example of how decentralized forest management works in Africa when meaningful powers are devolved to local communities.
Article
Full-text available
Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of approximately 0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.
Article
Full-text available
Concerns about rapid tropical deforestation, and its contribution to rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, increase the importance of monitoring terrestrial carbon storage in changing landscapes. Emerging markets for carbon emission offsets may offer developing nations needed incentives for reforestation, rehabilitation, and avoided deforestation. However, relatively little empirical data exists regarding carbon storage in African tropical forests, particularly for those in arid or semi-arid regions. Kenya's 416 km(2) Arabuko-Sokoke Forest (ASF) is the largest remaining fragment of East African coastal dry forest and is considered a global biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000), but has been significantly altered by past commercial logging and ongoing extraction. Forest carbon storage for ASF was estimated using allometric equations for tree biomass, destructive techniques for litter and herbaceous vegetation biomass, and spectroscopy for soils. Satellite imagery was used to assess land cover changes from 1992 to 2004. Forest and thicket types (Cynometra webberi dominated, Brachystegia spiciformis dominated, and mixed species forest) had carbon densities ranging from 58 to 94 Mg C/ha. The ASF area supported a 2.8-3.0 Tg C carbon stock. Although total forested area in ASF did not change over the analyzed time period, ongoing disturbances, quantified by the basal area of cut tree stumps per sample plot, correlated with decreased carbon densities. Madunguni Forest, an adjoining forest patch, lost 86% of its forest cover and at least 76% of its terrestrial carbon stock in the time period. Improved management of wood harvesting in ASF and rehabilitation of Madunguni Forest could substantially increase terrestrial carbon sequestration in the region.
Article
Exactly how do forest bureaucracies manoeuvre to regain power and maximise benefits in the bewildering legal, financial, and administrative field of forest decentralisation? Based on a review of thirty management plans, stakeholder consultations, intensive interactions with six forest user groups, forest officials, and donor project employees in Nepal, we document the mechanisms of legal-sounding re-centralisation. The central tenet is that bureaucratically established procedures, which are not required by law but treated as if they were, are used to impose regular revisions of community forest management plans. Meagre government or more generous donor budgets financed the revisions. Forest bureaucrats and/or consultants did the work and benefitted financially. None of the approaches, however, lived up to technical, scientific standards or followed stipulated participatory processes. The revised plans were almost identical to their previous versions and differences mostly a result of mere desk exercises to fulfil donor requirements and government orders, at least on paper. While legitimised by a perceived promotion of rational, technical sound, and equitable forest governance, the main function of plan revisions appears to be strengthening or re-establishing the forest bureaucracy's control over community forest resources which allows forest bureaucrats to tap into donor project and forest product value chains.
Article
This paper analyzes the distribution of powers before and after the implementation of participatory forest management (PFM) in Kenya. The paper is a case study of the Karima forest in the Central Highlands of Kenya. The study relies primarily on 34 semi-structured interviews with key actors involved in and affected by the PFM. The paper finds that the established Community Forest Association (CFA) has not been entrusted with significant powers; all powers and benefits remain with the local authority (county government). Moreover, the paper documents that the CFA offers a poor representation of the forest communities and weak downward accountability relations. Finally, it illustrates a planning process, which has weaknesses in participation and inclusiveness. Consequently, the paper suggests three areas for PFM policy reform in Kenya: (i) the role (powers) and function of CFAs; (ii) benefit sharing; and (iii) ways to make the PFM process more participatory and inclusive. Spanish Este artículo analiza la distribución de poderes antes y después de la implementación de la gestión forestal participativa (GFP) en Kenya. El artículo es un estudio de caso del bosque de Karima en las tierras altas centrales de Kenya. El estudio se basa principalmente en 34 entrevistas semiestructuradas a actores clave involucrados y afectados por la GFP. El artículo identificó que no se ha dado poderes significativos a la Asociación Forestal Comunitaria (AFC) establecida a los efectos, sino que todos los poderes y beneficios continúan en manos de las autoridades locales (gobierno del condado). Por otra parte, el artículo documenta que la AFC ofrece una pobre representación de las comunidades forestales y una débil rendición de cuentas hacia las mismas. Por último, el artículo ilustra un proceso de planificación que muestra puntos débiles en cuanto a participación e inclusión. En consecuencia, el artículo sugiere tres áreas para la reforma de la política de GFP en Kenya: (I) el rol (poderes) y la función de las AFC; (ii) la distribución de beneficios; y (iii) las formas de lograr que el proceso de la GFP sea más participativo e inclusivo. French Ce papier analyse la distribution des pouvoirs avant et après la mise en route de la gestion forestière participative (PFM) au Kenya. Nous examinons ici une étude-cas de la forêt Kamina dans les terres hautes centrales du Kenya. L'étude dépend principalement de 34 interviews semi-structurés avec les acteurs-clé impliqués dans et affectés par la PFM. Ce papier trouve que l'Association de forêt communautaire (CFA) établie n'a pas été dotée de pouvoirs significatifs. Tous les pouvoirs et les bénéfices restent au sein de l'autorité locale (gouvernement de county). De plus les documents imprimés que la CFA offre, ne fournissent pas une bonne représentation des communautés forestières et n'assurent que de faibles relations de responsabilité de haut en bas. En conclusion, il illustre un processus de planification faible en participation et en inclusion. Par conséquent, l'article suggère points de réforme pour la politique de la PFM au Kenya: (i) le rôle (pouvoirs) et la fonction des CFAs; (ii) le partage des bénéfices et, (iii) des manières de rendre le processus de la PFM plus participative et inclusive.
Article
The study assessed the impact of participatory forest management (PFM) on household attitudes towards conservation and management of Arabuko–Sokoke Forest. The results obtained show that the impact of the forest on households was positive and higher in households in PFM zones than in those in non-PFM zones. There were higher proportions of households in PFM zones than in non-PFM zones, although it was a good objective to create the forest. They have good relations with the forest, benefit quite a deal from it as they obtain forest-related products from the forest; and want it protected. Also, the land adjacent to the forest has higher positive impact on household livelihood than the land further away. Higher proportions of households in non-PFM zones than PFM zones have poor relations with the forest as they are unhappy with the fact that the forest is linked to livestock deaths through tsetse fly, crop damage by wild animals, and predation of livestock without income generating activities to offset these losses. The study concluded that PFM is an asset for forest conservation in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest.
Article
This paper assesses the role of protected and community managed forests for the long term maintenance of forest cover in the tropics. Through a meta-analysis of published case-studies, we compare land use/cover change data for these two broad types of forest management and assess their performance in maintaining forest cover. Case studies included 40 protected areas and 33 community managed forests from the peer reviewed literature. A statistical comparison of annual deforestation rates and a Qualitative Comparative Analysis were conducted. We found that as a whole, community managed forests presented lower and less variable annual deforestation rates than protected forests. We consider that a more resilient and robust forest conservation strategy should encompass a regional vision with different land use types in which social and economic needs of local inhabitants, as well as tenure rights and local capacities, are recognized. Further research for understanding institutional arrangements that derive from local governance in favor of tropical forest conservation is recommended.
Article
Based on data from 1014 households in Ghana and Burkina Faso, we demonstrate that non-forest environmental products play a crucial role in rural livelihoods, especially for women and the poorest. Forest incomes are generally small but richer households and especially men from these derive comparatively higher value from forests than other groups do. Environmental income also represents a safety net for households facing crises due to illness or death of a productive households member, but apparently not when cropping fails. We attribute rural people’s high reliance on non-forest vs. forest products to the two countries restrictive and inequitable forest policies.
Article
IntroductionCommunity Forestry in MuguTo Market? Relations of Poverty, Knowledge and PowerThe Professionalisation of Forest CareConclusion AcknowledgementsEndnotesReferences
Article
Using an economic approach to provide a rationale for rainforestconservation has been a popular exercise in recent years. This paper uses suchan approach to assess the net value of the Arabuko Sokoke Forest in Kenya. Theeconomic benefits associated with the forest derived by local and globalpopulations are estimated by combining evidence from existing studies and theresults of a contingent valuation study carried out by the authors. Thesebenefits are set against the cost of preserving the forest to the Kenyan ForestDepartment. Even when the opportunity cost of the forest land is omitted fromthe costs of forest preservation, and when the revenues generated from theGlobal Environment Facility (GEF) funded project are included, the costs offorest conservation outweigh the benefits. It is only when non-use andexistencevalues are included (which are not realised by the Kenyan population) that theforest benefits exceed the costs. The paper concludes by arguing that, althoughsome projects within the Arabuko Sokoke Forest have been successful incapturingsome of the economic value associated with the forest, more needs to be done todesign additional capture mechanisms so that a greater proportion of the globalbenefit of the forest can be realised by local populations and localgovernments.
Article
Decentralization of natural resource management is often presented as a novelty. However, successive attempts to decentralize authority were undertaken during the development of forest policy in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony between the 1930s and 1950s. From 1960, however, this was rolled back. Forest policy was thenceforth characterized by centralization, exclusion, and restrictive legislation. New forest policies of local management from the 1990s attempt to change this but differ from “colonial decentralization” in terms of institutional fragmentation and the absence of effective fiscal decentralization. The assumed illegality of people’s use of the resources and the non-enforcement of the law provides a context for monetary and political rent seeking for political agents.
Article
Like other sub-Saharan African countries, Tanzania is caught up in a process by which previous structural adjustment conditionalities have been replaced by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). This paper utilizes research on rural livelihoods in 10 subvillages in the country’s Morogoro region to derive policy inferences relevant to the capacity of the PRSP to deliver its promises for poverty reduction in rural areas. Research findings show that rural poverty is strongly associated with lack of land and livestock, as well as inability to secure nonfarm alternatives to diminishing farm opportunities. The rural poor encounter a public sector institutional context that is neutral or blocking rather than enabling for them to construct their own pathways out of poverty. The PRSP process needs to address disjunctures between its macro-level goals and debilitating local-level institutional contexts, if real gains in rural poverty reduction are to be realized.
Article
Seasonal household data from Malawi are used to study links between income shocks and forest use. A Tobit model is estimated to examine whether household forest use responds to receipt of a positive income shock (delivered as a technology assistance package), and the characteristics of households reliant on forests for shock coping. Results show households experiencing an income boost had lower forest extraction compared to households that did not receive such a shock, ceteris paribus. We find households most dependent on forests for natural insurance are those located near woodlands and headed by an individual who is relatively young and male.
Article
"The problem of overuse of open-access resources was clearly articulated by Scott Gordon (1954) and Harold Demsetz (1967). Garrett Hardin (1968) speculated about the same problem, but stressed that the resource users themselves were trapped in tragic overuse and that solutions had to be imposed on them from the outside. Gordon, Demsetz, and Hardin ignited a general concern that when property rights did not exist related to a valuable resource, the resources would be overharvested. "Sufficient empirical examples existed where the absence of property rights and the independence of actors captured the essence of problems facing users of land-based commonpool resources that the empirical applicability of the theory was not challenged until the mid-1980s. The massive deforestation in tropical countries and the collapse of many ocean fisheries confirmed the worst predictions to be derived from this theory for many. Since harvesters are viewed as being trapped in these dilemmas, repeated recommendations have been made that external authorities must impose a different set of institutions on such settings. Predictions of overharvesting are also supported in the experimental laboratory when subjects make anonymous decisions and are not allowed to communicate with one another, but not when they are able to engage in face-to-face communication."
Article
"The paper sets forth an institutional framework for analyzing the commons, one used by the National Academy of Science's Panel on Common Property Resource Management to collect case studies from around the world. The framework distinguishes four types of attributes: (1) the physical features of a resource or facility and the technology used to appropriate its yield; (2) decision-making arrangements (organization and rules) that govern relationships among users and others; (3) mutual choice of strategies and patterns of interaction among decision makers; and (4) outcomes or consequences. Both the physical and technological attributes of the commons and decision-making arrangements affect patterns of interaction, which combine with physical and technological attributes to produce outcomes. Outcomes disclose the effect of a difficulty, but the source of difficulty lies in a lack of congruence between the technical and physical nature of a commons and the decision-making arrangements used to govern its use. The lack of good institutional 'fit' potentially creates a perverse structure of incentives leading individuals into counterproductive patterns of interaction that generates undesirable outcomes. Use of the framework permits systematic comparison of cases, including both institutional successes and failures, and facilitates both knowledge-building and diagnostic analysis problems."
Are Integrated Development and Conservation Projects (ICDPs) Sustainable?
  • C B Barret
  • P Arcese
BARRET, C.B., ARCESE, P. 1995. Are Integrated Development and Conservation Projects (ICDPs) Sustainable?, World Development 23(7): 1073-84.
People and forests: Communities, institutions and governance
  • C C Gibson
  • M A Mckean
GIBSON, C.C., MCKEAN, M.A., Ostrom, E. (Eds.) 2000. People and forests: Communities, institutions and governance: Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Conservation: The Kipepeo Project
  • L M Busck-Lumholt
  • T Treue
L.M. Busck-Lumholt and T. Treue Conservation: The Kipepeo Project, The Journal of Environment Development 12: 82-98.
  • J C Habel
  • I C C Casanova
  • C Zamora
  • M Teucher
  • B Hornetz
  • H Shauri
  • R K Mulwa
  • L Lens
HABEL, J.C., CASANOVA, I.C.C., ZAMORA, C., TEUCHER, M., HORNETZ, B., SHAURI, H., MULWA, R.K., LENS, L. 2017. East African coastal forest under pressure. Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 2751-2758.
Legal frameworks and access to common pool resources. Forests
  • J Lindsay
LINDSAY, J. 2004. Legal frameworks and access to common pool resources. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 14: 263-279.
Assessing the social and economic costs and benefits of protected areas: The case of Arabuko-Sokoke forest reserve, Kenya. A report prepared for the Poverty and Environment Network
  • M T E Mbuvi
  • S Wambua
  • A O Ayiemba
MBUVI, M.T.E, WAMBUA, S., AYIEMBA, A.O. 2007. Assessing the social and economic costs and benefits of protected areas: The case of Arabuko-Sokoke forest reserve, Kenya. A report prepared for the Poverty and Environment Network, CARE International, Nairobi, September 2007.
Social and Ecological Synergy: Local rulemaking, Forest Livelihoods, and Biodiversity Conservation
  • L Persha
  • A Agrawal
  • A Chhartre
PERSHA, L., AGRAWAL, A., CHHARTRE, A. 2011: Social and Ecological Synergy: Local rulemaking, Forest Livelihoods, and Biodiversity Conservation. Science (331): 1606-1608.