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Lean in - Women, Work and the Will to Lead

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... Structurally, women face discrimination in hiring and are disadvantaged by workplace policies that do not always allow for a balance of work and family (Sandberg, 2013). In addition to structural explana tions, scholars have identified psychological barriers to gender equality. ...
... In addition to structural explana tions, scholars have identified psychological barriers to gender equality. For example, in her book Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead, Sandberg (2013) argues that one of the reasons women are not pursuing leadership positions is because of their own fears. ...
... The finding that male and females perform equal ly well in leadership positions suggests that women should not change their behavior to address gender dif ferences in perceptions, but rather organizations need to prescribe training so employees can shift perspec tives (Appelbaum et al., 2003; Stelter, 2002. Professional development, such as sexual harassment training and mentoring programs, can help change organizational cultures (Sandberg, 2013). ...
Article
The article discusses the history of leadership studies and its more recent interdisciplinary integration with the communication field. It also provides an overview of relevant issues for leaders and communicators in the twenty-first century. Topics discussed relevant to communication and leadership contexts include the development of leadership theories, leadership and communication, gender research in leadership and communication, intersectionality, media representations, mindfulness research and application, digital communication, social movements, protest leadership, women and protest leadership, social media and crisis management, and social media and public health.
... In the 50 years since Gordon's original formulation, the advice to frame conflicts using the "When X happens, I feel Y" template has been applied to all manners of interpersonal conflicts. This advice appears in college textbooks (Adler et al., 2016;Hargie, 2016;Whitcomb & Whitcomb, 2012;Wood, 2015), business communication articles (Brownell, 1999;Harms & Roebuck, 2010), conflict training materials (Burgess, 2003;Conflict Resolution Network, 2020;Katz & Lawyer, 1992), and self-help books (Rosenberg & Chopra, 2015;Sandberg, 2013). However, experimental evidence supporting the effectiveness of I-statements is both slim and inconclusive. ...
... In Study 2 and 3, we adopt an experimental design, asking engineering students to read short vignettes about team conflicts and rate the protagonists on their competence, likeability, and perceived likelihood they would get their desired outcome. Study 2 compares the conflict strategies identified in Study 1 against strategies that rely on I-statements as formulated in popular advice materials (c.f., Sandberg, 2013). Study 3 compares the conflict strategies identified in Study 1 with and without the inclusion of a single I-statement sentence. ...
Article
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This paper presents three studies that examine how women can respond to conflict in assertive ways that obtain their desired result without harm to their competence and likability, thus minimizing gender backlash. In Study 1, we interviewed 29 experienced women engineers and had them read scenarios of common team conflicts and describe the exact words they would use (and the words they would avoid using) to respond in these conflicts. We inductively coded these responses to develop a positive, future-focused (PFF) script for responding to conflict that minimized gender backlash. This PFF script balances communality and agency by pointing out positives, foregrounding group goals, focusing on solutions, and avoiding emotion. In two follow-up experimental studies, we compared the PFF script to popular psychology advice that encourages individuals to foreground their personal feelings with I-focused statements. Engineering students (N = 289, Study 2; N = 279, Study 3) viewed three conflict scenarios with different response strategies and rated their impressions of the protagonist and the likelihood of a satisfactory outcome. Results demonstrated that conflict responses based on the PFF script led to significantly better impressions and outcomes for both men and women protagonists compared to responses based on I-focused statements. Training students and professionals to use PFF conflict resolution strategies has the potential to increase women’s visibility in situations where they currently remain silent and to improve overall team dynamics in ways that challenge gender stereotypes.
... Men will act to bring about their promotion, while women expect their work to be recognised without marketing themselves (Jenny & Lizelle; Sangster 2012). Sandberg (2013) calls this the Tiara syndrome, which describes the phenomenon when women expect their work to speak for them. In the current study, Lizelle was an example of this. ...
... However, it also signified the role played by culture in how women from different cultures behaved (Makombe & Geroy 2008). While it is generally not regarded in a positive light for women to sing their own praises (Sandberg 2013), to do this is severely frowned upon in the (Walter 2013). Khetshiwe reaffirmed the importance of having a reputation among one's peers of working hard and delivering. ...
Thesis
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The thesis investigated the impact of the different social identities, namely gender, race and social class in the lived experiences and career progression of women leaders. The findings highlight the need for leaders to use an intersectional lens when addressing inequality and inequity in their organizations.
... Other work suggests that women's experience of stereotype threat at the bargaining table, including worries about being judged through the lens of gender stereotypes (e.g., being perceived as weak, emotional, or ineffective), undermines their negotiation performance (Kray et al., 2001). Popular media has similarly focused on women's internal barriers to success in negotiation and professional advancement, encouraging women to "lean in" to overcome their fears and insecurities about asserting themselves in the workplace (Sandberg, 2013). ...
... In turn, this apprehension may lead women to ask for less in negotiations or not to initiate negotiations at all (Babcock et al., 2006). Many popular books have thus encouraged women to push past their apprehension to negotiate and ask for more at work (Babcock & Laschever, 2009;Frankel, 2014;Sandberg, 2013). ...
Article
Gender disparities in negotiation outcomes contribute to inequality in the workplace and beyond. Explanations of gender gaps in negotiation often focus on internal barriers women face as a consequence of contending with stigma in the workplace and other historically male‐dominated environments, such as stereotype threat and apprehension about negotiating. However, stigma is also associated with relational consequences that may influence success in negotiations. This research compared internal and relational mechanisms for gender disparities in negotiation performance. Seventy‐seven MBA executives reported their apprehension about negotiating, stereotype threat in negotiations, mindset about negotiation‐related stress, and class social networks. Participants were then randomly paired to complete a series of one‐on‐one negotiations based on real‐world scenarios. Overall, men outperformed women in negotiations. Significant gender differences emerged in stereotype threat, stress mindset, and social network centrality. However, only network centrality—specifically number and strength of ties—significantly mediated the relationship between gender and negotiation performance. Position in informal social networks may play an important role in negotiation outcomes, particularly in a shared social environment like the workplace. Although efforts to explain the gender gap in negotiation performance often center internal psychological mechanisms, this research suggests that relational explanations, such as disparities in social networks, merit further attention. Limitations and recommendations for future research and policy are discussed.
... The lack of women in Canadian software engineering programs is deeply concerning from both an economic and social justice perspectives. From an economic standpoint, demand for software engineers continues to outstrip supply (Council of Canadian Academies, 2015) and evidence that diverse engineering teams build better products (Sandberg & Scovell, 2013) is repeatedly stressed by leaders in the field. From a social justice perspective, it should be acknowledged that the homogeneity of male teams has caused serious design flaws (Pacelli, 1999;Buolamwini & Timnit, 2018) and that engineering teams ought to be more diverse in order to avoid such design errors. ...
Thesis
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Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) fields in many countries continue to experience difficulties attracting and retaining women. In Canada, the proportion of female students in engineering is considerably lower than the proportion of female students in higher education. Using Tinto's theories concerning social and academic integration, this study investigated the relationships between the proportion of female undergraduate engineering students, and the proportion of female faculty, and policies addressing gender representation. Using descriptive statistics, this study analysed proportions of female students and faculty in Canadian engineering programs and established that distinct and persistent differences exist in these proportions among schools and among sub-disciplines. As these results suggest that institutional factors can influence the proportion of female students within engineering programs, this study has laid the foundation for future qualitative research to investigate what institutional factors could attract and retain more women in Canadian engineering schools. iii
... Indeed, this strategy of including women has been criticized for celebrating a postfeminist persona (Gill, 2017;Lewis, Benschop, & Simpson, 2018) -of women who can have it all -a rewarding career, a happy family, a satisfying social life, and a liberated sex life -if they make an effort, if they lean in (Sandberg, 2013). This is a fantasy which can only be realized by the privileged (perhaps lucky) few, and reinforces class, ethnic, and age divisions (Butler, 2013). ...
Preprint
In this chapter we argue that entrepreneurship education as currently conceived, does little to eradicate gender inequality-rather, its focus on the individual and its neglect of structural impediments and measures tend to reinforce this inequality. We discuss why this happens and suggest ways forward. We believe the most positive action would be to employ legislation and public policy to change gendered structures and practices which would lead to changes in gendered norms. However, the relationship between norms and structures is mutual. Structural change can only be achieved if existing norms are questioned and this should be the first step towards changing discriminatory structures. We argue that in this context entrepreneurship education must include norm critical education. We provide some practical examples related to the context of entrepreneurship education.
... If the administrators of hospitals and clinics are made aware of this bias and acknowledge it accordingly, institutional changes can be implemented to support and empower women to take up more leadership roles in clinical settings. As Sandberg [72] points out in her New York Times best seller, as fewer women are in leadership roles than men, it can be challenging for junior women to have mentorship opportunities. A possible solution to this problem could be the performance evaluations of male leadership personnel to include the number of women mentored and focused initiatives and ...
Article
Background: Web-based reviews of physicians have become exceedingly popular among health care consumers since the early 2010s. A factor that can potentially influence these reviews is the gender of the physician, because the physician's gender has been found to influence patient-physician communication. Our study is among the first to conduct a rigorous longitudinal analysis to study the effects of the gender of physicians on their reviews, after accounting for several important clinical factors, including patient risk, physician specialty, and temporal factors, using time fixed effects. In addition, this study is among the first to study the possible gender bias in web-based reviews using statewide data from Alabama, a predominantly rural state with high Medicaid and Medicare use. Objective: This study conducts a longitudinal empirical investigation of the relationship between physician gender and their web-based reviews using data across the state of Alabama, after accounting for patient risk and temporal effects. Methods: We created a unique data set by combining data from web-based physician reviews from the popular physician review website, RateMDs, and clinical data from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services for the state of Alabama. We used longitudinal econometric specifications to conduct an econometric analysis, while controlling for several important clinical and review characteristics across four rating dimensions (helpfulness, knowledge, staff, and punctuality). The overall rating and these four rating dimensions from RateMDs were used as the dependent variables, and physician gender was the key explanatory variable in our panel regression models. Results: The panel used to conduct the main econometric analysis included 1093 physicians. After controlling for several clinical and review factors, the physician random effects specifications showed that male physicians receive better web-based ratings than female physicians. Coefficients and corresponding SEs and P values of the binary variable GenderFemale (1 for female physicians and 0 otherwise) with different rating variables as outcomes were as follows: OverallRating (coefficient -0.194, SE 0.060; P=.001), HelpfulnessRating (coefficient -0.221, SE 0.069; P=.001), KnowledgeRating (coefficient -0.230, SE 0.065; P<.001), StaffRating (coefficient -0.123, SE 0.062; P=.049), and PunctualityRating (coefficient -0.200, SE 0.067; P=.003). The negative coefficients indicate a bias toward male physicians versus female physicians for aforementioned rating variables. Conclusions: This study found that female physicians receive lower web-based ratings than male physicians even after accounting for several clinical characteristics associated with the physicians and temporal effects. Although the magnitude of the coefficients of GenderFemale was relatively small, they were statistically significant. This study provides support to the findings on gender bias in the existing health care literature. We contribute to the existing literature by conducting a study using data across the state of Alabama and using a longitudinal econometric analysis, along with incorporating important clinical and review controls associated with the physicians.
... This uniting of "personal choice" with feminist liberation is the realm of neoliberal discourses of citizenship (Sant, 2019), in which feminism is individualized and understood through competitive market frames of human capital (ibid). Neoliberalism invites us to "lean in" (Sandberg, 2013) in order to access all the economic opportunities that feminisms of old helped expose for contemporary societies. Popular and neoliberal interpretations of feminism can often express a false sense of equity and equality for all genders. ...
Article
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The pandemic resurrected gender as a central categorization of citizenship. COVID-19 reminds us that gender oppression continues in its traditional, materialist formulations to structure our economic, civic, and political lives. Postfeminism has diversified feminist discourses, and at times been used as a temporal claim-the "post" signifying the diminishing need for feminist theory or activism in light of advancements in gender equality. We use postfeminism in a genealogical and critical sense which encompasses the changes in feminisms and enunciates various contradictions that apply to generations of people. The conditions of COVID-19 prompt us to analyze what Stéphanie Genz aptly names boom and bust postfeminism. This analysis generates two implications for philosophers of education working in areas of gender and political identity.
... Add to that my actual full time job as a physician as well as my other full time job of being a mother (and wife) I have to acknowledge that there are only so many hours in the day. Some days it seems impossible to be able to 'have it all' or to 'lean in' , as Sheryl Sandberg promotes [3]. Everyone my age seems to talk a lot about work/life balance but I am not sure anyone has perfected it, nor do I think that they are mutually exclusive. ...
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Getting old is hard, but it beats the alternative. This commentary explores some of the challenges of aging with a physical disability and the considerations taken to prevent further functional decline or injury during the aging process.
... For example, an emotion such as anger from a white man can be perceived to be assertive, reasonable, professional whereas anger from white women and/or a person of colour may be seen as irrational, unprofessional, and even dangerous. While most of the interviewees acknowledge the need for a systemic cultural shift, some believe that peer pressures within the industry can be overcome through a "Lean In" version of feminism (see Sandberg, 2013) -an approach some argue places the burden of change on women themselves. Being boxed in between male colleagues that do not recognise their abilities and female colleagues that believe in individualism and 'assertiveness' can be discouraging and isolating for women planners. ...
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Through a dozen in-depth interviews of urban planning professionals in Brisbane, Australia, this study examines the relationship between the experience of women in the planning profession and the consideration of women’s issues in the city. The study reveals that Brisbane’s planning industry continues to be perceived by those who work within it as an ‘old-boys-club’. Planning practitioners are acquiring gender biases during their university education and possibly earlier – much before planning graduates enter the profession. Although the planning industry is adopting more inclusive leadership and management approaches and becoming more feminised, patriarchal relationships remain strong. Brisbane’s neoliberal planning and governance systems, and conservative business sector encourages and rewards ‘male’ behaviours in the workplace. The findings mostly corroborate earlier studies on gender issues in organisations. In the planning sector, gender issues are more concerning because they affect planning outcomes across the city, as well as the lived experiences and needs of women and other vulnerable groups.
... So women are often reluctant to show they are interested in power (Gruenfeld, 2020). They lower their own expectations of what they can achieve (Sandberg, 2013). Women have lower leadership aspiration than men (Fritz & van Knippenberg, 2020). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to see if women value power less than men do and if MBA education reduces this gender difference in power value. Design/methodology/approach The impact of a two-year residential full-time MBA program on students’ values was studied using a longitudinal design and data collected over two years from a business school in India. Values were measured when students entered the program and again when they graduated. The sample consisted of 230 students (90 women and 140 men). Findings While entering the MBA program, female students considered power less important than male students did. Results of matched sample t -tests show that power, hedonism, stimulation and tradition become more important and benevolence, universalism, conformity and security become less important over two years of MBA education. The increase in the importance of power value is significantly higher for women than for men. Originality/value To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to show that women’s value ratings for power value increase much more than that of men over two years of management education.
... Indeed, women tend to underrate their accomplishments and have less confidence in their abilities, which could lead to negative workplace evaluations. As Sandberg (2013) argued, women experience a "catch-22" where self-promotion seems both to lead to promotion and at the same time lead to lowered social attractiveness because of gender roles. In other words, there is a fine line when appropriately communicating in a male-centered workplace. ...
Article
The rise of computer-mediated communication (CMC) has prompted a renewed interest in impression formation research because CMC alters available cues. This exploratory study examined the impression management strategies of graduate students online to contribute to the research on the connection between behaviors, roles, and communities in online classrooms. Applying Jones and Pittman's taxonomy of impression management strategies to a content analysis of introductory discussion board posts, results show that graduate students primarily use self-promotion followed by exemplification. Implications of how instructors might use these findings are discussed. What does it mean to be an online graduate student? Online graduate programs offer adult learners flexibility so they can continue to work and go to school. This mode of delivering education is also viable for higher education institutions because it allows them to reach a wider audience and increase the scale of delivery. With the continued expansion of online learning, it is important to better understand how to create effective learning spaces for students.
... While status interventions have been found to work in the laboratory, some suggest they could be employed as strategies for gaining status at work. Sandberg's (2013) call for women to "lean in" at work leverages research in social psychology to promote women's leadership. However, this approach has been criticized for over-generalizing such strategies (Chrobot-Mason et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Status interventions alter task group members' expectations for the value of each other's contributions. While research shows that status interventions increase the likelihood that a higher-status actor will accept influence from a lower-status actor, the process by which interventions unfold during interaction deserves theoretical attention. By conceiving status interventions as lines of action that carry cultural meaning, sociologists can use structural theories of symbolic interaction such as Affect Control Theory (ACT) to better understand them. One status intervention involves lower-status actors presenting themselves as group-motivated to counter expectations that lower-status actors are self-interested. An interaction simulator based in ACT, INTERACT , allows us to demonstrate how group-motivation alters impressions of lower-status actors from the perspective of a higher-status actor. Given that gender has been identified as a status characteristic that favors men in the U.S., we use INTERACT to model the effect of a woman presenting herself as group motivated on a man's impressions. Results suggest that qualitative insights from INTERACT can be used to further explore the relationship between status interventions and hierarchy in everyday life.
... In the same vein, Ref. [1] they stated that employees with a higher level of grit tend to be focused for a long time on activities, even when they are confronted with tests, hindrances, and harsh conditions. Nevertheless, as a result of changes in demographics there are needs for employees to coordinate the pursuit of advancement in their career, their duties at work, and the responsibilities of being a parent [2,3]. Employees are employed based on the assumptions that the only responsibility attached to them is that of their official duty, and every other chore does not exist or has been handled by someone else [4]. ...
Article
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Due to the ever-changing organizational and societal conditions that make reliance on external definitions of success unworkable or undesirable, subjective career success has remained a critical topic in careers studies. Among the drivers of subjective career success, research has identified personality traits and job resources as essential sources. Grit, in the form of a personality trait, together with I-deals (job resource) and perceptions of employees’ glass ceiling can provide new insights regarding factors, which can heighten employees’ subjective career success. Therefore, the main purpose of the study is to investigate the direct and indirect effect of grit on each dimension of subjective career success via I-deals and perceptions of the glass ceiling. Surveys from 221 female security forces from both private and public sector in Oyo state, Nigeria, were collected and the data was analyzed using the smartPLS. The results showed that grit is positively related to I-deals, glass ceiling and career satisfaction, but not to happiness, psychological wellbeing, and work engagement. I-deals mediated the relationship between grit and subjective career success’ dimensions, while the glass ceiling did not. This study was able to infer that personality trait (grit) has much to relate with how women perceive the existence of the glass ceiling in their organization.
... El feminismo al que aluden estos discursos se parece más al postfeminismo en su versión popular, donde el feminismo remite a un imaginario de mujeres poderosas, seguras de sí mismas y libres de elegir. Un posfeminismo que asume acríticamente el mito de la libre elección (De Miguel 2015) y nos lleva a vivir en un espejismo según el cual somos libres para elegir todo: elegimos a nuestro socio de vida (Sandberg 2013), la imagen que proyectamos, la gestión de nuestras vidas (y sus múltiples esferas), lo que compramos, lo que vendemos. Elegimos el momento y el lugar adecuado -llegado el caso elegimos cuántos óvulos congelar, cuántos fecundar-. ...
Article
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Resumen: En su libro Mujeres y discursos gerenciales. Hacia la autogestión feminista (2020), María Medina-Vicent aborda desde una perspectiva crítica feminista los discursos gerenciales dirigidos a las mujeres, desvelando el androcentrismo y la presencia —y perpetuación— de tradicionales roles y estereotipos de género en los modelos de gestión. Mi propuesta pretende incidir en dos aspectos del análisis realizado por Medina-Vicent, por un lado, remarcar los peligros de la despolitización de los discursos gerenciales dirigidos a mujeres —sobre todo en tanto que la literatura gerencial acaba por informarnos a todas—. Por otro, profundizar en la crítica que la autora realiza de la cooptación del feminismo por parte de estos discursos. Abstract: In her book Mujeres y discursos gerenciales. Hacia la autogestión feminista (2020), Medina-Vicent approaches management discourses aimed at women from a critical feminist perspective, revealing the androcentrism and the presence and perpetuation of traditional gender roles and stereotypes in management models. My proposal aims to highlight two aspects of Medina-Vicent’s analysis: on the one hand, to highlight the dangers of depoliticizing management discourses aimed at women - especially insofar as management literature ends up informing us all. On the other hand, the author’s critique of the co-optation of feminism by these discourses will be explored in greater depth. Palabras clave: discursos gerenciales, teoría feminista, antifeminismo, despolitización. Keywords: managerial discourses, feminist theory, antifeminism, depoliticization.
... Meanwhile, the Symbolic order still structures women further away from becoming the ideal worker; thus, bias is reproduced as the interviewee is unable to escape the signifying effect of language. In this excerpt, we hear "Lean in," which, similar to the above, seems to refer to a specifi c behavior that women need to adopt, and which echoes neoliberal imperatives for women found in Sandberg's book with the same title (Chrobot-Mason, Hoobler and Burno 2019; Sandberg, 2013). In effect, bias in language informs women that they must transform their subjectivity in a certain way; they must perform a split in subjectivity: a performing self Women, Gender & Research A Lacanian perspective on bias in language: How women can(not) ever make it in academia No. 3 2021 versus a real self. ...
... This cycle means that proxemic states are causes, effects, and indicators. The dissemination of this research means that nowadays it is commonly understood, especially in the lay press and folk psychology, that engagement and intimacy are associated with a closeness that is reflected by physical proximity (Pease & Pease, 2004;Sandberg, 2013). This has also been suggested by researchers who measure how people interpret or "decode" the emotional meaning of posture and approach as positive, liking or engagement (Coan & Gottman, 2007;Sanghvi et al., 2011;James, 1932). ...
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Objective: Burgoon's theory of conversational involvement suggest that when people engage with a person, they will move slightly closer to them, often subtly and subconsciously. However, some studies have failed to extend this to human-computer interaction. Our hypothesis is that during online reading, engagement is associated with an expenditure of effort to hold the head upright, still and centrally. Method: We presented to 27 participants (ages 21.00 ± 2.89, 15 female) seated in front of 47.5x27 cm monitor two reading stimuli in a counterbalanced order, one (interesting) based on a best selling novel and the other (boring) based on European Union banking regulations. The participants were video-recorded during their reading while they wore reflective motion tracking markers. The markers were video-tracked off-line using Kinovea 0.8. Results: Subjective VAS ratings showed that the stimuli elicited the bored and interested states as expected. Video tracking showed that the boring stimulus (compared to the interesting reading) elicited a greater head-to-screen velocity, a greater head-to-screen distance range, a greater head-to-screen distance standard deviation, but not a further away head-to-screen mean distance. Conclusions: The more interesting reading led to efforts to control the head to a more central viewing position while suppressing head fidgeting.
... Whilst this is of significance for some women who "opt out" of the workforce, these culturally marginalised discoursesor the discursive absence of women's position of the wife, and associated work in the domestic sphere also play a crucial role for the many women who attempt to remain in or return to the labour market after having children. Moreover, these ambivalences surrounding working women's partially invisible conflicting roles are to some extent obscured by cultural messages promising women that they can "have it all" if they "lean in" (Sandberg, 2013; for a critical discussion see Rottenberg, 2018). This article argues for an extension of the cultural tensions between "good" mother and "ideal" worker to include the role of the "wife" in order to better understand the nuances of domestic inequality between the mother/wife and father/husband role. ...
Article
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This article considers a culturally marginalised yet consequential gendered discourse that positions women as “wife” alongside their role as mother in working women's talk about divisions of care on Britain's largest parenting site, Mumsnet. Unlike most previous research on Mumsnet that has focused on the construction and partial resistance of normative ideas of motherhood, this paper suggests that the increasingly politicised site is a space where a discourse of wifehood is drawn upon to account to some degree for experiences of domestic inequality. Using a critical discursive psychological approach to data from 14 online discussion threads posted on Mumsnet, the paper identifies two dominant, complementary constructions through which posters frame divisions of care. These are the position of the “facilitating wife”, enabling their male partners’ careers by taking on the bulk of domestic responsibility to the detriment of their own professional achievement and mental wellbeing; and the construction of partners as “feckless manchildren”, as an attempt to manage dissonances with their positioning as “wife” and related overburdening. I conclude that the relationships women form in the Mumsnet space allow them to articulate dissonant views and feelings about their co-existing domestic roles of wife and mother and associated divisions of care.
... This work was presented as a poster at the 2020 International Conference on Social Informatics. implicitly motivating ("Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" [133]) to explicitly calling for action ("Lean In" [134]). However, simply wanting change is not sufficient to achieve change. ...
Thesis
Attitudes are often expressed in what people say and write, as well as the content they choose to interact with. With the proliferation of social media and other online content, we are able to understand how people express their attitudes through large-scale linguistic analyses. Further, people’s attitudes and behaviors are often intertwined: attitude signals can be predictive of future behaviors, and conversely behavioral patterns can reveal underlying attitudes. This thesis explores the development of computational linguistic models to understand attitudes and behaviors. We surface the attitudes that people hold with respect to social roles (e.g., “professor,” “mother”) and compare them across different cultures using corpus-statistics models and dependency-based embedding models. Next, we look at how personal traits are predictive of behavior. To this end, we explore how we can incorporate implicit world knowledge into language models by predicting attitudes towards charitable giving. In this same direction, we examine traits, as expressed on social media, that are indicative of people likely to persist in pursuing self-improvement. We leverage linguistic characteristics such as expressed affect, writing style, and latent topics. Finally, we gain insight into how attitude and behavior give insight to each other by predicting attitudes towards philanthropic causes based on engagement behavior with newsletters and personal background information, using text-aware graph representation models. We also show how behavioral traits present in online communities are predictive of resilient attitude during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... In contrast, the dominant social discourse is that we live in a post-feminist world, where women can have it all, if only they want it enough (Kennedy, 2013). In the corporate world this discourse has found expression in a number of ways, most recently in the advocacy of Sheryl Sandberg (2013) for women to Lean In as a strategy for pursuing equality in the workplace. 18 A related expression is the "Superwoman" stereotype, that forms a central focus of Sheerin and Garavan's (2022) study. ...
... That men and women have systematically different performance-related outcomes for a seemingly similar event is an important finding, as it provides an explanation and possible solution to the "pipeline problem" faced by women at work (e.g., Sandberg, 2013). That is, the differential performance outcomes seen in our study may accumulate over time and translate into detrimental, long-term consequences for women, further contributing to workplace inequity (Devaro, 2006;Judge & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012;Van Dyne & Lepine, 1998). ...
Article
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Helping is a foundational aspect of organizational life and the prototypical organizational citizenship behavior, with most research implicitly assuming that helping benefits its recipients. Despite this, when scholars focus on help recipients, the experience is depicted as somewhat aversive that may actually reduce recipient perceptions of competence. The result is a literature at odds as to whether receiving help is beneficial. Our thesis is that this is the wrong question on which to focus. Instead, we submit that more valuable insight can be gained by asking: “when is receiving help beneficial vs. not beneficial, and for whom?” Regarding when, we differentiate between receiving help that is empowering (i.e., offers tools to empower recipients to become more self-reliant) or non-empowering (i.e., offers only immediate, short-term solutions). Regarding for whom, we draw from theory and research on stereotype threat and benevolent sexism to explain why the help recipient’s gender is a critical moderator of the link between receiving non-empowering help specifically and competence perceptions. We present a multi-study “full-cycle” approach to test our hypotheses and understand the consequences of receiving empowering vs. non-empowering help in more depth. Combined, our results help shift the conversation as noted above, and identify important practical implications that speak to a larger discussion on systematic disadvantages for women at work.
... I am personally grateful to my mentors in Malaysia, Australia, Korea, and Singapore, the majority of whom are men, who have helped me significantly with my career progression. Additionally, I have enjoyed significant support from fellow women IR researchers in the early and mid-career phase, similar to the "lean in" concept articulated by Sandberg (2013) . I also concur with Windsor and Theis' (2021) recommendation for systemic initiatives developed through professional institutions and associations to increase "male allies and their capacity to effectively advocate for women colleagues and students" in the IR discipline. ...
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This forum critically reflects on discrimination faced by early-career women international relations (IR) scholars in the Asia-Pacific region in their workplaces and beyond. By taking a self-ethnographic perspective, six contributors from five countries provide an engaging overview of difficulties they face in their everyday lives. Against the backdrop of this diverse and globalizing region, the contributors are all academic migrants in search of employment and learning opportunities within the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. They lead migratory lives by frequently crossing ideational and material boundaries to contribute to a more diverse IR knowledge base, and they encounter numerous difficulties and forms of discrimination. This forum has two aims. First, in reflecting on the contributors’ own lived experiences, it highlights the diversity of issues faced by early-career women scholars in this region. Second, it calls for novel, more inclusive forms of solidarity that appreciates diversity as plurality across any divides.
... Nombres como el de Sheryl Sandberg (2013) o Ivanka Trump (2017) son fácilmente identificables por la mayor parte de la población, y es que estas mujeres se han convertido en los últimos años en verdaderos referentes del éxito profesional y empresarial, colocando en el espacio público el concepto de liderazgo femenino y enarbolando algunas ideas sobre la igualdad de género que cabe poner bajo la lupa. Resulta curioso pues, que durante este proceso hayan acabado por convertirse en iconos "empresariales" del feminismo -por llamarlo de algún modo-. ...
Chapter
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Nuestra investigación nace con el propósito de analizar la importancia y el valor añadido que las decisiones, en materia de responsabilidad social, pueden ejercer sobre los resultados de la empresa, centrándose en el rol que la gestión de recursos humanos (GRH) desempeña en esta relación
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Leadership includes power, impact, and self-confidence. Many leaders are not aware that they profile these traits to become change agents in their communities. This chapter shares the story of a woman in Quito, Ecuador that thought that her role as an educator was not considered leadership. Imposter syndrome, more common in women than in men, is a frequent factor that limits decisions and opportunities for many individuals around the world. This case exemplifies how Claudia navigated the syndrome along with the projects she envisioned at her local community. Learning to gain self-confidence in her skills, knowledge, and attitude is key to success. Addressing the imposter syndrome in a woman could potentially reduce gender gaps in most industries.
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This chapter reviews the current state of the communications profession. We consider different types of communicator roles, whether communicators speak the same “language” as their colleagues, and why there is a curious lack of lateral mobility of these professionals in organizations. We observe how communicators do not position themselves within a larger behavioral science frame. We also review the potent threats of new technologies, including generative language models such as GPT-3.
Conference Paper
One of the challenges in gender equality is the underrepresentation of women in engineering fields and in leadership positions according to the United Nations (UN). In academia, the percentage of women is still low, for example, in 2019 38% of the faculty and 26% of leadership positions were occupied by women in our Engineering and Science School in our university. There have been some efforts to cut this gap and this work takes a look at what motivates them to be part of the Lean In Circle groups, how valuable it is for women faculty to have this support group to their professional development, what themes are important for them to be covered in these sessions and what are their professional expectations. An online survey for women faculty at the School of Engineering and Sciences was conducted to identify these elements and some recommendations can be addressed for using these groups to impulse women faculty members into their careers. Some findings from the leaders group perspective are having a support network, skills development, learning, mentoring, contributing to a culture of equity and inclusion. From the participants perspective, it is important to have a space to share opinions and learn about how others have faced some obstacles and challenges but also, they consider that the principal topics that are needed to talk about in the sessions are: leadership, self-confidence, work and personal life time balance and unconscious bias.
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Work–life integration is becoming a concept of interest in the professional and academic field, due to the evolving nature of work and organizations. Additionally, in view of the contemporary technological advancement, especially in the current era of the fourth industrial revolution, changing work culture as a result of COVID-19 pandemic disruption in 2020 work–life integration is a necessity. Therefore, using a case study design and interviews to collect data, work–life experiences of career women, religious and lay, working at Tangaza University College, Catholic University of East Africa, were explored. Data analysis was conducted by means of thematic analysis technique with the following key themes emerging. This includes the following: Work–life integration is possible and achievable through making deliberate efforts, support systems, and engaging in meaningful work for the employee; employees used both personal and professional strategies to achieve work–life integration. Remote working due to the COVID-19 global pandemic had both negative and positive impacts on career women’s experiences of work–life integration. Recommendations for work–life integration include organizational structures and personal support.
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Empathy enhances leadership effectiveness. In times of the pandemic and increased commitment to fostering diversity and inclusion, it is considered an essential ingredient of leadership. The importance of empathy in leadership is especially emphasized in global organizations operating in a cross-cultural and multicultural environment. This study aims to develop a multi-level conceptual framework of the impact of empathy on leadership effectiveness in the field of business management. For this purpose, a systematic literature review based on Web of Science and Scopus databases has been conducted. The content analysis method was used to analyze and synthesize qualitative data. The research results show that empathy enhances leadership effectiveness through its extensive effects on the level of leader, followers, and organization. It contributes to raising self-awareness, developing listening and mentoring skills, and enhancing the relationships of the leader as an individual. On the followers’ level, empathy in leadership is associated with improving well-being, empowering, and providing role models in developing emotional intelligence. It enhances organizational effectiveness by inspiring diversity and inclusion, increasing employee engagement and retention, and creating a culture of responsibility, care, and innovation. These findings have practical implications for leadership and organizational development specialists, human resources managers, and business leaders. The interdisciplinary nature of the topic calls for the collaboration of researchers from the fields of business economics, psychology, and neuroscience to advance future research on empathy in leadership.
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Conventional approaches to improving the representation of women on the boards of major companies typically focus on increasing the number of women appointed to these positions. We show that this strategy alone does not improve gender equity. Instead of relying on aggregate statistics (“headcounts”) to evaluate women’s inclusion, we use network analysis to identify and examine two types of influence in corporate board networks: local influence measured by degree centrality and global influence measured by betweenness centrality and k-core centrality. Comparing board membership data from Australia’s largest 200 listed companies in the ASX200 index in 2015 and 2018 respectively, we demonstrate that despite an increase in the number of women holding board seats during this time, their agency in terms of these network measures remains substantively unchanged. We argue that network analysis offers more nuanced approaches to measuring women’s inclusion in organizational networks and will facilitate more successful outcomes for gender diversity and equity.
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In China, there is a “psy‐boom,” which is understood as the rapid increase in the provision of psychological services and interest in psychological concepts since the initiation of market reforms. This is a heavily gendered phenomenon. This paper seeks to explore why women are drawn into the psy‐boom and what sustains their participation in it. Following a year of fieldwork engaging in various forms of psychotherapy training in the city of Chengdu, the provincial capital of Sichuan province, China, the paper looks in detail at three women who engage in the psy‐boom. The psy‐boom creates a space for these women to try to articulate complex and often competing desires thrown up by the gendered circumstances in which they find themselves. The paper shows how each of these three women draws on their various engagements with the psy‐boom to try to formulate and actualize their visions of the good life.
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Radiology remains one of the least diverse fields in medicine. With increasing understanding of the benefits of workforce diversity on health care outcomes, radiology society leadership and radiologists are engaging in necessary efforts to improve diversity, equity, and inclusion. To date, much of the initiatives have focused on pipeline development and recruitment strategies. Literature from organizational psychologists, human resources and business strategists suggest that incorporation of inclusion could overcome some of the persistent barriers to workforce diversity. Using case studies from real-life residency programs, we describe challenges associated with being a member of an underrepresented minority group in radiology. We illustrate concepts in inclusion, proposing concrete ideas for personal and institutional growth in this area, as a strategy for improving workforce diversity and team effectiveness.
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The objective of this chapter is to give a basic introduction to organisational change and Organisational Change Management (OCM) as they relate to a company’s PLM environment and PLM Initiative.
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Background Urology has considerable gender disparity with just 10.3% of UK consultant posts held by women and lower than the 13.2% average across all surgical specialties. Medicine is no longer a male-dominated vocation, with women making up the majority of medical graduates for almost 30 years. To recruit the highest calibre doctors, urology needs to appeal and be accessible to all talented individuals. Objective In this paper we explore barriers to workforce diversity and propose solutions to the current problems. Methods A literature review was conducted and authors’ opinions explored. Results Reasons for women avoiding a career in urology include perceptions of urology as a ‘male’ specialty, lack of female role models, less mentoring and sponsorship of female medical students and trainees, and the use of derogatory and devaluing language. We suggest solutions to overcome these barriers for the benefit of profession. Conclusions While there is a way to go to reach gender parity, there are reasons to be optimistic. We propose to see more women supported through mentoring programmes, more female representation on panels and in leadership positions to raise the profile of women in urology. We need to create a workplace culture and flexible working patterns that encourages all genders to excel.
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This study of 4077 consumers examines the impact of gender and gender identity on environmental attitudes and behaviors. We find that, compared to gender, gender identity is consistently a better predictor of the extent to which consumers form pro‐environment attitudes and perform pro‐environment behaviors. Androgynous individuals—those who have both feminine and masculine traits—were of particular interest in this study. Androgynous consumers are the most likely of all gender identity groups to exhibit strong pro‐environment attitudes, subscribe to a more multi‐dimensional set of attitudes, and enact pro‐environment behaviors. Further, we identify two unique dimensions of environmental attitudes—Humans Rule and Do not Fool with Nature—that function as mediators of the influence of androgyny on pro‐environment behaviors.
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Autoethnography is an important tool in feminist scholarship, one that routinely acknowledges the dangers of focusing on corporate and academic female leaders and overlooking the needs of women experiencing poverty. The author argues that when academic parents keep the narratives focused on research and service demands, they also dangerously sideline the needs of students. After March 2020, many of us moved metaphorical mountains to move classes online, only to find that students were often not up to the tasks we had set. Undoubtedly the situation was not the same for all students at different institutions, but for many working students from lower socio-economic classes demands multiplied and quickly became insurmountable. The intention of this autoethnography is to consider the ways that the struggles the author faces as a literature professor and as a mother working through the COVID-19 pandemic can help others empathize with students and bring practical change to our pedagogies and course policies.
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In this chapter, the experiences from Gender Contact Point and The Gender Academy are harnessed with the purpose of advancing knowledge on how the societal impact and the societal relevance of research on gender issues may be reinforced by co- creative platforms for academia- society cooperation. In exploring Swedish cases, this study adds to the research stream on gender in regional innovation systems that was established by Scandinavian scholars. The research questions addressed in the study are: i) how are these co- creative platforms organized and managed?; ii) what co- creative forms and forums are applied in the platforms?; and iii) what challenges and potentials are perceivable in the platforms’ efforts to reinforce the societal impact and the societal relevance of research on gender issues? Previous research on social innovation helps address these questions, by pinpointing mechanisms for societal and organizational transformation in co- creative platforms. The whole volume is freely available via https://library.oapen.org/handle/20.500.12657/55792
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This article briefly analyses the works of Acad. Mihail Arnaudov. He is an author of insightful research of a number of classics of the Bulgarian and world literature. His determination and persistence with which he worked on his research are incredible and admirable. The long-lasting research activity of Acad. Mihail Arnaudov is “sealed” on the pages of books, periodicals, prints and thematically collected clippings from Bulgarian and foreign publications. With the help of his numerous research works covering the topic of Bulgarian National Revival, Acad. Mihail Arnaudov managed to realize his noble ambition – to create a scientific epic of the spiritual leaders of his people, or the “Unforgettable” as he called them himself, during one of the most difficult and most glorious periods in the Bulgarian history. And with even more passion he kept studying life and works of postliberation writers.
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In this publication we set an objectively complicated task to analyse the opportunities of strategic decision-making during crisis by attempting to make a partial analysis of the ongoing crisis caused by the COVID 19 pandemic and the emerged military conflict between the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Crisis circumstances require societies to quickly rethink and develop adequate strategies and respectively to formulate strategic goals and plan processes. In many cases preliminary analysis and assessment are practically impossible /especially when it comes to natural disasters or crises/ and this requires a different operational order of problem solving, which includes formulating new unconventional goals and then implementing planning not objectified by a particular and accurate analysis. All this puts whole systems and societies to the test, and those who are empowered to manage the process – under high pressure from unforeseen circumstances and not always objective judgments. Which, in turn, creates a number of subsequent critical issues in the management process.
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This chapter introduces Sheryl Sandberg's Lean In community, which includes why and how she started Lean In and the impacts that the community has made on a global scale. The author concludes the chapter with her own story with Sheryl Sandberg and her work impacted by the Lean In community. The chapter's purpose is to take a closer look at Sheryl Sandberg as a female community leader and her transformational leadership, as well as the cultural transformation that the Lean In community made on the globe.
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This article is an exploration of a kind of Catholic feminism that has developed within the Catholic Church in the past 30 years or so, for which a theological interpretation of the meaning of the human body is crucial. That explains the title of my piece. However, I will be conducting a general survey on a school of thought rather than a feminist study with a focus on the human body.
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