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Based on published records and unpublished information retrieved from the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC), a checklist of the helminth parasites of cetaceans from Brazil was generated. A total of 215 records of 18 species of helminths were associated with 22 species of cetaceans in Brazil. Six species determined only to genus were also included. The majority of these helminth species are nematodes (33.3%) and trematodes (33.3%), which total 66.6% of the helminth fauna of cetaceans from Brazil. The Acanthocephala represents 22.2% of species, and the Cestoda 11.1%.
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Accepted by N. Dronen: 8 Jul. 2010; published: 26 Jul. 2010 57
ZOOTAXA
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Zootaxa 2548: 5768 (2010)
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Checklist of helminth parasites of cetaceans from Brazil
JOSÉ L. LUQUE1, LUÍS C. MUNIZ-PEREIRA2, SALVATORE SICILIANO5, LIEGE R. SIQUEIRA2,
MAGDA S. OLIVEIRA2 & FABIANO M. VIEIRA3,4
1Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 74508, Seropédica, RJ, Brazil,
CEP 23851-970. E-mail: jlluque@ufrrj.br
2Laboratório de Helmintos Parasitos de Vertebrados, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365, RJ, Brazil, CEP 21040-900.
E-mail: lmuniz@ioc.fiocruz.br, liege@ioc.fiocruz.br, sanches@ioc.fiocruz.br
3Curso de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ,
Brazil. E-mail: fmatosvieira@gmail.com
4Laboratório de Taxonomia e Ecologia de Helmintos, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Campus
Universitário, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, CEP 36036-330
5Departamento de Endemias, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública/FIOCRUZ; Rua Leopoldo Bulhões, 1480, 6o. andar, sala 620, Rio de
Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, CEP 21041-210
Abstract
Based on published records and unpublished information retrieved from the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo
Cruz Institute (CHIOC), a checklist of the helminth parasites of cetaceans from Brazil was generated. A total of 215
records of 18 species of helminths were associated with 22 species of cetaceans in Brazil. Six species determined only to
genus were also included. The majority of these helminth species are nematodes (33.3%) and trematodes (33.3%), which
total 66.6% of the helminth fauna of cetaceans from Brazil. The Acanthocephala represents 22.2% of species, and the
Cestoda 11.1%.
Key words: helminth, biodiversity, Cetacea, Brazil
Introduction
Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and has the highest species diversity of all of the megadiversity
countries, accounting for roughly 14% of the world’s biota (Lewinsohn & Prado 2002). Helminth species are
the most diverse group of metazoan parasites of vertebrates and are recognized as an important component of
global biodiversity (Poulin & Morand 2004). Research efforts directed at documenting parasite species have
increased recently. As knowledge of parasite biodiversity is dependent on previous studies of host
biodiversity, the loss of host species diversity implies a possible loss of parasite species diversity.
Living Cetacea comprise 89 species distributed in all oceans and seas (Fordyce 2002). Differences in
water masses in the South Atlantic makes the Brazilian coast a place with a high cetacean biodiversity. To
date, 44 species of cetaceans have been recorded in Brazilian waters (Souza et al. 2005). The abundance and
distribution patterns of the cetacean species are heterogeneous. Some species are known based on a few
stranded specimens collected and may represent extralimital records (e.g. Commerson’s dolphin,
Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacépede) (Odontoceti, Delphinidae), Peale’s dolphin, Lagenorhynchus
australis (Peale) (Odontoceti, Delphinidae) and the Southern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis peronii
(Lacépede) (Odontoceti, Delphinidae) - and some species of beaked whales, like the recently published record
of Arnoux’s beaked whale Berardius arnuxii Duvernoy (Odontoceti, Ziphiidae) (Siciliano & Santos 2003).
But at least 31 cetacean species use the Brazilian waters on a regular basis. This group comprises the whales
(e.g. Southern right, humpback, Antarctic and dwarf minke whales) which migrate seasonally with the
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purpose of mating and reproduction. However, the main group of Brazilian cetaceans is comprised of tropical
species living under the strong influence of the Brazilian Current. Some species are restricted to coastal waters
like the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden) (Odontoceti, Delphinidae), that occupies shallow
coastal bays surrounded by mangroves but also is found in open coastal waters. Surprisingly, also within this
group is the rough-tooted dolphin, Steno bredanensis (Lesson) (Odontoceti, Delphinidae), that is distributed in
marine waters of the lower continental shelf. A local upwelling condition also attracts the Bryde’s whale,
Balaenoptera edeni Anderson (Mysticeti, Balaenopteridae), to feed on abundant Brazilian sardines and small
crustaceans (Siciliano et al. 2004).
Disease is a frequent cause of death in marine mammal populations; infectious agents include bacteria,
viruses, fungi, protozoa, and animal parasites (Cowan 2002; Harwood 2002). Marine mammals can contract
cancer, tuberculosis, herpes, arthritis, and other diseases that might not immediately be thought of as wildlife
diseases (Berta et al. 2006). These diseases have received a great deal of attention from marine mammal
biologists and veterinarians. Although parasites may be present in marine mammals that are considered
healthy and functioning normally in their societies, parasites may also cause disease that can result in death. A
large number of endoparasite species have been identified from marine mammals. Parasites may be present in
many organ systems in the body, but are generally found in the respiratory, digestive, circulatory, and
reproductive systems (Jefferson et al. 2007).
Some previous publications (Yamaguti 1959, 1963, 1971; Travassos 1965; Travassos et al. 1969; Schmidt
1986; Vicente et al. 1997) included records of helminth parasites of cetaceans inside on generalized
compilations, and also the first list of helminth parasites of whales in Brazil (Muniz-Pereira et al. 1999).
This study is the third of a series published by Vieira et al. (2008) and Muniz-Pereira et al. (2009), that
encompass the Brazilian fauna of helminth parasites of vertebrates, in a form of lists, covering their hosts, site
of location and geographical distribution.
This is also the first attempt to include many records from cetacean host species from the
Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, along with
updated information based on literature, adding data to the previous scattered publications.
Material and methods
The list of parasite species of Brazilian cetaceans was based on previously published records and on
unrecorded specimens from the database of the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute
(CHIOC).
The checklist follows the classification and systematic arrangement of Gibson et al. (2002) and Jones et
al. (2005) for Digenea, Khalil et al. (1994) for Cestoda, Vicente et al. (1997) for Nematoda, and Amin (1985,
1987) for Acanthocephala.
The species of helminths are presented in alphabetical order, followed by hosts (specific name), site of
infection, localities and references (between parentheses, in chronological sequence). In addition, the
checklist included helminth species recorded only to genus level (undetermined species). Helminth species
names follow the most recent taxonomic literature.
Higher-level classification of hosts follows Wilson & Reeder (2005), and Caballero et al. (2007). Mention
of helminths and host species in this list does not imply that the authors agree with their validity or taxonomy.
Host species were arranged in alphabetical order. The catalog number of each helminth was included for
all species with type specimens and voucher specimens deposited in CHIOC.
Results
In the current study we listed a total of 215 records, comprising 18 species of helminths associated with 22
species of cetaceans in Brazil. Six undetermined helminth species were also included.
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HELMINTH OF CETACEANS FROM BRAZIL
The majority of these helminth species are nematodes (6 species, 33.3%) and trematodes (6 species,
33.3%), which total 66.6% (12 species) of the helminth fauna of cetaceans from Brazil. The Acanthocephala
represent 22.2% of species (4 species), and the Cestoda 11.1% of species (2 species).
In Brazilian waters, 44 species of cetaceans occur have been recorded to date (Souza et al. 2005). Of
these, 22 species (50%), distributed in four families, have records of helminth parasites. The families
Balaenopteridae and Delphinidae show the greatest richness of helminths, with six and 1 species, respectively.
The families of hosts with lower richness of species are Iniidae, with one nematode species [Anisakis insignis
(Diesing) (Anisakidae)] (Diesing 1851; Vicente et al. 1997), and Phocoenidae, also with one nematode
species [Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi) (Anisakidae)] (Pinedo et al. 2002).
The cetacean species with the highest number of records was Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson) (Mysticeti,
Balaenopteridae), totaling 80 records for six species of helminths (four nematodes and two digeneans) of
helminths. Feresa attenuata (Gray) (Odontoceti, Delphinidae), Peponocephala electra (Gray) (Odontoceti,
Delphinidae), Phocoena dioptrica Lahille (Odontoceti, Phocoenidae), Stenella clymene (Gray) (Odontoceti,
Delphinidae), and S. longirostris (Gray) (Odontoceti, Delphinidae) have only one record of helminths in
Brazil (Zerbini & Santos 1997; Pinedo et al. 2002; Motta et al. 2008).
Parasite-host list
Phylum Acanthocephala Rudolphi
Class Palaeacanthocephala Meyer
Order Polymorphida Petrochenko
Family Polymorphidae Meyer
Bolbosoma capitatum (von Linstow)
Balaenoptera edeni (Anderson), intestine, Rio de Janeiro (Pinto et al. 2004) (CHIOC 35304, 36449a-c).
Globicephala melas (Traill), small intestine, unspecified locality (Machado-Filho 1964) (CHIOC 29832 –
29835).
Pseudorca crassidens (Owen), intestine, Rio Grande do Sul (Andrade et al. 2001).
Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen), intestine, São Paulo (Rosas et al. 2002).
Bolbosoma sp.
Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d’Orbigny), unspecified site of infection, Rio Grande do Sul (Di Beneditto
& Ramos 2001).
Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden), stomach, Paraná (Marigo et al. 2010).
Bolbosoma turbinella (Diesing)
Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson), small intestine, Rio de Janeiro (Machado-Filho 1964, Muniz-Pereira et al.
1999) (CHIOC 29781 – 29831, 29836).
Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d’Orbigny), stomach, large intestine, Rio Grande do Sul (Marigo et al.
2002; Silva & Cousin 2004; Silva & Cousin 2006a).
Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen), intestine, São Paulo (Rosas et al. 2002).
Corynosoma australe Johnston
Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d’Orbigny), stomach, intestine, Rio Grande do Sul (Marigo et al. 2002;
Silva & Cousin 2004).
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Corynosoma sp.
Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d’Orbigny), unspecified site of infection, Rio Grande do Sul (Di Beneditto
& Ramos 2001).
Polymorphus (Polymorphus) cetaceum (Johnston & Best)
Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d’Orbigny), stomach, Rio Grande do Sul (Di Beneditto & Ramos 2001;
Marigo et al. 2002; Silva & Cousin 2004, 2006b).
Phylum Nematoda (Rudolphi)
Superfamily Ascaridoidea Railliet & Henry
Family Anisakidae Skrjabin & Karokhin
Anisakis insignis (Diesing)
Inia geoffrensis (Blainville), intestine, Amazonas (Diesing 1851; Vicente et al. 1997).
Anisakis physeteris Baylis
Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson), unspecified site of infection, unspecified locality (Pinto et al. 2004).
Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus), unspecified site of infection, unspecified locality (Pinto et al. 2004).
Kogia breviceps (Blainville), stomach, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Rio de Janeiro (Santos & Lodi
1998; Pinto et al. 2004) (CHIOC 33539).
Physeter catodon Linnaeus, stomach, Rio de Janeiro (Muniz-Pereira et al. 1999) (CHIOC 29602, 29603,
29659, 29662, 29665 - 29667, 29669, 29670, 29691).
Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi)
Feresa attenuata (Gray), stomach, São Paulo (Zerbini & Santos 1997).
Phocoena dioptrica Lahille, stomach, Rio Grande do Sul (Pinedo et al. 2002).
Pseudorca crassidens (Owen), stomach, Rio Grande do Sul (Andrade et al. 2001; Pinto et al. 2004).
Anisakis sp.
Grampus griseus (Cuvier), stomach, intestine, Bahia (Maia-Nogueira 2000).
Peponocephala electra (Gray), stomach, Ceará (Motta et al. 2008).
Kogia breviceps (Blainville), stomach, Ceará (Motta et al. 2008).
Stenella clymene (Gray) stomach, Ceará (Motta et al. 2008).
Stenella longirostris (Gray), stomach, Ceará (Motta et al. 2008).
Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen), intestine, São Paulo (Rosas et al. 2002).
Steno bredanensis (Cuvier), stomach, Ceará (Motta et al. 2008).
Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden), stomach, Paraná (Marigo et al. 2010)
Anisakis typica Diesing
Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d’Orbigny), stomach, Rio Grande do Sul (Di Beneditto & Ramos 2001;
Marigo et al. 2002; Silva & Cousin 2004).
Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden), stomach, Rio de Janeiro (Santos et al. 1996; Di Beneditto & Ramos 2001,
2004; Melo et al. 2006) (CHIOC 32966).
Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen), stomach, Bahia (Maia-Nogueira et al. 2001).
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HELMINTH OF CETACEANS FROM BRAZIL
Contracaecum sp.
Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden) stomach, Espírito Santo (Borobia & Barros 1989; Di Beneditto & Ramos,
2001).
Pseudoterranova sp.
Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson), unspecified site of infection, unspecified locality (Pinto et al. 2004).
Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus), unspecified site of infection, unspecified locality (Pinto et al. 2004).
Kogia breviceps (Blainville), stomach, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (Santos & Lodi 1998; Pinto et al.
2004) (CHIOC 33540).
Superfamily Habronematoidea Railliet & Henry
Family Tetrameridae Travassos
Crassicauda crassicauda (Creplin)
Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson), penis, urethra, intestine, Rio de Janeiro (Muniz-Pereira et al. 1999; Pinto et
al. 2004) (CHIOC 29663, 29664, 29672, 29674-29678, 29695).
Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus), penis, urethra, intestine, Rio de Janeiro (Muniz-Pereira et al. 1999; Pinto
et al. 2004).
Kogia breviceps (Blainville), unspecified site of infection, unspecified locality (Pinto et al. 2004).
Superfamily Metastrongyloidea Lane
Family Pseudalidae Railliet & Henry
Halocercus brasiliensis Lins de Almeida
Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden), lung, trachea, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná (Lins de Almeida 1933;
Silva & Best 1996; Santos et al. 1996; Vicente et al. 1997; Di Beneditto & Ramos 2001, 2004; Melo et al.
2006; Marigo et al. 2010) (CHIOC 7481 – holotype and allotype, 7482 – paratypes, 10062, 32967).
Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen), bronchi, bronchioles, São Paulo (Rosas et al. 2002).
Phylum Platyhelminthes Gegenbaur
Class Cestoda van Beneden
Order Tetraphyllidea Carus
Family Phyllobothriidae Braum
Monorygma grimaldi (Moniz) (Larvae)
Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen), body musculature, epididymis, subcutaneous tissue, blubber, Bahia, São
Paulo (Maia-Nogueira et al. 2001; Rosas et al. 2002).
Phyllobothrium delphini (Bosc) (Larvae)
Steno bredanensis (Cuvier), stomach, Rio Grande do Sul (Ott & Danilewicz 1996).
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Class Trematoda Rudolphi
Order Digenea van Beneden
Family Brauninidae Wolf
Braunina cordiformis Wolf
Delphinus delphis (Linnaeus), stomach, intestine, unspecified locality (Travassos et al. 1969; Pinto et al.
2004).
Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden), stomach, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná (Santos et al. 1996; Di Beneditto &
Ramos 2001, 2004; Pinto et al. 2004; Melo et al. 2006; Marigo et al. 2010) (CHIOC 32695).
Steno bredanensis (Cuvier), stomach, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul (Santos et al. 1996; Ott &
Danilewicz 1996; Pinto et al. 2004).
Tursiops truncatus (Montagu), stomach, Rio de Janeiro (Santos et al. 1996; Pinto et al. 2004).
Family Brachycladiidae Odhner
Lecithodesmus goliath (van Beneden)
Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson), liver, bile duct, Rio de Janeiro (Travassos et al. 1969; Muniz-Pereira et al.
1999; Pinto et al. 2004) (CHIOC 27225, 29627 – 29633, 27224a-f, 27226a-c).
Nasitrema sp.
Grampus griseus (Cuvier), central nervous system, Bahia (Maia-Nogueira 2000).
Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden), nasal cavity, Rio de Janeiro (Di Beneditto & Ramos 2001, 2004; Melo et
al. 2006).
Tursiops truncatus (Montagu), nasal cavity, Rio de Janeiro (Santos et al. 1996; Pinto et al. 2004).
Synthesium pontoporiae (Raga, Aznar, Balbuena & Dailey)
Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d’Orbigny), stomach, small intestine, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Paraná
(Silva & Cousin 2004; Marigo et al. 2002; Marigo et al. 2008).
Synthesium tursionis (Marchi)
Tursiops truncatus (Montagu), small intestine, Santa Catarina (Marigo et al. 2008).
Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden), intestine, Paraná, São Paulo (Marigo et al. 2010).
Family Notocotylidae Lühe
Ogmogaster antarcticus Johnston
Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson), intestine, rectum, Rio de Janeiro (Muniz-Pereira et al. 1999; Pinto et al.
2004) (CHIOC 29754, 29764, 33974a-i, 33975a-h).
Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus), intestine, rectum, Rio de Janeiro (Muniz-Pereira et al. 1999; Pinto et al.
2004) (CHIOC 33974a-c).
Family Opisthorchiidae Braun
Amphimerus lancea (Diesing)
Delphinus delphis (Linnaeus), unspecified site of infection, unspecified locality (Pinto et al. 2004).
Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais), biliary duct, Amazonas (Diesing 1850; Travassos et al. 1969).
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HELMINTH OF CETACEANS FROM BRAZIL
Host-parasite list
Order Cetacea
Suborder Mysticeti
Family Balaenopteridae
Balaenoptera borealis
Anisakis physeteris
Bolbosoma turbinella
Crassicauda crassicauda
Lecithodesmus goliath
Ogmogaster antarcticus
Pseudoterranova sp.
Balaenoptera edeni
Bolbosoma capitatum
Balaenoptera physalus
Anisakis physeteris
Crassicauda crassicauda
Ogmogaster antarcticus
Pseudoterranova sp.
Suborder Odontoceti
Family Physeteridae
Kogia breviceps
Anisakis physeteris
Anisakis sp.
Crassicauda crassicauda
Pseudoterranova sp.
Physeter catodon
Anisakis physeteris
Physeter macrocephalus
Anisakis physeteris
Family Delphinidae
Delphinus delphis
Amphimerus lancea
Braunina cordiformis
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Feresa attenuata
Anisakis simplex
Grampus griseus
Anisakis sp.
Nasitrema sp.
Peponocephala electra
Anisakis sp.
Globicephala melas
Bolbosoma capitatum
Pseudorca crassidens
Anisakis simplex
Bolbosoma capitatum
Sotalia fluviatilis
Amphimerus lancea
Sotalia guianensis
Anisakis sp.
Anisakis typica
Bolbosoma sp.
Braunina cordiformis
Contracaecum sp.
Halocercus brasiliensis
Nasitrema sp.
Synthesium tursionis
Stenella coeruleoalba
Anisakis sp.
Bolbosoma capitatum
Bolbosoma turbinella
Anisakis typica
Halocercus brasiliensis
Monorygma grimaldi
Stenella clymene
Anisakis sp.
Stenella longirostris
Anisakis sp.
Steno bredanensis
Anisakis sp.
Braunina cordiformis
Phyllobothrium delphini
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HELMINTH OF CETACEANS FROM BRAZIL
Tursiops truncatus
Braunina cordiformis
Nasitrema sp.
Synthesium tursionis
Family Phocoenidae
Phocoena dioptrica
Anisakis simplex
Family Iniidae
Inia geoffrensis
Anisakis insignis
Family Pontoporiidae
Pontoporia blainvillei
Anisakis typica
Bolbosoma sp.
Bolbosoma turbinella
Corynosoma australe
Corynosoma sp.
Polymorphus (Polymorphus) cetaceum
Synthesium pontoporiae
In Brazil, helminths belonging to four groups and nine families have been recorded from six families of
Cetacea (Table 1). Only Anisakidae (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea) have been reported for all host families. In
contrast, nematodes of the family Pseudalidae (Metastrongyloidea), three families of Digenea (Brauninidae,
Notocotylidae, Opisthorchiidae), and one family of Cestoda (Phyllobothriidae) were reported in only one host
family (Table 1).
The helminth species with the highest number of records was Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala,
Polymorphidae), totaling 57 records. The larval stage of the cestode Phyllobothrium delphini (Tetraphyllidea,
Phyllobothriidae) was recorded only one time in cetaceans from Brazil (Ott & Danilewicz 1996).
TABLE 1. Families of helminth parasites of cetaceans from Brazil and their distribution by host families.
Anis = Anisakidae; Braun = Brauninidae; Brach = Brachycladiidae; Notoc = Notocotylidae; Opist = Opisthorchidae;
Phyll = Phyllobothriidae; Polym = Polymorphidae; Pseud = Pseudalidae; Tetr = Tetrameridae.
Digenea Cestoda Nematoda Acanthocephala
Braun Brach Notoc Opist Phyll Anis Tetr Pseud Polym
Balaenopteridae + + + + +
Delphinidae + + + + + + +
Iniidae +
Phocoenidae +
Physeteridae + +
Pontoporidae + + +
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Discussion
Descriptions of helminth parasites of Brazilian cetaceans date back to Diesing (1850, 1851). Amphimerus
lancea (= Distomum lancea) was described by Diesing (1850) from specimens collected in Sotalia fluviatis (=
Delphinus tacuschi) (Odontoceti, Delphinidae), captured by the naturalist Johann Natterer in Barra do Rio
Negro, Manaus, Amazonas, probably between 1833 and 1834 according to the reports of Vanzolini (2004).
Anisakis insignis (= Peritrachelius insignis) was described by Diesing (1851) from specimens collected in
Inia geoffrensis (= Delphinus amazonicus) (Odontoceti, Iniidae) captured by J. Natterer in the locality of
Borba, on the margin of the Madeira River, Amazonas, between 1829 and 1830 (Vanzolini 2004).
The literature on helminth parasites of cetaceans from Brazil is fragmented, since studies are of regional
scope or restricted to a particular host species (Santos et al. 1996; Santos & Lodi 1998; Muniz-Pereira et al.
1999; Andrade et al. 2001; Di Beneditto & Ramos 2001, 2004; Marigo et al. 2002; Pinto et al. 2004; Silva &
Cousin 2004), or are part of general compilations of Brazilian helminths and not updated (Travassos et al.
1969; Vicente et al. 1997).
In cetacean populations, helminth infections usually have little effect on host health. The infections by
acanthocephalans of the genus Bolbosoma (Palaeacanthocephala, Polymorphida) and Corynosoma
(Palaeacanthocephala, Polymorphida) are restricted to local reactions of stomach and intestine surface (Silva
& Cousin 2004, 2006a,b; Raga et al. 2008). However, in some host species significant damage can occur, such
as ulcers caused by Anisakis spp. and Pseudoterranova spp. (Motta et al. 2008; Raga et al. 2008). As in other
vertebrate host species, Anisakis spp. infect a wide range of cetacean hosts (Table 1).
In a few cases, helminths represent a major cause of mortality in host populations (Raga et al. 2008). The
parasites can contribute significantly to host population dynamics influencing reproduction and survival of
individuals. Raga et al. (2008) reported that females of Lagenorhynchus acutus (Gray, 1828) (Odontoceti,
Delphinidae) had mastitis caused by infections of Crassicauda sp. (Habronematoidea, Tetrameridae),
affecting the quality and quantity of the milk, and compromising the survival of the offspring. Crassicauda
spp. also caused cranial damage in Stenella attenuata (Odontoceti, Delphinidae), accounting for
approximately 10% of the mortality of this species in the Pacific Ocean (Raga et al. 2008).
Parasites are useful in information on host ecology, biogeography and phylogeny (Gardner & Campbell
1992; Raga et al. 2008), and also serve as indicators of current and historical ecological relationships (Aznar
et al. 2001).
Due to the characteristics of cetacean host species, including biogegraphical zones, pelagic environments
and conservation aspects, the addition of helminthologists to the staff of projects involving cetaceans could
contribute to a great extent to the knowledge of this host group.
Acknowledgments
We thank Dr Marcelo Knoff (Curator), Tainah Domingos Soares and Anne Liporage de Matos from CHIOC
staff for information about helminths deposited. José L. Luque was supported by a Research fellowship from
CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico, Brazil). Fabiano M. Vieira was
supported by a student fellowship from REUNI/UFRRJ (Programa de Apoio ao Plano de Reestruturação e
Expansão das Universidades Federais, Brazil). Salvatore Siciliano was supported by a Research fellowship
from CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico, Brazil). Magda Sanches de
Oliveira was supported by student fellowship from FAPERJ/IOC (Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo
a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro/Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil). Liege Renata Siqueira was supported
by studdent fellowship from PGLSCPS/IOC (Curso de Pós-graduação Lato sensu Capacitação Profissional
em Serviço no IOC, Brazil).
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... Recent studies have revealed a wider array of lesions related to halocerciasis in Guiana dolphins to include: chronic fibrosing bronchointerstitial pneumonia with fibrovillous pleuritis; proliferative abdominal polyserositis; multicentric eosinophilic lymphadenitis and splenitis; and systemic vasculitis (Groch et al., 2018a;Groch et al., 2018b). Among other parasites of respiratory system, Nasitrema attenuate is found infecting air sacs, sinuses, bronchi and lungs of Guiana dolphins (Melo et al., 2006;Luque et al., 2010;Marigo et al., 2010;Ebert & Valentere, 2013). In the digestive system, parasitism has been associated with Braunina cordiformis and Anisakis typica infection of gastric compartments. ...
... Synthesium tursionis and Bolbosoma spp. have been described infecting the intestines (Luque et al., 2010;Alves et al., 2017). The presence of a pseudostalked barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis has been recorded in Guiana dolphins at southeastern Brazil (Di Beneditto & Ramos, 2000;Siciliano et al., 2020). ...
... Brucella sp. and Enterobacter kobei [33][34][35] . Furthermore, gastrointestinal parasites-including the acanthocephalan Polymorphus sp. and the trematodes Hadwenius pontoporiae and Synthesium pontoporiae, among others, have been reported [36][37][38] . ...
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Chapter
Parasitism is an extraordinary life-strategy that largely influences that of most free-living organisms, including cetaceans. Parasites of cetaceans have a positive intrinsic and instrumental value, but also a potential pathogenic impact on host populations and, therefore, they should be considered in any biodiversity or conservation program. Yet, a starting point for understanding the relationships between cetaceans and their parasites is to have a detailed account on parasite diversity. The knowledge of the parasite fauna of cetaceans goes back to the time when commercial whaling was allowed and material for scientific purposes was available. Over the last decades, however, parasites have been obtained mainly from stranded or by-caught animals, and regular updates of host- parasite lists have been published until the 1990’s. In this chapter we provide an updated review of the helminth fauna of cetaceans. The data here presented constitutes a baseline for future diversity surveys and a way to encourage researchers towards a greater awareness about the biological importance of the helminth fauna of cetaceans. Out of the 90 species currently recognized in the order Cetacea, 72 have hitherto been examined for helminths. The family Balaenopteridae among baleen whales and the family Delphinidae among toothed whales harbor the most diverse helminth fauna, which is partly accounted for by a higher sampling effort. In contrast, the helminth fauna of the beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) is the least known since only 9 out of the 22 species in the family have been examined for parasites. Currently, there are 174 helminth species reported in cetaceans, from which nematodes is the most speciose group (62 spp.), followed by digeneans (54 spp.), cestodes (38 spp.) and acanthocephalans (20 spp.). However, 20 (11.5%) of these species represent accidental infections that occur because cetaceans and other marine vertebrates (i.e., pinnipeds and marine birds) share common prey. The families Anisakidae, Pseudaliidae and Tetrameridae (Nematoda), Brachycladiidae, Notocotylidae, Heterophyidae and Brauninidae (Digenea), Diphyllobothriidae, Phyllobothriidae and Tetrabothriidae (Cestoda), and Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala) have a major species-representation in the helminth fauna of cetaceans.
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Using available records, unpublished information retrieved from the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC) and published reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of endangered vertebrates from Brazil was generated. A total of 772 records and 186 helminth species (6 Acanthocephala, 83 Nematoda, 23 Cestoda, 64 Trematoda, 10 Monogenea) in 76 host species (7 Actinopterygii, 8 Chondrichthyes, 1 Amphibia, 10 Reptilia, 22 Aves, 28 Mammalia) from Brazil were listed in the present work, including 39 undetermined helminth species and 10 new host records. This is the first compilation of the helminth parasites of threatened vertebrates in Brazil and in the Neotropics.
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