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Issue 3 IJRAR1903061 International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews (IJRAR) www.ijrar

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Unwanted sound or sound above 55 db is known as noise pollution. Effect of long-term exposure to noise pollution has an adverse impact on human health. Evidence from the literature suggests that sleep-apnoea, stress, and cardiovascular disease are related to the high level of sound. Poor concentration is commonly observed in students caused due to noise pollution. The present study was conducted to study the noise level from different locations in Mumbai. Our observations suggest that most of the localities in Mumbai are at high risk of noise pollution.
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São Paulo city, Brazil, faces challenges caused by rapid urbanization. We illustrate how future travel patterns could lead to different health consequences in the city. We evaluated the health impacts of different travel pattern scenarios for the São Paulo adult population by comparing the travel patterns of São Paulo in 2012 with counterfactual scenarios in which the city adopted travel patterns of i) those living in the city's expanded centre; ii) London (2012); iii) a highly motorized São Paulo (SP California); and iv) a visionary São Paulo (SP 2040), with high levels of walking and cycling and low levels of car and motorcycle use. For each scenario we estimated changes in exposure to air pollution, road injury risk, and physical activity. Health outcomes were estimated using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and premature deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the main sources of uncertainty. We found considerable health gains in the SP 2040 scenario (total 63.6k DALYs avoided), with 4.7% of premature deaths from ischemic heart disease avoided from increases in physical activity alone. Conversely, we found substantial health losses in the scenario favouring private transport (SP California, total increase of 54.9k DALYs), with an increase in road traffic deaths and injuries among pedestrians and motorized vehicles. Parameters related to air pollution had the largest impact on uncertainty. Shifting travel patterns towards more sustainable transport can provide major health benefits in São Paulo. Reducing the uncertainties in the findings should be a priority for empirical and modelling research on the health impacts of such shifts.
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This paper discuss about environment noise, which happened in the middle of everyone's life, generally built by the industrial activity, trains, airplanes, and the highway traffic. But now, the highway traffic is the main of noise maker. That's happen because the noise from the highway make a comprehensive impact, instead of the others that just make a local impact, or just make an effect for some areas. Human, both of which have an activity outside or inside the building of some areas that near to the highway are potentially become a victim of noise effect. One of private school in Surabaya, Indonesia is so disturbed by the noise of the traffic flow. The school is directly facing the highway that makes a high level of noise. The noise that made by the flow of the traffic reaches 87 dBA, even though according to the standard noise level, the noise should be lower than 55 dBA for the school. Noise will decrease the capability of hearing and make a decrease in concentration of learning for the children. The value of NC (Noise Criteria) in the school parking area reaches 78 dBA, whereas in the area of the school, NC reaches 70 dBA. In this case, research focus in the room near the traffic flows. The students will be analyzed by doing the speech intelligibility test of phonetically balanced word. This test was conducted to determine the percentage of the students’ clarity level of hearing.
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Road traffic noise is one of the most ubiquitous urban environmental pollutants. This paper brings together three related works – in which the author has been involved or is currently completing - that together illustrate essential input to good policy development for the management of the health consequences of this pollutant. These include a guidance document on burden of disease from environmental noise; an assessment of exposure, response, and exposure-response, to road traffic noise in a densely-populated Asian city; and a current systematic evidence review of the effectiveness, in health terms, of interventions to control environmental noise. These provide examples of the nature of the quantitative evidence available to promote noise management through policy interventions.
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Evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to traffic pollution on health is inconsistent. In Greater London we examined associations between traffic pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases by applying linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models in a small-area analysis. For both models the results for children and adults were close to unity. In the elderly, linear models found negative associations whereas piecewise models found non-linear associations characterized by positive risks in the lowest and negative risks in the highest exposure category. An increased risk was observed among those living in areas with the highest socioeconomic deprivation. Estimates were not affected by adjustment for traffic noise. The lack of convincing positive linear associations between primary traffic pollution and hospital admissions agrees with a number of other reports, but may reflect residual confounding. The relatively greater vulnerability of the most deprived populations has important implications for public health.
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Commonly used daytime measurements in previous investigations on community noise and arterial hypertension (AH) may be a source of exposure bias, as urban residents spend most of their daytime hours out of the home on workdays. For this reason, we focused on the relation of nighttime noise and AH. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 2,503 (995 men and 1,508 women) adult residents of a downtown Belgrade municipality. The inclusion criteria were a period of residence longer than 10 years and a bedroom oriented toward the street. The exclusion criteria were a high level of noise annoyance at work and diseases related to AH. Noise measurements were performed in all 70 streets of the municipality. The streets were grouped into noisy areas (equivalent noise level [Leq]>45 dB(A)) and quiet areas (Leq< or =45 dB(A)). The residents were interviewed in regard to antihypertensive therapy. Subjects who responded that they had not received such therapy were contacted for blood pressure measurements with mercury sphygmomanometer. Possible confounding factors: family history of AH, age, body mass index, smoking habits, physical activity and alcohol consumption were controlled for. The proportions of men with AH in the noisy and quiet areas were 23.6% and 17.5%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for AH was 1.58; the 95% confidence interval (CI) ranged from 1.03-2.42; and the probability value was 0.038, when men living in quiet streets were taken as a reference category. This relation was statistically insignificant for women: adjusted OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.59-1.38; p: 0.644. This cross-sectional study showed that nighttime urban road-traffic noise might be related to occurrence of AH in men.
Study on noise pollution of industrialized and urbanized towns like rabakavi and banahatti of bagalkot district, Karnataka state
  • B M Kalshetty
  • B I Nd Karalatti
Kalshetty B. M. a nd Karalatti B.I. (2013): Study on noise pollution of industrialized and urbanized towns like rabakavi and banahatti of bagalkot district, Karnataka state, India. I.J.S.N., 4: 668-672
Burden of disease from environmental noise. Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe
WHO (1972): Technical report series 506, Geneva: World Health Organization WHO (2011): Burden of disease from environmental noise. Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Noise induced hearing loss
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Noise induced hearing loss (2016): Available at: https:// www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/noiseinduced-hearing-loss. Accessed May 9,2016