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Consequences of the Existence of an Aether.

*Rich Norman,

Scientific Advisor Thunder Energies Corporation

1444 Rainville Rd. Tarpon Springs, FL. 34689

Editor in chief,

Mind magazine; Journal of Unconscious

Psychology

editor@thejournalofunconsciouspsychology.com

J. Dunning-Davies

Department of Mathematics and Physics (retd),

University of Hull, Cottingham Road, England

j.dunning-davies@hull.ac.uk

Abstract.

This paper is written as an initial theoretical adjunct to the previous work, Probabilistic

Mechanics: the hidden variable [1]. The marriage of the scientific discipline known as

probabilistics to quantum theory has left the sciences in a position where causality has been

neglected, even as the accuracy of predictive and empirical results is unparalleled. We

advance the notion that the addition of a physically interpretive probabilistics as used to

explain quantum theory is an ingenious necessity brought about by the suppression of the

actual causal basis of observed effects. That missing causal basis, a longitudinal aetherial

expression in bound relation to matter and in unbound relation in its absence, will serve to

provide new causal explanations of results previously derived using probabilistic

techniques. One such instance in need of physical, causal interpretation is that of electron

tunnelling. This paper will put forward new speculative theory in that regard and interpret,

initially, some aspects of existing working probabilistic theory.

Introduction.

In 1984, Kenneth Thornhill produced two articles [2,3] which could be of great importance

for the future of science and deserve to be better known and appreciated. Incidentally, both

may be viewed on the etherphysics.com website. In the first of these, he considered the

question of whether or not there is a physical ethereal medium in which electromagnetic

waves propagate. He noted that many have argued that, since radiation is observed to possess

many physical properties and cannot, therefore, exist in a true vacuum or void since, by

definition, that would imply a total absence of anything physical. However, for more a

hundred years now, it has been accepted widely that there simply is no physical ethereal

medium and the physical properties of radiation have been transformed into waves and

parcels of energy, or photons, in a space-time metric. He proceeds to examine briefly some of

the arguments proposed to deny the existence of a physical ethereal medium but notes,

crucially, that, if such a medium exists, then it could be deduced from Maxwell’s

electromagnetic equations that, since electric field, magnetic field and motion are mutually

perpendicular for plane waves, its condensational oscillations are longitudinal, in analogy

with sound waves in a fluid. He refutes another argument by showing that Planck’s energy,!

distribution for a black-body radiation field may be derived quite simply for a gas-like aether!

with Maxwellian statistics. The assumptions he makes are made absolutely clear in his article

but all may be seen to be eminently reasonable physically. It might be noted also that

Thornhill points out [2] that, according to his theory, the mass of an electron is roughly 2x109

times that of a unit aether particle. This indicates just how small these proposed aether

particles are but, again according to Thornhill’s theory, they would be moving at high speed

and so, have high energy. Having derived this important expression, he proceeds in the

second article to comment that electromagnetic waves may propagate in such an aether and

the oscillating electric and magnetic fields in such waves may be observed to be transverse to

the direction of wave propagation. He notes that, since electric field, magnetic field and

motion are generally observed to be mutually perpendicular and coexistent, this suggests that

such waves must also comprise longitudinal oscillations of motion of the aether itself,

accompanied by longitudinal oscillations in pressure and density. Hence, such waves would

possess the triality of being electromagnetic-condensational waves and their condensational

aspect would, as mentioned already, be analogous to sound waves in a material gas.

In the second cited article [3], Thornhill points out that to justify what he has laid out as a

concept of an aether, it is necessary to establish this triality of electromagnetic-

condensational waves by showing that all three aspects of the waves propagate together

along exactly the same wave fronts. For three space variables and time, the wave fronts are

given by the characteristic hypersurfaces of the partial differential equations which describe

the electric and magnetic field strengths as well as the motion of such an aether. As he also

notes, all such hypersurfaces which pass through a given point in space-time have an

envelope, the characteristic through the point. What he went on to achieve in the article was

to derive the characteristic hyperconoids both for the equations of electricity and magnetism

in a gas-like aether and for the general equations for the unsteady motion of a gas in three

space variables and show that they are, in fact, identical. It might be noted also that such an

aether concept entails no transformation difficulties.

There can be no doubt that, taken together, these two papers contain a devastating

indictment of a large part of modern physics but, in so doing, offer a glimpse of light at the

end of a long tunnel of scientific discovery

Some Further Thoughts on Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Equations

Following the lead proposed in several earlier articles [4 and references cited there], the

Maxwell electromagnetic equations will be considered with the partial derivatives with

respect to time replaced by the corresponding total derivatives; that is,

𝜕

𝜕𝑡 →

𝐷

𝐷𝑡 +𝑣.∇

In fact, as mentioned previously, this change allows for the correction of a piece of vital

physics, presented within CIA released documents seemingly closely associated with Tesla,

that has finally been revealed: a new solution to the equations of Maxwell allowing the

representation and derivation of scalar wave phenomenon. Referring to the relevant

equations in the released CIA document “CIA-RDP96-00792R000500240001-6”,

https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP96-00792R000500240001-6.pdf,

it follows that with

𝑬=−∇𝜙−!

!

!𝑨

!" and 𝑩=∇×𝑨,

where

φ

is the scalar (electric) potential and 𝐴 is the vector (magnetic) potential.

The modified Maxwell equations, which have been derived from first principles [4] in an

article which also clarifies the position of the dynamo mechanism for providing an

explanation for the origin of planetary magnetic fields, then predict

∇!𝜙−

1

𝑐!

𝐷!𝜙

𝐷𝑡!=0

and

∇!𝑨−

1

𝑐!

𝐷!𝑨

𝐷𝑡!=0

As pointed out in the quoted article, a solution appears to exist for the case when 𝑬=0,

𝑩=0 and ∇×𝑨=0 for a new wave satisfying

𝑨=∇𝑆 and 𝜙=−!

!

!"

!",

with S then satisfying

∇!𝑆−

1

𝑐!

𝐷!𝑆

𝐷𝑡!=0.

These modified equations still assert that S is a potential with a wave equation – albeit a

progressive wave equation – mathematically, which suggests the propagation of this wave

even though 𝑬=𝑩=0 and the Poynting theorem implies no electromagnetic power flow.

This wave is often termed a scalar wave in the literature but Thornhill’s reference to a

longitudinal wave is merely a different piece of terminology for the same thing; in both

instances reference is being made to a longitudinal, or scalar, wave and it is one which

progresses in a linear direction as a series of longitudinal oscillations of the aether itself but,

crucially, accompanied by longitudinal oscillations in both pressure and density.

Hence it is seen that, even when no electric or magnetic fields are present, a solution of

Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations indicates the presence of a scalar – or longitudinal –

wave just as when those fields are present. This would seem to indicate the continued

presence of longitudinal oscillations in the aether and, again, these would be accompanied by

longitudinal oscillations in both pressure and density. In turn, this would seem to imply a

movement of energy in the aether in the direction of the disturbance and, as speculated in the

released CIA document referred to above, this could only be energy in the aether itself.

Speculations.

This realisation that there is a longitudinal, or scalar, wave active in the aether, whether or not

there are electric and/or magnetic fields present, leads to various other potentially interesting

speculations. For example, it is currently felt that quantum mechanics offers the only possible

explanation for such occurrences as tunnelling. Such an explanation, while it certainly has

many merits, among which is the fact that it does offer an explanation for these effects, also

suffers from seeming to be far removed from what many feel to be physical reality; the

explanations depend on probabilities rather than on pure physics and, as in all other areas

where probabilistic ideas are employed, this leads to doubt in the minds of some. After all,

probabilistic ideas are usually, if not always, used in physics when some vital pieces of

information needed for a truly exact analytical solution are missing. I good example to

illustrate this latter point is provided by the use of statistical mechanics to aid in the

investigation of systems containing large numbers of particles. In such systems, not all inter-

particle interactions may be accounted for and there are, in general, far too many

simultaneous equations to be solved for an exact solution. Hence, statistical techniques are

employed and, to be fair, these have proved very useful. However, both in this latter example

and in the case of quantum mechanical solutions where probabilistic notions are so vital,

some queries still remain in the minds of many.

It is because of this uncertainty in the minds of many that these recent revelations

concerning the possibility of a longitudinal wave in the aether carrying energy with it raises

so much interest. Any particle moving along, be it in a gas or some other medium, must be

moving in the all-pervading aether. Hence, if such a particle encounters some obstacle such

as a potential barrier, it becomes immediately conceivable that this longitudinal wave

transmits a quantity of energy to the particle in question to enable it to overcome the

mentioned barrier. Such a transfer would be accomplished via inter-particle collisions if

Thornhill’s concept of an aether [2] is valid. It is this first quoted paper of Thornhill which is

so important as far as this particular point is concerned. His concept of an aether refers to a

gas-like aether with Maxwellian statistics and the gas in question is said to be composed of an

infinite variety of particles whose masses are integral multiples of the mass of the unit

particle. This immediately shows that this notion of an aether is definitely one which

possesses energy – energy which could be transferred through inter-particle collisions to

other particles.

The above is a speculative argument but, provided Thornhill’s aether concept is accepted,

the argument is plausible and is one which, if accepted, could easily be extended to provide

more physically realistic explanations for other phenomena regarded as being solely

demonstrable by quantum methods up until now. However, the most immediate problem for

most is to study Thornhill’s work which, although it has been around for more than thirty

years, is still not widely known and definitely not accepted as yet. The other interesting

possibility here is the implied link-up with the pioneering work of Tesla since it seems it was

he who first broached the idea of the existence of these longitudinal, or scalar, waves.

Seemingly, Tesla investigated the standing wave of an electrical nature and found it to be like

standing waves he had observed during natural thunderstorms. In a piece appearing in the

New York Herald Tribune in 1932, Tesla said that he ‘showed that the universal medium is a

gaseous body in which only longitudinal pulses can be propagated, involving alternating

compression and expansion similar to those produced by sound waves in air.’ [5]

A further point might be added concerning the use of the word ‘aether’ throughout this

note. Since the early years of the last century, it has been well publicised that there simply is

no such thing as a material aether. However, in the intervening time, the word ‘vacuum’ has

taken on a far more widespread meaning than it had originally and has been given a quite

detailed, complicated structure to make up for this lack of an aether. The whole idea of a

vacuum has, in fact, been altered to make it, in effect, a material aether as is evidenced by the

discussion in the book The Structured Aether [6].

Some Further Thoughts.

Given the preceding reasoning, we may now theorize that conditions akin to those of

particle collisions implied by Thornhill, meaning conditions permitting the mutual

combination of, or other means of, increase of scalar wave energies are in play to causally

explain statistically derived results associated with electron tunneling. Coherence between

‘wave like aspects’ of particles may be ascribed to functional constructive interferences of

longitudinal waves associated with the aetherial perturbations of those particles. We may

observe this theory working in the tunneling diode and resonant tunneling diode.

As far as the tunneling diode is concerned, scalar waves may be understood easily as

voltage over time expressions. The tunneling diode then functions by way of longitudinal

summation due to alignment of voltages, by way of P and N type conductors which align at a

particular voltage; a voltage bias encouraging by way of said alignment the longitudinal

summation. Voltage, pressure, is made coherent across systemic expression so as to sum

longitudinal waves and get the energies needed to classically surmount the barrier.

The resonant tunneling diode also coherently aligns voltage energies, but also uses

confinement within a quantum potential well to raise energies

[http://www.iue.tuwien.ac.at/phd/kosik/node64.html]. Confinement increases voltage by way

of approaching nm scales. Less volume and so more pressure, meaning of course increased

voltage energy by way of increased charge density. So the resonant tunneling diode

functions by way of quantum confinement and voltage coherent scalar wave constructive

interference.

Confinement and the architecture of the resonant tunneling diode.

Probability fields are in fact scalar fields (see: Probabilistic Mechanics: the hidden variable).

At this juncture, we may note that the probability amplitude, which always reduces after

barrier passage in electron tunneling, appears to represent a real physical quantity: that of a

reduced scalar voltage associated with any electron post tunneling. We infer that the

probability amplitude in question could well represent an actual scalar voltage amplitude.

We may then re-define coherence itself, as a system-state based in those conditions needed

to permit particle associated intra-systemic aetherial scalar wave interactivities and

interferences.

Further speculation is then possible concerning the probabilistically derived relations

between tunneling and nuclear processes, allowing speculation concerning the causal origins

of the strong force. Tunneling probability is associated with nuclear decay and then also the

energy released. Scalar waves which act to connect systemic components utilize inductive

processes to create anti-correlation in the case of nonlocality, see Probabilistic Mechanics,

the hidden variable [1]. Here, we may see the origins of the strong force.

The strong force may be viewed as induction via scalar wave in that induction produces

opposite charges in the nuclear components, then hyper-energized with scalar voltages at

close nuclear distances to account for the potency of the strong force. When the nucleus

decays, the energies released are associated with the scalar wave voltages which bound the

nucleus. Hence, we infer the cause of the probabilistic relationship between tunnelling,

nuclear decay and energy release.

As we study longitudinal waves as affected by heat energy and the mediums through which

they travel, it becomes possible to deduce the reasons. Classically, the nuclear Coulomb

barrier can not be surmounted via classical mechanics to create fusion in stars, but may

indeed be surmounted within quantum mechanics in relation to the probabilities of tunneling,

which are also related to energy values in decay and half lives. Clearly there is fusion in

stars. We have deduced probabilistic causality is related in its actual mechanics to scalar

wave longitudinal expressions including, but not limited to, those perturbed in an aetherial

medium forming a triality within transverse wave expression. Heat affects the energy of

longitudinal waves, and their rate of travel. [7] The Coulomb barrier’s strength increase is

related to atomic number as is expected, due to its direct relationship to the strong force.

Close nuclear distance scales indicate nuclear self-confinement due to excessive inductive

voltages. We may deduce a principle:

Spherically confined nuclear scale induction (the strong force) produces an externally

radiating counter force field: the Coulomb barrier.

Higher atomic number should increase barrier strength and also, energy release in decay must

increase as well due to greater, more prolific inductive scalar wave voltages needed in

increased particle group binding. As the particle-associated condensational longitudinal

expression increases its energies with temperature, noting that the longitudinal wave is the

organizing principle in physical systems [1], we may now see a plain relationship emerge

also between heat, entropy and informational content within systemic evolution:

As the temperature in the medium increases, the speed and energy of the longitudinal wave

increases. Entropy and heat then, increase alongside informational content. The

temperature/tunneling related narrow energy range Gamow window becomes causally

accessible to us: the missing energy is added by temperature increase yielding increased

energy and velocities for the longitudinal component of the triality fostering fusion reactions.

That energy is then also necessarily related to the atomic number (mass) of the bound nucleus

which breaks apart to release its strong force component energy value, and also half life

which is related to the stability and strength of the strong force.

The narrow range of energies appears to imply the additional component of constructive

longitudinal interference could also be a possible factor leading to energy increase, permitting

the summation of longitudinal expressions between similarly aligned temperature affected

aether particles, and other similarly voltage/energy constrained longitudinal expressions, in

coherent, constructive longitudinal interference.

Hadronic implications:

Our new theory offers a self consistent model which fits the experimentally derived facts

concerning the hadronic structure of the neutron. Abstract objects such as quarks, neutrinos

and virtual gluons have no place in a factually grounded scientific theory. We will first

examine neutrino and quantum theory within the context of the alternative theory of Santilli’s

hadronic science and the aetherino [8,9,10], reflecting empirically derived alternatives to the

current theoretic models of the neutron, then fit the new ideas into place.

Logical inconsistencies of existing neutrino and quantum theory include

Neutrino theory inconsistencies:

1. A positive binding energy of 0.782 MeV is indicated to account for the rest energy

difference between the constituent components of the neutron, the electron and the proton and

the neutron itself. However the Schrodinger equation does not admit such positive binding

energies and can not account for the bound state of the electron within the hyper-dense

medium of the proton.

2. Experiments plainly demonstrate a positive binding energy. However in classical anti-

matter theory the antineutrino is ascribed negative energy, contrary to experimentally derived

data.

3. Antineutrinos have a null cross section for electron and proton interactions, contrary to

experimental results.

4. Paradoxical results seem to indicate neutrino scattering effects implying some "particle"

mass, yet no particle is detected. Such "particle scattering" sans particle implies another

solution: a longitudinal impulse moving through a substantial surrounding energy density

interacting with targets: the Aetherino.

Quantum theory inconsistencies:

1. The Schrodinger equation fails to produce correct physical solutions in the case of the

experimentally indicated by a .782 positive binding energy over the rest energies of the

proton and electron which is required to synthesize neutrons.

2. Quantum mechanics forbids the synthesis of the spin l/2 neutron from the bound state of

the spin l/2 proton and spin 1/2 electron.

3. The electron being bound into the proton for the 15 m life of an isolated neutron is not

permitted in quantum mechanics.

4. The magnetic moments of the proton and electron are insufficient to account for the

magnetic moment of the neutron according to quantum theory.

5 The uncertainty principle does not allow the electron to be bound permanently within the

proton in stable nuclei such as the deuteron.

6. The interpretation of internal neutron structure which is most parsimonious, is that of an

electron bound within a proton, not that of quarks. A simpler neutron structure has been

articulated. The undetectable free quark is no longer required.

7. The model of Hadronic Mechanics and Chemistry implies new hadronic fuels, possible

stimulated nuclear decay and rapid safe elimination of radioactive nuclear waste [8, 9].

8. The neutron can be re-conceptualized as the hadronic bound state of the hydrogen atom

with the electron orbiting within a proton (see figure 6 below). Ergo: the ordinary energy

levels of the hydrogen atom may be rightly conceptualized as the excited states of the

neutron.

The Aetherino of Santilli carries mass and charge zero, spin 1/2 and 0.78 energy [9, 10]; a

longitudinal impulse and a scalar wave expression. [1].

The correct neutron structure as articulated by Santilli and repeatedly demonstrated in many

experiments [9], is shown here:

Image of the hydrogen atom's electron orbiting within the proton forming a neutron in

singlet coupling. The neutron is the hadronic bound state of the hydrogen atom.

The theories of Santilli clearly demonstrate the neutron is stabilized by way of anti-

correlation and a singlet state. Now we may infer the cause of the stable neutron and

hypothesize as to the internal function of the additional scalar wave aetherino.

Do note that our theory articulates the 0.782 MeV aetherino as the strong force itself, a

positive binding energy acting by way of induction, acting, as it must, in inductive anti-

correlation in order to create the stable neutron particle. The hadroninc structure of a neutron

is indeed that of an electron bound into the hyperdense medium of the proton by way of

inductive scalar processes: anti-correlation established by intra-system inductive scalar

connectomics via the aetherino scalar wave.

Conclusion:

Science has been suppressed and/or theoretically misinterpreted leading to errors which once

corrected, could well lead to a new era where clean power is available to all through an

understanding of the actual causes beneath the probabilistic world we see through quantum

theory. This initial theoretical augmentation of previous work [1] outlining a preliminary

basis to the new physics, suggests that quantum tunneling could also be redefined within this

new causal context, and within that, electron tunneling. Those processes, we suggest, could

well be causally explained along with the strong force itself through close examination of the

phenomena of voltage alignment, confinement, and longitudinal scalar wave energy exchange

within an aetherial medium.

References.

1. R.L.Norman and J.Dunning-Davies; Probabilistic Mechanics: the hidden variable, [to be

published in the Hadronic Journal]

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327209709_Probabilistic_Mechanics_the_hidden_v

ariable

2. C.K.Thornhill; 1984, Speculations in Science & Technology, 8, 263-272

3. C.K.Thornhill; 1984, Speculations in Science & Technology, 8, 273-280

4. J.Dunning-Davies; 2002, Hadronic Journal 25, 251-260

5. N. Tesla; 1932, Pioneer Radio Engineer Gives Views on Power, New York Herald

Tribune, Sep.11.

6. J.Rafelski & B.Muller;1985, The Structured Vacuum, Verlag Harri Deutsch

7. [https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/HighSchool/Sound/tempandspeed.htm;

https://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/NickyDu.shtml].

8. RM. Santilli; 2001, Foundations of Hadronic Chemistry, Kluwer Academic

Publishers Dordrecht, http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-113.pdf

9. Norman, Dunning-Davies; 2017, Hadronic Journal. 40; 119 - 148

10. Santilli, R. M.; (2007), Foundations of Physics, 37, 670;

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225145789