Effects of royal jelly and honey mixture on some hormones in young
males performing maximal strength workout
Büyükipekçi S.1ABCDE, Sarıtaş N.2ABCDE, Soylu M.3ABCDE, Mıstık S.4ABCDE, Silici S.5ABCDE
1Meram Vocational School, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey
2Sports Sciences Faculty, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey
3 Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Biruni University, İstanbul, Turkey
4Medical Faculty, Family Medicine Department, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey
5Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey
Authors’ Contribution: A – Study design; B – Data collection; C – Statistical analysis; D – Manuscript Preparation;
E – Funds Collection.
Purpose: Among products used as ergogenic substances by sportsmen, royal jelly and honey have attracted attention
in recent years. This study was carried out to determine the eect of royal-jelly and honey mixture on weight
lifting performances and some hormone test of athletes.
Material: Randomly selected healthy 29 athletes, aged between 20 and 25 years, were divided into two groups. Placebo
(corn starch) was given to the Control Group and 5 grams of royal jelly + 45 grams of honey mixture was
given to the experimental group for eight weeks. After one week of weight adjustment workout; maximum
weight (bench press, shoulder press, squat, deadlift and arm curl movements) that each athlete can lift was
determined and hormones (Free T4, Free T3, Cortisol, Insulin, Total Testosterone and ACHT, TSH, Growth
Hormone, Prolocatin, FSH, LH) were examined at pro-exercise, after four weeks of exercise, and after eight
weeks of exercise.
Results: As a result of the study, a statistical increase in the weights lifted in the bench press, squat, arm curl, deadlifts
and shoulder press movements in the second and third measurements with respect to the rst measurement
was determined within both groups (p<0.001). While according to the hormone test results in placebo and
experimental groups, there was no signicant dierence in free T3 , total testosterone variables intra-groups
and inter-groups (p> 0.05), but there was signicant dierence in free T4 value in 2. measurements of groups
(p = 0.030) and between the 2. and 3. measurements in the test group in the variable of insulin hormone (p
Conclusions: In conclusion, it is thought that in young males performing maximal strength workout, royal jelly + honey
supplement does not aect the increase in weight lifted, this increase is due to the weight training applied,
but it causes some hormone changes.
Keywords: exercise, performance, nutrition, royal jelly, honey, ergogenic aid.
The use of substances, methods and materials other
than natural ability and training in order to improve
sportive performance is called ergogenic aid. For many
athletes, winning is the only goal. As long as moments,
millimeters, grams are important to gain and lose, the use
of methods or materials that will improve performance
will also be important.
Among products used as ergogenic substances by
sportsmen, royal jelly and honey have attracted attention
in recent years. Royal jelly is a bee product in a creamy
structure secreted by young worker honey bees. Average
moisture content of royal jelly is 60-70%; crude proteins
are 12-15%, lipids are 3-6%, sugar is 10-16%, and low-
molecular-weight compounds (vitamins such as vitamin
E, biotin, folic acid, inositol, niacin, pantothenic acid,
pyridoxine, riboavin, thiamine, and minerals such
as copper, zinc, iron, calcium, manganese, potassium,
sodium and free amino acids) are 2-3% .
It has been determined that footballers who took
royal jelly to have a higher average in terms of body
© Büyükipekçi S., Sarıtaş N., Soylu M., Mıstık S., Silici S., 2018
height, body mass, muscle and bone component . In
another study they have determined that serum amino
acid content, BUN, and creatine levels, which are of the
biochemical parameters of the athletes, were inuenced
when they give royal jelly to 40 male swimmers between
the ages of 18-25 .
Among the bee products, the most known is honey and
carbohydrates are the main components that make up about
95% of the dry weight. For this reason it is an important
source of energy for athletes. It contains carbohydrates
as well as biologically important compounds such as
organic acids, proteins, amino acids, minerals, phenolic
compounds, vitamins, minerals and aroma compounds
and has benecial health effects .
The stress formed on the human organism by the
exercise has a variety of physiological and metabolic
effects on the tissues such as blood . It is stated that
these differences depend on the intensity, duration,
frequency of exercise and physical, physiological and
conditional state of the subjects participating in the study
. For this reason, athletes practice various resistance
exercises with the aim of increasing their general
strengths, such as weight lifting exercises, which are
powerful stimuli for the muscular nervous system . It is
reported that changes in blood concentrations of various
hormones during or after exercise may occur depending
on the duration of the training and it is necessary to know
the hormonal responses to the exercise .
This study was aimed to determine the effect of royal-
jelly and honey mixture on weight lifting performances
and some hormones of athletes, considering that royal-jelly
and honey mixture performing maximal weight workout
may increase the strength and muscle development in
motoric characteristics of the athletes.
Materials and Method
Participants: 30 male volunteers attending Erciyes
University School of Physical Education and Sports
participated in this study. Randomly selected healthy 30
students, aged between 20 and 25 years, were divided
into two groups; placebo (corn starch) was given to
the Control Group and honey mixture was given to the
experimental group. After the trial started, since 1 student
in the experimental group left the study because of some
reasons; the study continued with a total of 29 volunteer
students, with 14 students of experimental group and 15
students of control group.
Research Design: The 14 volunteers in the
experimental group were given 5 grams of royal jelly
+ 45 grams of honey, a total of 50 grams of mixture
provided from Altıparmak Co, for 8 weeks and 20-30
minutes before breakfast. 15 volunteers in the control
group received 50 grams of placebo (corn starch) in the
same way. Body weight was measured with athletes in the
standard sportswear, with a bias of ± 100 gr (Tanita TBF
401 A Japan) in the upright position. Stature measurement
was performed in the Frankfort plane with the wall
mounted measure while the feet were naked. The body
mass index was obtained by dividing body weight by
length in meters, and was classied according to WHO
After a week of weight adjustment exercises, the
maximum weight lifting weight that each athlete could lift
was determined and the athletes were taken to work out
after 10 minutes of running and stretching exercises. The
weight training sets were formed by the movements of the
bench press, shoulder press, squat, deadlift and arm curl,
the series were formed by weight lifting determined for
each of the athletes, with lifting 80% of maximum weight
for 7 times, 85% for 5 times, 90% for 3 times, 95% for 2
times, and 100% for 1 time. The weight exercises were
continued for 2 months (8 weeks), 4 days a week, 2 hours
a day with intervals of 3-5 minutes between sets and with
intervals of 3 minutes between the series. Athletes were
subjected to a pyramid training program that began with
80% capacity, reached 100% capacity and returned again
to 80% capacity.
Before starting to work, blood samples were taken
from the volunteers in medical college blood donor unit
between 08: 00-09: 00 am in the morning of 4th and 8th
weeks from the start of the study with empty stomach and
analyzes were made.
Blood samples taken were analyzed in Erciyes
University Hospital Central Laboratory over service
procurement. Free T4, Free T3, Cortisol, Insulin, Total
Testosterone and ACHT, TSH, Growth Hormone,
Prolactin, FSH, LH hormones were examined. Hormone
Tests were evaluated by Siemens Advia Centaur XP
Statistical Analysis: SPSS software package was
used for statistical evaluation of the data obtained in the
study. The normality test of the variables was tested with
the shapiro-wilk test. Nonparametric tests were used
because variables which were not normally distributed
did not fulll parametric test assumptions. Statistical
notations are expressed as median (25th percentile -
75th percentile). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to
compare differences between groups, and the Friedman
test was used to analyze statistical changes over time. The
Dunn-Bonferroni test was performed as a post hoc test.
Signicance level was taken as p <0.05.
For the research, ethics committee permission with
number 2012/567 and date 07/8/2012 was obtained from
Erciyes University Deanship of Faculty of Medicine
and all volunteers were informed about the project and
consent form was obtained from all volunteers.
There were no signicant differences found in terms
of age, height, body weight, body mass and index values
both in time and between the groups for both the placebo
and the experimental groups participating in the study (p
> 0.05) (Table 1).
In 2. and 3. measurements (p <0.05) in the inter-group
bench press (kg), in 1.,2. and 3. measurements (p <0.05),
in squat (kg), in 2. measurement (p <0.05), in arm curl
and in 2. measurement (p <0.05) in the shoulder press,
the inter-group differences were found to be signicant
(p <0.05). There was no inter-group difference in the
Deadlifts movement (p> 0.05).
In both groups, a statistically signicant increase
was found in the weights lifted in the bench press, squat,
arm curl, deadlifts and shoulder press movements in the
second and third measurements with respect to the rst
measurement and it was determined that the differences
between all measurements were signicant (p<0.001)
There was no signicant difference in free T3,
total testosterone hormones between the placebo and
experimental groups (p> 0.05). It was determined that the
difference in free T4 values at the second measurement of
the groups (p = 0.030) was signicant.
According to the multiple comparison test (intra-
group), there was no signicant difference between 1. and
2., 1st and 3rd measurements in the insulin hormone test
group, but the difference between 2. and 3. measurements
was found to be statistically signicant (p <0.001). In
cortisol hormone, the difference between the 1. and
3. measurements in the placebo group (p = 0.042) was
signicant (Table 3).
There was no signicant difference in ACTH,
TSH, growth hormone, prolactin and LH hormones
Table 2. Comparison of bench press, squat, arm curls, deadlifts and shoulder press movements of the groups
Variable Time Placebo Experiment P*
Median (25p-75p) Median (25p-75p)
Bench press (kg)
1 50.0 (47.0-50.0)a52.0 (48.5-65.0)a0.149
2 56.0 (49.0-58.0)b61.0 (56.3-70.3)b0.028*
3 59.0 (56.0-69.0)c70.0 (61.5-75.5)c0.028*
P# p<0.001 p<0.001
1 70.0 (70.0-80.0)a80.5 (79.3-95.5)a0.003*
2 78.0 (73.0-85.0)b90.0 (84.8-106.3)b0.001*
3 85.0 (80.0-92.0)c99.0 (92.0-115.0)c0.001*
P# p<0.001 p<0.001
Arm Curls (kg)
1 30.0 (30.0-32.0)a33.0 (28.3-40.0)a0.230
2 34.0 (32.0-37.0)b39.5 (33.8-43.0)b0.039*
3 38.0 (36.0-41.0)c42.0 (37.5-46.0)c0.094
P# p<0.001 p<0.001
1 70.0 (58.0-86.0)a78.5 (73.8-83.0)a0.136
2 75.0 (62.0-88.0)b82.0 (79.5-90.0)b0.220
3 80.0 (66.0-91.0)c90.0 (85.0-96.5)c0.095
P# p<0.001 p<0.001
Shoulder Press (kg)
1 35.0 (30.0-39.0)a38.5 (34.3-42.8)a0.057
2 38.0 (34.0-41.0)b42.5 (39.8-46.0)b0.023*
3 42.0 (37.0-46.0)c46.5 (41.8-49.5)c0.052
P# p<0.001 p<0.001
abc: If the alphabetical upper symbols in the same column carry separate letters, this indicates the significance of
difference between the groups P #: intra-group comparison (Friedman test), P *: inter-group comparison (Mann-
Whitney U test), Median, (25p-75p) = (25 percentile-75 percentile) 1 = pro - exercise, 2 = after 4 weeks of exercise, 3
= after 8 weeks of exercise.
Table 1. Characteristics of the control and experimental group
Variable Time Placebo (n=15) Royal Jelly (n=14) P*
Median (25-75%) Median (25-75%)
Age (Years) 1 23 (21-24) 22 (21-22.25) 0.136
Stature (cm) 1 174 (169-178) 173.5(170.75-186) 0.469
Body weight (kg)
1 66.10 (62.20-74.70) 77.25 (65.43-87.60) 0.071
2 66.30 (63-74.30) 78.45 (65.30-85.55) 0.070
3 66.60 (62.10-74.50) 78.80 (66.73-86.20) 0.046
1 21.70 (20.80-23.30) 23.25 (21.70-26.63) 0.148
2 21.60 (20.90-23.50) 22.95 (21.38-26.90) 0.142
3 21.50 (21-23.60) 23.40 (21.73-26.53) 0.095
P #: intra-group comparison (Friedman test), P *: inter-group comparison (Mann-Whitney U test), Median, (25p-75p)
= (25 percentile-75 percentile) 1 = pro-exercise, 2 = after 4 weeks of exercise, 3 = after 8 weeks of exercise.
between the placebo and experimental groups (p> 0.05).
According to the multiple comparison test (intra-group),
in experimental group in FSH, the difference between 1.
and 3. measurements (p = 0.030) was determined to be
signicant (Table 4).
When the researches are examined, it is observed that
the number of researches related to use of royal jelly and
honey in exercise and sports studies is very low. The lack
of such studies in the literature raises the importance of
our study and limits the discussion of the results. For
this reason our research results are compared with other
ergogenic support products.
In the majority of previous studies made with voluntary
individuals; since energy expenditures due to nutrient and
energy intakes would be different due to having free living
conditions, nutrient uptake was recorded for one week at
the beginning of the study and carbohydrate, fat, protein
and total energy intake of the control and experimental
groups at the beginning of the study did not show any
statistical difference. In this study, it was determined
Table 4. Comparison of adenohypophyse hormone variables of the groups
Variable Time Placebo Experiment P*
Median (25p-75p) Median (25p-75p)
1 18.90 (17.10-37.70) 28.60 (21.60-41.05) 0.201
2 26.70 (18.40-34.10) 29.15 (21.43-36.05) 0.747
3 24.40 (20.90-37.50) 36.00 (25.75-45.80) 0.085
P# 0.077 0.242
1 2.09 (1.13-4.45) 2.18 (1.66-3.06) 0.813
2 2.96 (1.75-3.42) 1.84 (1.42-2.39) 0.134
3 2.23 (1.11-3.65) 2.25 (1.75-3.36) 0.983
P# 0.077 0.116
Growth Hormone (ng/mL)
1 0.07 (0.06-0.19) 0.10 (0.05-0.22) 0.804
2 0.09 (0.05-0.19) 0.08 (0.05-0.15) 0.785
3 0.13 (0.05-0.22) 0.09 (0.05-0.14) 0.181
P# 0.675 0.429
1 7.70 (5.99-12.04) 9.72 (7.40-14.09) 0.093
2 9.20 (7.09-11.57) 7.60 (6.26-11.80) 0.290
3 9.13 (7.42-10.41) 9.33 (6.82-14.33) 0.598
P# 0.711 0.063
1 2.63 (2.07-3.06) 3.43 (1.94-4.12)a0.230
2 2.21 (1.87-3.36) 3.42 (1.66-4.66)ab 0.158
3 2.63 (2.18-3.65) 3.91 (2.22-5.17)b0.131
P# 0.146 0.033*
1 3.67 (2.78-4.33) 4.48 (3.07-5.11) 0.444
2 3.72 (3.20-6.31) 3.79 (2.70-5.69) 0.747
3 4.05 (2.98-5.13) 5.03 (231-6.60) 0.326
P# 0.882 0.063
abc: If the alphabetical upper symbols in the same column carry the separate letter, this indicates the significance of
inter-group difference. P #: intra-group comparison (Friedman test), P *: inter-group comparison (Mann-Whitney U
test), Median, (25p-75p) = (25 percentile-75 percentile) 1 = pro- exercise, 2 = after 4 weeks of exercise, 3 = after 8 weeks
of exercise, = ACTH = Adrenocorticotropic hormone, TSH = Thyroid stimulated hormone, FSH = Follicle stimulated
hormone, LH = Luteinizing hormone.
Table 3. Comparison of hormonal changes of the groups
Variable Time Placebo Experiment P*
Median (25p-75p) Median (25p-75p)
Free T4 (ng/dL)
1 1.16 (1.10-1.24) 1.09 (1.02-1.20) 0.148
2 1.26 (1.15-1.39) 1.18 (1.08-1.24) 0.030*
3 1.24 (1.17-1.32) 1.21 (1.08-1.23) 0.154
P# 0.131 0.055
Free T3 (pg/mL)
1 3.66 (3.55-3.84) 3.70 (3.51-3.88) 0.991
2 3.80 (3.56-3.90) 3.77 (3.39-3.99) 0.821
3 3.72 (3.55-3.88) 3.68 (3.44-3.82) 0.525
P# 0.709 0.925
1 12.00 (9.15-15.80)a15.15 (11.75-19.18) 0.077
2 17.70 (11.80-20.50)b17.10 (14.55-20.15) 0.880
3 16.00 (15.00-18.10)b17.05 (14.78-19.08) 0.431
P# 0.042* 0.242
1 5.39 (3.39-8.54) 6.68 (3.35-9.01)ab 0.612
2 4.40 (2.34-7.02) 3.42 (2.18-6.75)a0.682
3 5.67 (4.20-16.80) 7.23 (4.83-11.78)b0.583
P# 1.000 p<0.001
Total Testosterone (ng/dL)
1 453.00 (322.00-643.00) 406.50 (363.25-574.75) 0.871
2 490.00 (438.00-550.00) 432.50 (395.25-535.75) 0.270
3 446.00 (356.00-513.00) 430.50 (334.00-580.25) 0.872
P# 0.369 0.874
abc: If the alphabetical upper symbols in the same column carry the separate letter, this indicates the significance
of inter-group difference. P #: intra-group comparison (Friedman test), P *: inter-group comparison (Mann-Whitney
U test), Median, (25p-75p) = (25 percentile-75 percentile) 1 = pro- exercise, 2 = after 4 weeks of exercise, 3 = after 8
weeks of exercise, T3 = Triiodothyronine, T4 = Thyroxine.
that there was no signicant inter-group and inter- group
differences in the body mass index variable. Consistent
with this result, there was no signicant difference in
body mass index of individuals as a result of 6 grams /
day royal jelly application for 4 weeks on healthy humans
. In another study conducted with royal jelly, it was
determined that there was no signicant difference in the
body mass index variable in the intake of royal jelly for 6
months . In a study in which royal jelly was given to
the swimmers, it was found that there was no signicant
difference in the body mass index .
While resistance training increases strength and
resilience, it also increases muscle protein synthesis and
hypertrophy . In this study, inter- group differences
between the 2. and 3. measurements in the bench press,
1., 2. and 3. measurements in the squat, 2. measurement
in arm curl and 2. measurement in shoulder press were
signicant. There was no inter-group difference in
Deadlifts. Statistically signicant increases were detected
in the second and third measurements of the bench press,
squat, arm curl, deadlifts and shoulder press movements
in both groups with respect to the rst measurement and
the differences between all of the measurements were
determined to be signicant.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
in which effect of creatinine monohydrate on anaerobic
performance and maximal force was determined, indicated
that loading with 20 g·d-¹ of creatine monohydrate for
7 days increased (5.4% increase) from the Wingate
anaerobic test, but it had no effect on strength peak power
or body weight .
In a study of weight training and the effect of
glutamine supplementation in young adults aged between
18-24 years, a statistically signicant increase in squat
and bench press movements of both groups treated
with glutamine and placebo was observed but muscular
performance and body composition was not affected in any
way . Strength increase occurred in training men who
used a six-week multi-blend performance supplement, but
inter-group difference (supplement and placebo) did not
occur . It has been reported that when the essential
amino acid / carbohydrate mixture was given following
weight training, both (placebo and supplement) groups
experienced increase in bench press and squat movements
while the essential amino acid group had a positive effect
on muscle hypertrophy and low nitrogen balance or
low force . In the study of protein metabolism and
strength performance after the use of bovine colostrum
supplementation, it was stated that the use of two weeks
of bovine colostrum supplementation had no effect on
strength performance .
During exercise, skeletal muscle glucose uptake
is increased in the absence of insulin. The increase in
muscle glucose uptake may be partly due to relative lack
of oxygen, and it is stated that glucose uptake in the cells
may increase in anaerobic conditions . Although
there was no difference between the placebo and the
experimental groups in our study, there was a statistically
signicant increase in the difference between the 2. and
3. measurements in the experimental group in insulin
hormone. In a study made with royal jelly, 20 g royal jelly
was given to the volunteers and oral glucose tolerance test
was performed and a decrease in serum glucose levels
observed 2 hours after royal jelly application. It has been
reported that this decrease is due to insulin-like substances
in the royal jelly .
In this study, ACTH in the placebo and experimental
groups did not show any intra-group or inter-group
differences. Similarly, in a 10-week weight-training
workout in different age groups (30-year-old young
males, 62-year-old adults), it was stated that there was no
difference in ACTH levels between age groups and over
time according to baseline .
There was no signicant inter-group and intra-group
difference in the prolactin variable in our study. However,
the difference between the 1. and 3. measurements in
the placebo group in cortisol hormone was found to
be signicant. In another study, higher cortisol levels
were reported after 5 minutes to 30 minutes of exercise
after soy protein supplementation than whey protein
supplementation . In a study in which effect of specic
protein supplements in strength / power athletes were
determined on the recovery indices after acute-weight
training, 7 male athletes were given 42 grams of protein
supplement before and after exercise in the supplement
group. When the results were evaluated, it was stated that
the difference between the basal measurements at the
cortisol hormone level and the other measurements was
inuenced by exercise, and it was emphasized that the
given protein reinforcement had no effect .
The increase in hormone release of troxin (T4) and
thyrodotrone (T3) in exercise is related to the regulation
of energy balance in exercise. The thyroid gland hormones
troxin and thyrodotrone have been shown to be increased
with prolonged, severe exercise (type of endurance) and
this increase was stated to be related to energy balance
. In this study, there were no signicant inter-group
and intra-group differences between the placebo and
experimental groups, in free T3 and TSH. However, it
was determined that the difference in the 2. measurement
of the groups in free T4 value was signicant. The
severity and duration of exercise signicantly affects
the circulatory levels of thyroid hormone. In one study,
0-18 to 0-9 km swimming or moderate severity 90
minutes cycling ergometer pedaling did not affect the
thyroid concentration . In another study, there was a
statistically signicant decrease in free T3 after intensive
rowing training, but no change in T4 level occurred .
According to these results, it can be said that the duration,
severity and frequency of the exercise types applied affect
the hormonal levels.
In our study, there was no signicant inter-group and
intra-group difference in the LH variable. It was determined
that the difference between the 1. and 3. measurements in
the FSH variable was signicant in the experimental group
according to the multiple comparison test (Intra-group).
In a study conducted on very advanced training champion
athletes, there was no signicant increase in serum LH and
FSH levels immediately after 400 m run. Another study
suggests that there might be a decrease in the testicular
response to luteinizing hormone, although there was no
reduction in luteinizing hormone .
During training, the increase in growth hormone is
less in trained individuals than in non-trained individuals
. In other study, emphasized that the release of
plasma stress hormones (cortisol-GH-prolactin) in the
usual stress states is less than the secretion in unusual
stresses and emphasized that the situation may lead to an
extended adaptation of the hypothalamic-hypothalamus
line to long stress conditions . In this study, there was
no statistically signicant inter-group and intra-group
difference in growth hormone. Similarly, in training men
who use a six-week, multi-blend performance supplement,
in the study called the effect of weight training on the
workings of anabolic hormones, body composition,
strength and power, it is implicated that multiple mix
performance supplements and weight training had no
effect on serum growth hormone .
Although the effects of anabolic steroids on physical
performance cannot be fully determined, it has been
suggested that the testosterone, an anabolic steroid
hormone, stimulates protein deposits and muscle growth
and may provide increases in body weight, lean body
mass, bench press and squat . It has been reported
that testosterone increases with short intensive exercise
and this increase is related to blood lactate concentration
. There was no signicant inter-group and intra-group
difference in the total testosterone variables in our study.
Similarly, in a study conducted in weight workouts in
association with soy protein and whey protein, there was
no statistically signicant difference between the groups
in the serum free testosterone and total testosterone after
12 weeks of weight training, so it was stated that there
was no effect of supplements .
Testosterone levels in men have been reported to
reach their highest levels immediately after weight lifting
exercise . Although there is a post-exercise elevation
in the endurance training group, it is stated that there was a
meaningful decrease in plasma total and free testosterone
in the following recovery period, the decrease might
change in intensity according to the strength and intensity
of the exercises and the amount of calories consumed .
Similarly, they emphasized that increased testosterone
levels during short-term exercises were reduced in long-
term exercises .
Although studies have shown an increase in
testosterone concentration immediately after exercise,
this increase was expressed to decrease to the basal levels
60 minutes after exercise [33, 21]. In this study, it is
thought that testosterone levels might be lowered to the
basal levels at the post-exercise hours.
In this study, royal jelly + honey mixture used for
two months did not have any adverse effects or allergic
reactions on the athletes. However, it should be kept in
mind that the increase in the amount of royal jelly in the
diet supplements or period of usage may result in allergic
The limitation in this research is the requirement that
royal jelly and honey mixtures should be given in terms of
kilogram of body weight. The greater number of samples,
the control of the sleep patterns of the volunteers and the
control of the intake and frequency of nutrients throughout
the study, the control of the physical activity level of the
volunteers other than the applied training program could
also strengthen the search.
As a result, in the maximal strength training performed
for 8 weeks, the increase in the bench press, squat, arm
curl, deadlifts and shoulder press movements of the
volunteers was observed. It was seen that this increase was
due to the weight training, that the royal jelly and honey
supplementation did not affect the increase in weight
lifted, but caused some hormonal changes in the practice.
It is suggested that the amount and duration of royal jelly
+ honey mixture given as supplement was not enough and
that royal jelly + honey mixture may be more effective in
higher doses for longer periods in subsequent studies.
Erciyes University, Research Foundation has
supported this research (contract grant number TDK-
2012-4162). The authors thank Altiparmak Food.Co.
(Istanbul) for their product supports.
Conict of interest
The authors declare no conict of interest.
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Information about the authors:
Büyükipekçi S. (Corresponding author); Asst. Prof; http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8724-5374; firstname.lastname@example.org;
Meram Vocational School, Necmettin Erbakan University; Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi, Meram Meslek Yüksekokulu,
Sarıtaş N.; Assoc. Prof.; http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3402-6498; email@example.com; Sports Sciences Faculty, Erciyes
University; Erciyes Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi, Kayseri, Turkey.
Soylu M.; Asst. Prof.; http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6968-8729; firstname.lastname@example.org; Faculty of Health Sciences, Nutrition
and Dietetic Department, Biruni University; 10. Yıl Caddesi Protokol Yolu No: 45, 34010 Topkapı / İstanbul, Turkey.
Mıstık S.; Prof. Dr.; http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0657-3881; email@example.com; Medical Faculty, Family Medicine
Department, Erciyes University; Erciyes Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Aile Hekimliği Anabilim Dalı, Kayseri, Turkey.
Silici S.; Prof. Dr.; http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2810-2917; firstname.lastname@example.org; Faculty of Agriculture, Department of
Agricultural Biotechnology, Erciyes University; Erciyes Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Tarımsal Biyoteknoloji Bölümü, Tarımsal
Araştırmalar Bölümü 38039 - Kayseri, Turkey.
Cite this article as: Büyükipekçi S, Sarıtaş N, Soylu M, Mıstık S, Silici S. Eects of royal jelly and honey mixture on some
hormones in young males performing maximal strength workout. Physical education of students, 2018;22(6):308–315.
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Accepted: 22.10.2018; Published: 26.12.2018