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A new species of Ceropegia (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae) from eastern Thailand

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Abstract

Ceropegia boonjarasii Kidyoo, a new species from eastern Thailand is here described, illustrated and compared morphologically and ecologically to C. sootepensis Craib and C. laotica Rodda & Meve, its putative close relatives. These three species display clear differences in habitat choice, hairiness of leaf surface and corolla lobes, and in the shape of interstaminal corona segments.

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... ). All species are endemic to the park, growing in sandy soil in the open areas of dry deciduous dipterocarp forest (see Figs. S4, S5 for more details on study site and species)47,56,57 . The main study area was located near the national park's headquarters. ...
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Possession of flowers that trap fly pollinators is a conservative trait within the genus Ceropegia,in which pollination systems can be generalized or highly specialized. However, little is knownabout the role of plant–pollinator interactions in the maintenance of species boundaries. This studyexamined the degree of plant–pollinator specialization and identified the parameters responsiblefor specificity among four co-occurring Ceropegia species with overlapping flowering times. Allinvestigated plant species were functionally specialized on pollination by Chloropidae and/orMilichiidae flies and each Ceropegia species was, in turn, ecologically highly specialized on only twopollinating fly morphospecies, though one plant species appeared more generalist. Species-specific flyattraction was due to the differences between plant species in floral scents, floral morphology, colourpatterns, and presence of other functional structures, e.g., vibratile trichomes, which were shownto contribute to pollinator attraction in one study species. The combination of these olfactory andvisual cues differentially influenced pollinator preferences and thus hindered heterospecific visitation.Furthermore, a pollinator exchange experiment also highlighted that species integrity is maintainedthrough efficient ethological isolation (pollinator attraction). The mechanical isolation mediated by the fit between floral morphology and size and/or shape of fly pollinators appears less pronounced here, but whether or not the morphological match between male (pollinium) and female (guide rails)reproductive organs can impede hybridization remains to be investigated.
... In Thailand, the Ceropegia sensu Huber (1957) is represented by 18 species (Thaithong et al. 2018, Kidyoo 2018. Recently, an unknown species was found in Ubon Ratchathani province, eastern Thailand. ...
Article
Ceropegia chuakulii is a new species from eastern Thailand. Illustrations, photographs and comparison of diagnostic characters to the morphologically similar species, C. acicularis Kidyoo are provided. These two species are characterized by erect stems, needle-like leaves, one–flowered sessile inflorescences and spathulate corolla lobes that are connate at tips. Ceropegia chuakulii is, however, clearly distinguished from C. acicularis by its ovoid to globose corolla tube, corolla lobes being as long as corolla tube, deeply bifid interstamial corona lobes with triangular-lanceolate segments. In addition, the analyses of quantitative morphological traits of flowers also strongly supported the distinctiveness of the new species.
... บางชนิ ดสามารถรั บประทานหั วสะสม อาหารได้ (Muthukrishnan et al., 2013) ส่ วนใน ประเทศไทยมี รายงานการพบพื ชในสกุ ลนี ้ 17 ชนิ ด (Boonjaras and Thaithong, 2003;Meve, 2009;Kidyoo, 2014a;Kidyoo, 2014b;Kidyoo, 2015a;Kidyoo, 2015b;Kidyoo and Paliyavuth, 2017a;Kidyoo and Paliyavuth, 2017b;Kidyoo, 2018a;Kidyoo, 2018b;Thaithong et al., 2018) หญ้ าพั นเกลี ยว หรื อ C. thailandica เป็ นพื ช สกุ ล Ceropegia ชนิ ดหนึ ่ ง ซึ ่ งเป็ นพื ชถิ ่ นเดี ยวและ ใกล้ สู ญพั นธุ ์ อย่ างยิ ่ ง (critically endangered, CR) ( (Patil, 1998;Nikam et al., 2008;Chandore et al., 2010;Chavan et al., 2011;Krishnareddy แ ละ Pullaiah, 2012;Nikam et al., 2012;Chavan et al., 2013;Phulwaria et al., 2013;Chavan et al., 2014;Reddy et al., 2015 Baker, K., Lambdon, P., Jones, E., Pellicer, J., Stroud, S., Renshaw, O., Niissalo, M., Corcoran, Clubbe, C. and Sarasan, V., ...
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Ceropegia thailandica Meve is endemic and critically endangered. Plant tissue culture is the efficient method for ex situ conservation. This study aims to find a suitable method for in vitro propagation of C. thailandica. Nodal segments were sterilized with four different surface sterilization methods and cultured on MS medium for 5 weeks. The result showed that the explants sterilized with 0.3 % (v/v) NaOCl for 10 minutes followed by 0.2 % (w/v) HgCl2 for 5 minutes had the lowest contamination rate (40 %) and the highest survival rate (26.66 %). Effect of BA and Kn on shoot and tuber induction from nodal segment was studied. Nodal segments were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BA and Kn (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L) for 8 weeks. The result showed that the best shoot induction (15.80 shoots) was found in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA, and the best tuberization (87 %) was found in MS medium supplement with 2.5 mg/L Kn. Regenerated shoots of C. thailandica were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of IBA and NAA (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L) for 8 weeks to observed root induction. The results showed that 0.5 mg/L IBA had the highest root induction (3.60 roots), and at all concentrations IBA and 1.5 mg/L NAA gave the highest callus induction (100 %)
... Its clear sap, tubular flower with a basal inflation, erect lobes coherent at their apices and forming a canopy and corona in two series, fit the main characters of Ceropegia in the narrow sense. After investigation of the specimens of Ceropegia from the main herbaria (PE, KUN and IBSC) in China, and careful consultation of the literature, especially newly published species from Asia (Swarupanandan and Mangaly 1992, Li et al. 1995, Albers and Meve 2002, Bhaskar 2006, Meve 2009, Kullayiswamy et al. 2013, Kidyoo 2014, 2015, 2018a, 2018b, Kidyoo and Paliyavuth 2016, Rodda and Meve 2017, Kumar et al. 2018, we concluded that this plant represents a species new to science and we describe it here. ...
... Its clear sap, tubular flower with a basal inflation, erect lobes coherent at their apices and forming a canopy and corona in two series, fit the main characters of Ceropegia in the narrow sense. After investigation of the specimens of Ceropegia from the main herbaria (PE, KUN and IBSC) in China, and careful consultation of the literature, especially newly published species from Asia (Swarupanandan and Mangaly 1992, Li et al. 1995, Albers and Meve 2002, Bhaskar 2006, Meve 2009, Kullayiswamy et al. 2013, Kidyoo 2014, 2015, 2018a, 2018b, Kidyoo and Paliyavuth 2016, Rodda and Meve 2017, Kumar et al. 2018, we concluded that this plant represents a species new to science and we describe it here. ...
Article
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Ceropegia jinshaensis D.T.Liu & Z.K.Wu (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae), a new species from northwestern Yunnan along the upper Yangtze river of China, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to C. meleagris H. Huber, C. dorjei C. E. C. Fischer and C. aridicola W. W. Smith, but can be distinguished easily by its leaf shape and floral features, especially the corolla shape and size, the interior of corolla tube and coronal characters.
Preprint
Possession of flowers that trap dipteran pollinators is a phylogenetically conserved trait within the genus Ceropegia , in which pollination systems can be generalized or highly specialized. However, little is known about the role of plant–pollinator interactions in maintaining reproductive isolation between plant species. This study examined the degree of specificity in plant-pollinator interactions and identified the mechanisms responsible for specificity among four synchronopatric species of Ceropegia . These species showed significant differences in floral scents, floral morphology, colour patterns, and presence of other functional structures, e.g., vibratile trichomes, whose essential role in fly attraction was experimentally demonstrated here. Similarity in chemical compositions of the floral scents to that of crushed Cletus trigonus bugs living in the same habitat suggests kleptomyiophily in at least some of the species studied. This is the first study to empirically demonstrate that mechanical isolation plays no discernable part in floral isolation in Ceropegia , but instead that a combination of olfactory and visual cues differentially influenced pollinator preferences and hindered heterospecific visitation, ensuring specificity through pollinator constancy, thereby driving ethological isolation among these congeneric sympatric species. We also showed experimentally that specificity was not maintained outside these plants’ native range, where other fly species occur.
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Ceropegia graminea K.Suwann. & Kidyoo was recently discovered from eastern Thailand. It is here described and illustrated. Photographs and a comparison of the diagnostic features of the new taxon with those of the morphologically similar species, C. suddeei Kidyoo and C. thailandica Meve, are provided. These three species are characterised by a 1-flowered cyme and a corolla tube tipped with twisted, linear corolla lobes that are covered with glandular hairs. However, C. graminea is clearly distinguished from its close relatives in having a decumbent, glabrous stem and branches with needle-like leaves.
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A newly discovered species from northeastern Thailand, Ceropegia foetidiflora Kidyoo, is here described and illustrated. Photographs and diagnostic comparison with the morphologically similar species, C. thorelii Costantin, are provided. These two species display clear difference in hairiness on the surfaces of the corolla tube and the corolla lobes, and shape of the corolla lobes.
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Recent phylogenetic reconstructions in the Ceropegieae (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) show that the 357 species of highly succulent stapeliads and four lineages of the 141 species of Brachystelma R.Br. ex Sims are nested within the 219 species of Ceropegia L. The stapeliads, shown convincingly to be nested within Ceropegia, are primarily characterized by their non-climbing, highly succulent, tuberculate stems with fleshy flowers with a mostly short corolla-tube. However, highly succulent, tuberculate stems are not restricted to the stapeliads and are present in four lineages of Ceropegia. Furthermore, tubular flowers are also found among the stapeliads and are not restricted to Ceropegia. Since a slender, tubular corolla is extremely homoplasious within Brachystelma, Ceropegia and the stapeliads, we move away from this as defining Ceropegia to recognize some sections in which there is a range from slender, tubular flowers to almost flat flowers. To re-establish a monophyletic Ceropegia, we propose a new classification in which Brachystelma and all genera of the stapeliads are placed in a greatly enlarged Ceropegia. This new concept of Ceropegia is defined by the lack of hard, wiry roots, the softly fleshy tissue of the peduncles and pedicels, the absence of any corolline corona, the presence of two well-developed series of the staminal corona and the presence of a compitum in the style-head leading to the fertilization of both ovaries. We transfer the species of Brachystelma into several sections of Ceropegia and reduce the 31 stapeliad genera to sections of Ceropegia, after which Ceropegia has 63 sections. Sect. Chamaesiphon H.Huber is the largest with 115 species, two sections among the stapeliads each contain over 50 species but the remaining sections are mostly considerably smaller. We provide diagnostic descriptions, lists of included species and distributions for each of the subdivisions that we recognise. Over 400 new combinations are made in Ceropegia.
Article
Two new species from Pha Taem National Park, eastern Thailand, Ceropegia acicularis Kidyoo and C. tenuicaulis Kidyoo (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), are described, illustrated and compared with the related C. thailandica Meve, from which they differ in growth form, stem branching pattern, type of flower, shape of corolla tube and lobe, and type of hair present on corolla lobe.
Article
The genera Brachystelma Sims and Ceropegia L. of the Ceropegieae (Apocynaceae–Asclepiadoideae) consist of ±320 species of geophytes and slender climbers with a tendency to stem-succulence in Ceropegia. They occur in and around the semi-arid, mainly tropical parts of the Old World. For 146 species (around half of the total) from most of the geographic range of the genera, we analysed data from two nuclear and five plastid regions. The evolution of Ceropegia is very complex, with at least 13 mostly well-supported lineages, one of which is sister to the ±350 species of stapeliads. Species of Brachystelma have evolved at least four times, with most of them nested within two separate major lineages. So, neither Brachystelma nor Ceropegia is monophyletic. We recover a broad trend, in two separate major lineages, from slender climbers to small, geophytic herbs. Several clades are recovered in which all species possess an underground tuber. Small, erect, non-climbing, geophytic species of Ceropegia with a tuber are nested among species of Brachystelma. Consequently, the distinctive tubular flowers used to define Ceropegia do not reflect relationships. This re-iterates the great floral plasticity in the Ceropegieae, already established for the stapeliads. Both major lineages exhibit a trend from tubular flowers with faint, often fruity odours, pollinated by very small Dipteran flies, to flatter flowers often with a bad odour, pollinated by larger flies. Most of the diversity in Brachystelma and Ceropegia is recent and arose within the last 3 my against a background of increased aridification or extreme climatic variability during the Pliocene.
Article
The stapeliads of the Ceropegieae (Apocynaceae--Asclepiadoideae), are approximately 340 species of stem-succulents placed in around 30 genera, found in semi-arid parts of the Old World. Here we sampled 192 species (i.e. nearly two thirds of the total) from across the full geographic range of the group and analysed data from the two nuclear regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS and ncpGS) and five plastid regions (psbA-trnH intergenic spacer, rps16 intron, trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, trnS-trnG intergenic region and the non-coding rpl32-trnL region). We find that the stapeliads radiated first in the northern hemisphere from Africa to southern Europe and Myanmar. This radiation subtends a grade of minor clades in the south-western corner of the African continent. These were followed by a single clade containing major radiation back across Africa from South Africa to tropical Arabia (but no further east than Dhofar, Oman), which includes also a single early spread into Madagascar. We establish the monophyly of many of the genera, such as Echidnopsis Hook.f., Hoodia Hook., Huernia R. Br., Piaranthus R. Br., Rhytidocaulon P.R.O. Bally and Tridentea Haw., but find that Duvalia Haw., Orbea Haw., Stapelia L. and Tromotriche Haw. are polyphyletic. We show that in certain vegetative features, there is broad cohesion across clades. Florally, on the other hand, the stapeliads exhibit considerable plasticity and we are able to show that very differently shaped flowers as well as large and small flowers evolved repeatedly among closely related species.
Article
Even though the species-rich genus Ceropegia L. (Apocynaceae, Ceropegieae) is convincingly characterized by its pitfall flowers, investigation of non-coding markers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) (trnT-L and trnL-F spacers and the trnL intron) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) (ITS) has shown that Ceropegia is twice paraphyletic. The 36 analyzed Ceropegia taxa scatter over a grade of seven clades. One clade is shared by Ceropegia and all Brachystelma R. Br. species investigated, making Ceropegia (without Brachystelma) paraphyletic. All endemic Madagascan Ceropegia taxa investigated and the East African C. robynsiana Werderm. share a terminal, but not further-resolved clade with the stapeliads. Thus, again, Ceropegia without the stapeliads is paraphyletic. These results are incongruent with current taxonomy. In the absence of adequate morphological, anatomical, or karyological characters supporting a taxonomic reclassification of the genus in accordance with the retrieved clades of the phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that the current taxonomy be maintained.
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