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Antibacterial activity of Anethumgraveolen and Coriandrumsativum against different Pathogenic bacteria

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International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research Issue 5 volume 7, Nov. Dec. 2015
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijst/index.html ISSN 2249-9954
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Antibacterial activity of Anethumgraveolen and Coriandrumsativum
against different Pathogenic bacteria.
Zahraa Ahmed Okhti
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Abstract
Essential oil ofAnethumgraveolenLinn (Dill) and CoriandrumsativumL.(Coriander) have shown considerable
antibacterial activityby agar well diffusion method againstnine pathogenic strains namely E.coli, Acinetobacter
baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia, Aeromonas, and
Enterococcus feacalis.
Essential oilof thetwo plantsweregained by soxhlet.Each oilshowed inhibitory effects towards some of the
above mentionedpathogenic organisms. Dill oil showed a little higher antibacterial activity than coriander oil
attwo inhibition concentrationsranged from (125 - 31.5) µg/ml.These findings, may suggest that these essential
oilcould be used as natural antibacterial agents to treat infections caused by different pathogenic bacteria.
Key words: Antimicrobial activity,essential oil,dill , coriander ,pathogenic bacteria.
1. Introduction
During history, humans have found that some herbs can be not only to improve--- the flavor of foods but also to
restore health,Medicinal plants play intrinsic role in traditional medicine. Secondary metabolites ofPlants are a
wide variety liketerpenoid,tannins,flavonoidsand alkaloid,that have been present in vitro to have antibacterial
characteristics ,flavonoids are the largest group of naturally occurring phenols. Flavonoids are found in
different plants, fruits and vegetables.the extraction of aromatic plants have long been useful in a various
medicinal impacts ,medicinal plants seem to provide an alternative source of treatment for the moment,
particularly in Iraq.
Umbelliferae family was known to accumulated flavonoids mainly in the form of flavones and flavonols, these
types of flavonoids predominantly in Apioideae, subfamily in which two Iraqi selected plants
AnethumgraveolenLinn (Dill) and CoriandrumsativumL. (Coriander).
Many reports of Coriander and dill accounted most pharmacological activities include antioxidant influence
(1),anti-diabetic activity,diuretic effeiciency(2), reducing cholesterol activity (3)preventative role against lead
toxicity (4) inhibition role against fungal (5),(6), anticancer activity (7).although many studies, found that the
antimicrobial properties of aromatic plants,but fewstudies has been recorded in Iraq on the antimicrobial
activities of essential oil fromdill andCorianderagainst different microbial. For that reason , my present work
designed to study two medicinal plants viz. AnethumgraveolensLinn. (Dill),Coriandrumsativum (coriander),
belonging to the family Umbelliferaeby assessed their antibacterial potentialon the growth of common
pathogens, and Phytochemical diagnosing was acheived to detect main biologically active phyto
constituents.The current research will share to the getting up information about the antimicrobial features of
aromatic plants.
2.Material and method
2.1Preparation of AromaticPlants extracts
Mature and fresh leaves of dill and Coriander plants used in this study were purchased from vegetable
supermarket in Bagdad city,Iraq.The plants were identified at Faculty of Pharmacy/Department of
Pharmacognosy / University of AlMustansiriah and Plants were imparted the laboratory and usedirectly for the
extraction.
2.2 Extraction of oil
The leaves were wish and shade dried; powdered using electric blender and The extraction was carried out by
using soxhlet apparatus in which powdered leaves of Dill and Coriander were extracted separately with
International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research Issue 5 volume 7, Nov. Dec. 2015
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijst/index.html ISSN 2249-9954
©2015 RS Publication, rspublicationhouse@gmail.com Page 472
methanol by taking 50g of each leaves plant after make its powder with methanol for 8hr. The oils were
obtained by removing solvent from the extract on rotary evaporator under reduced pressure at 40°C and storage
in glass vial at 4°Cuntil used .Each oil was tested for its antibacterial properties against differentisolated
bacteriaby amending agar diffusion plate method.
2.3 Phytochemical screening
dissolved oil of Anethum and coriander in methanol by take 3 ml from oil and add 2 ml of methanol was
estimated forexistence of diverse phytochemicals to be achieved presence of secondary product like alkaloids,
flavonoids, tannins by using watery reactions subsequent the method that depicted by Sofowora and Trease
and Evans (8 and 9)
2.4Bacterial test isolates
All bacterial used in this study comprised E.coli, Acinetobacterbaumanni,Pseudomonasaeruginosa,
Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiellapneumonia,Serratia,Aeromonas, and Enterococcus feacaliswere isolated
from different clinical samples(blood,stool, sputum,wound,ear,urine and pus) from patients attending Yarmouk
hospital in Baghdad City,and were further identified by using characteristics features including
microscopical,cultural and biochemical tests(API 20) to insure after Isolates were maintained as subcultures
where grown on special infusion agar(Brain Heart )incubated at thirty seven degrees Celsius for twenty four
hours .
2.5Antibacterial assay
Determination the antibacterial effectives of each oil was carried out by agar well diffusion method(10).One
hundred microliters of inoculums(0.5 Mac-Farland;106 CFU/mL)of each used bacterium was disseminate on to
a sterile Hi Mediaplate. The plates were allowed to drought then a sterile cork borer of diameter six millimeters
was used to hole wells in the agar plates. 250mg of each oil was dissolved in 2ml DMSO to give an oil
concentration of 125 mg/ml which was used as a stock concentration and were sterilized via
Millipore(0.22 µm).Then half dilutions were prepared asfollow(62.5,31.25,15.63,7.813and3.91)
mg/ml(11).Introduced this dilutions into wells of Muller-Hinton ,Sterile DMSO served as the negative control
The plates were let to stand for at least one hour for diffusion, then incubated at (37 ºC for 24h).The
antimicrobial activity of each oil were measured by an inhibition zone diameters surrounding the well
containing this oil. Its affirmative result if the inhibition zone was more than 6mm (12), Each experiment was
repeated three times.
3.Results and discussion
Explorative phytochemical analysis of dill and coriander leaves oil have been demonstrated that oil contain
generality of the phytochemicals [Table 1] comprisingterpene and flavonoidswhile , alkaloid were not noticed
in coriander oil that was agreed with reported results of Jana and Shekhawat,2010(13)foundsthe existence of
terpeneand flavonoidsof Anethumleaves and corianderleaves .
Phytochemical investigation of two essential oilindicates the occurrence of terpenes, flavonoid and alkaloids
(Table 1).
Table 1:Describes preliminary phytochemical investigation of essential oil of each plants ,Coriandrumsativum
and Anethumgraveolens .
a) +: Positive, b) −: Negative
Test for active
constituents
Colour
essential oilof
Anethumgraveolens
essential oilof
Coriandrumsativum
Test
Alkaloids
Orange color
+ve
-ve
Dragendorff
Flavonoids
Yellow
+ve
+ve
Alcoholic KOH
Terpene
brown
+ve
+ve
Ethanolic
sulphuric acid
International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research Issue 5 volume 7, Nov. Dec. 2015
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijst/index.html ISSN 2249-9954
©2015 RS Publication, rspublicationhouse@gmail.com Page 473
Our outcome denoted that the essential oils exhibit antibacterial effect with varying importance. The anti-
bacterial activity of two essential oils against nine bacterial strains is summarized in Table 3 and 4.The
inhibitionzoneofmore than sevenmillimeter in diameter was taken as positive effect. The antibacterial
agentarepresence in the essential oils of the flavor plants.
In the current research, the latent of the methanol extracts(oil) of the Coriander and antheum has been designed
againstEscherichia coli,Pseudomonasaeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumonia,Shigella,Acinetobacter baumanni
,Staphylococcus aureus ,Serratia, and Enterococcus feacalis. In this research, essential oil of A. graveolens
and Coriander are recorded to be effective in controlling the growth of E.coli,Staphylococcus aureus.
E. coli was found to be the most sensitive to dill oil at the concentration (125 µg/ml) with maximum an
inhibition zone diameter of 17 mm, followed byEnterococcus feacalis(15mm)as shown in figure 1 and 2. While
Staphylococcus aureus and Serratiawere found to be less sensitive to the dill oil with an inhibition zone
diameter of 14mm and 13 mm, respectively. While were found to be not effective in other tested multidrug
resistant bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannias
shown in Table 2.
1 2
Fig 1,2 inhibition zone (17,12)mm produced by essential oilof Anethumgraveolensagainst E.coliand
Enterococcus feacalis respectively
Table 2 :Effects of Anethum(dill)essential oil on antibacterial activities
Test Bacteria
Diameter of inhibition zone (mm)
Concentration of essential oil(µg/ml)
DMS
O
125
62.5
31.25
15.625
7.8125
3.91
0
Staphylococcus aureus
14±2.08
12±1.53
11±1.53
9±3.4
8±1.8
7±3.6
0
E. coli
17±1.53
11±2.08
13±2.5
13±3.5
11±1.5
11±2.08
0
Enterococcus feacalis
12±1.53
13±1.53
15±1.7
7±1.5
7±2.08
6±3.5
0
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
7±1.5
7±1.6
4±2.3
-
-
-
0
Klebsiella pneumoniae
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
Proteus mirabilis
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
Acinetobacter baumanni
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
Serratia
13±2.52
23±2.08
9±1.8
9±2.08
11±3.4
11±1.6
0
Aeromonas
-
10±1.53
9±2.3
11±1.53
8±1.53
7±1.53
0
InhibitionZone is overted as mean± standard deviation; (-): never inhibitory impact . The inhibition zone
diameter was average diameter of three replicates ± SD
Serratia was found to be the most sensitive to Coriandrumsativumessential oil at the concentration ( 26.5
µg/ml) with maximum an inhibition zone diameter of 23mm, followed byEnterococcus feacalis(13mm)as
shown in figure 3 and 4.E. coli ,Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas were found to be less sensitive to the
dill oil with an inhibition zone diameter of 11mm,11 mm and 10 mm, respectively. While were found to be not
effective in other tested multidrug resistant bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter
baumannias shown in Table 3.
International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research Issue 5 volume 7, Nov. Dec. 2015
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijst/index.html ISSN 2249-9954
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3 4
Fig 3,4 inhibition zone ( 13,23 )mm produced by essential oilof C.sativum against Enterococcus feacalis and
serratiarespectively.
The two plants essential oils showed antibacterial activity against all microorganisms tested, as exhibited by an
agar diffusion assay. previouslysurveys on essential oil of dillshowed also its antibacterial potential (14) ,(
15).Effectiveness of antimicrobial of A. graveolensagainst E. coli, S. aureusandEnterococcus feacalishas been
recorded by Badaret al;2008,thathave been agreed with ourresult.The surveillance plate did not offer inhibition
on bacteria that diagnosedwhere as standard antibiotics Vancomycin makedconsiderablezones of inhibition
against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria respectively.
like many other spices family Apiaceae, contains Volatile ingredient of essential oilfrom leaf , has been
recorded inhibition growth of wide range of mycobacteria species . Antibacterial characteristic of essential
oils gained from leaves of aromatic plants such as coriander (Coriandrumsativum),and dill
(Anethumgraveolens) are well documented(17).The antibacterial activity of the plant Table 2 and3 may be due
to presences of flavonoids Rutinand quercetin which are presence in the plants responsible for the antibacterial
of dill and coriander,that agree withstudy introduce byAbdul-Jalil,2013(18)that shows that Dill, Coriander are
good source of Rutin production,which cultivated in Iraq contain Rutin (flavonoid glycoside).
Conclusion
Extracts derived from dill, coriander showed bacteriostatic effects against E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus
,Serratiaand Enterococcus feacalisand the dill oil is more potent than coriander extract.These products may be
used as foodcomplement and facilitate common treatments. More studies are however, requirement to
reconfirm the antibacterial characteristic of essential oil of dill and coriander and identify the active component
through advanced techniques, such as RE-HPLC .
Acknowledgements
I acknowledge profound gratitude to Widad Al-Ani,college ofpharmacy ,for their kind
support and encouragement.
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