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Emerging Evidence for Newer Approaches to Sports & Exercise: Tools for Man Making & Nation Building

Authors:
  • BKL Walawalkar medical college
IOSR Journal of Sports and Physical Education (IOSR-JSPE)
e-ISSN: 2347-6737, p-ISSN: 2347-6745, Volume 4, Issue 1, (Jan. Feb. 2017), PP 67-70
www.iosrjournals.org
DOI: 10.9790/6737-04016770 www.iosrjournals.org 67 | Page
Emerging Evidence for Newer Approaches to Sports & Exercise:
Tools for Man Making & Nation Building
Dr Pavankumar kohli, Dr Sunil Nadkarni, Dr Satishchandra Gore, Bhagyashree Kulkarni,
Dr Nabh Patil
1Consultant Sports Orthopedic Surgeon, B.K.L. Walawalkar Hospital, Dervan, India
2Consultant Spine Surgeon, B.K.L. Walawalkar Hospital, Dervan, India
3Consultant Spine Surgeon, B.K.L. Walawalkar Hospital, Derwan, India
4Research Assistant, Department of sports & orthopedic Surgery, B.K.L. Walawalkar Hospital, Dervan, India
5Research Assistant, Department of sports & orthopedic Surgery, B.K.L. Walawalkar Hospital, Dervan, India
I. Introduction
All over the world and for time immemorial man has been trying to find ways to improve his quality of
life. Sedentary life style is hall mark of 21 century. Most of the maladies affecting comfort seeking man can be
relieved by physical activity and exercises. We have created a conceptual framework for life style modification
and exercise intervention for rural and semi urban population at Sports medicine center Shree Kshetra Dervan.
Our work will be published in 3 parts
1. Concept framework and evidence base from best publications pooled from sources as first paper ( present
paper )
2. Action taken on identified area for intervention as second paper.
3. Outcomes & results of the interventions mainly inform of exercises & development of new exercises.
II. Materials And Methods
32 international published studies on benefits of Sports were reviewed. Journals from America,
Canada, UK and Ireland, Australia and Asia were studied and all papers were selected for the final reviewed list
based on applicability, study design, method of study and date of publishing. They were then grouped under five
different headings of Physical, Mental, Emotional, Economical and Social impact. The relevant findings were
then rearranged for this publication and the first two important papers presented (due to space constraints of this
annual conference) according to significance and validation.
III. Results
The principal studies with the main headings are presented below.
Physical
Warburton et.al. in 2006 presented a work on Health benefits of Physical activity. The authors confirm
that there is irrefutable evidence in the primary and secondary prevention of many chronic diseases chiefly
Cardiac diseases, Diabetes, Cancer, Hypertension, Obesity, Depression and Osteoporosis. Compelling evidence
shows that regular sports activity decreases chances of sudden premature death in both sexes. Regular exercise
also decreases the risk of Breast, Colon and ovarian cancers. Other effects like better body composition,
enhanced lipoprotein profiles, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity, reduced blood pressure, decreased
coagulation and improved coronary blood flow and enhanced endothelial function. The authors state that there
appears to be a linear relationship between physical activity and health status with greatest improvements
occurring in people who move from unfit to fit! [1]
Europe heart network on physical activity stated in 1999. A sedentary lifestyle more than doubles the
risk of CVD and it is possible to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by making lifestyle changes even
relatively late in life. Physical activity influences CVD risk in a number of ways: (i) Lowers heart rate. (ii)
Raises insulin sensitivity. (iii) Lowers blood pressure. (iv) Raises HDL/total blood cholesterol ratio. (v) Helps
with weight control. The document provides a summary of the evidence regarding required levels and frequency
of activity. These are: (i) Daily, moderate and accumulated (30 minutes per day). (ii) Frequency is more
important than intensity (although exercise to increase cardio-respiratory fitness has to be vigorous and tends to
be achieved through dedicated sports or exercise activities). (iii) Intensity depends on existing levels of fitness.
Common forms of moderate-intensity activities for the moderately fit include brisk walking at 5-6 km/h, cycling
at approximately 16km/h, walking up stairs or heavy forms of gardening and housework. (iv) Accumulated
activity is also effective and activity needs to be current and continuing. On this basis it recommends: (i) Adults
should accumulate 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity most and preferably every day of the
Emerging Evidence for Newer Approaches to Sports & Exercise: Tools for Man Making & Nation
DOI: 10.9790/6737-04016770 www.iosrjournals.org 68 | Page
week. (ii) All young people (5-18) should participate in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for one
hour per day. [2,3]
Other important studies prove a protective role of sustained fitness levels on breast cancer (Californian
teachers study of more than 100,000 teachers, 2007, USA) proved that women who exercised daily had
substantially lower risk of developing breast cancer than sedentary women. Welsh et.al from Australia in 2005
in study of Physical conditioning/Sports and effect on control of Asthma, conclusively proves the benefits of
Sports and exercise in decreasing the attacks, intensity, medications and hospitalizations of Asthma. The authors
recommended regular sports/physical activity for associated general health benefits and improvement of asthma
management.[4]
Mental In 2003 Coe DP and Pivarnik JM study the effects of Physical education on academic achievement in
children, the assessment was done on middle school students and it was found that beyond a “Threshold
physical activity contributed highly to better scholastic achievement [5]. The metanalysis report of the
relationship between physical activity and cognition in children studied by the Silbey et.al. in 2003[6]. Present
the observations of significant improvement by Physical activity and cognition (perception skills, IQ, verbal test,
Maths Tests & Memory). Greatest impact was found in elementary and middle school students and the authors
strongly protested the cutting down of hours used in Physical education. Other valuable studies show decrease in
disruptive behaviours and increase in desirable behaviours and attention span of children.[7,8,9]
Emotional
Page et.al. in 1998 present a study on a School sports as a protection factor against adolescent risk
behaviours in which Male and female students reporting participation in one or two teams were significantly
more likely no not have engaged in cigarette smoking, drug use as compared to non sportspersons.[10,11]
In the study of Sport Participation & Health Factors Pyle et.al. and Mcquivey et. al. 2003 studied 770 high
school students aged around 16 yrs & found that both boys and girls competitive sports participation was
associated with a lower frequency of mental health problems, eating and dietary problems and total risks
compared to non-competitive peers.[11]
In other important studies, Scully & Kremer’s critical review of Physical exercise and psychological
well being in 1998 is a masterpiece which offers a critical examination of evidence relating to the relationship
between physical exercise and psychological benefits. The review examines existing literature on exercise and
mental health in relation to changes in anxiety, depression, mood, self-esteem, and stress reactivity,
premenstrual syndrome and body image. The general conclusion is that a range of exercise regimens may be
able to play a therapeutic role in relation to a number of psychological disorders [12].With regard to depression
the authors conclude that it seems safe to accept that physical exercise regimens will have a positive influence,
with the most powerful effects noted among clinical populations. Limited evidence would suggest that aerobic
exercise is most effective, including activities such as walking, jogging, cycling, light circuit training and weight
training and that regimens which extend over several months appear to yield the most positive results. With
regard to anxiety the literature unequivocally supports the positive effects of exercise, with short bursts of
exercise appearing to be sufficient. In addition, the nature of the exercise does not appear to be crucial, with the
most positive effects being among those who adhere to programs for several months. It would appear that
aerobic exercise (of sufficient intensity to elevate the heart rate significantly above resting pulse rate for over 21
minutes) may significantly enhance stress responsively, especially in relation to stress related to lifestyle or
work. In respect of mood states both aerobic and anaerobic exercise can be associated with an elevation of mood
state, particularly for clinical samples, although it is likely that more than one underlying mechanism may be
implicated. With regard to premenstrual syndrome (PMS) the evidence points to the benefits of exercise, with
less strenuous forms of non-competitive exercise most effective [12, 13,14,15,16]
Economical
Sports changes image of cities attracts tourists and encourages inward investment. They also provide a
case study of Manchester commonwealth Games showing how the Games provided a clear economic boost for
the area [17,18,19,20]. The economic impact of major sports events, Sports industry research center in 2006
reviews impact of 10 major sports events and concludes that both direct and indirect benefits ensue viz direct
from tickets sales, visitors, local development projects, media right etc and indirect from sport development, feel
good factor of local population , local image enhancement [21,22, 23].
Other noteworthy publications include Higher medical costs associated with physical inactivity,
Consistent and substantial medical cost differences were found in all age groups and sexes on fewer physician
visits, lesser hospital stays and less medication and the effect was most pronounced among women of middle
age group. Increasing activity levels of sedentary adults could result in medical savings of 300$-1053$ per
Emerging Evidence for Newer Approaches to Sports & Exercise: Tools for Man Making & Nation
DOI: 10.9790/6737-04016770 www.iosrjournals.org 69 | Page
person per annum a US saving of 76.6 billion per annum. (Incidentally this is equal to the annual budget of all
African states put together.) [22,23,24]
Social In the study of Measuring the impact of crime reduction interventions involving sports activities for
young people, authors concluded that Sports works at primary, secondary & Tertiary levels and works by a)
providing diversion from crime b) deterring criminality c) enables self development & d) directs towards pro
social values [25] Relationship between athletic participation and high school students leadership ability
presented by the Dobonz et.al. in 1999 was the major finding, consistent with previous research, was that high
school athletes outscored their non-athlete peers on the leadership ability measure. Female athletes showed
greater leadership ability than male athletes, although the difference was not statistically significant. The authors
conclude that there is a possibility that athletics offers young women and men the chance to improve leadership
ability. The authors recommend maintaining athletic programs for the purposes of developing leadership and
suggest that educational policy-makers and administrators should re-examine any proposed budget cuts that may
affect athletic participation.[26, 27]
Other noteworthy publications are “Sporting capital: changes & challenges in Victoria “from Australia
in 1999 recommended Social capital development via leadership, membership, participation, skill development
and community development work of clubs. (ii) Creation of community hubs and key social places. (iii)
Environmental and physical development via facilities, spaces and landscape preservation. (iv) Health
improvement and promotion. (v) Cultural values via the maintenance of traditions. Although this can reinforce
dominant cultural values such as sexism or racism, new ways of working have the potential to challenge this.
(vi) Economic development and town survival via sports events and festivals. (vii) Community safety via
development of social networks, provision of life-saving services (e.g. learn-to-swim programs). (viii)
Community control and investment via a local sense of control. (ix) Junior sports development. (x) Community
identity and local pride. They also outline a set of common issues which clubs face: (i) Viability and
sustainability (especially regarding volunteers). (ii) Increased regulation of activity. (iii) Managing increased
complexity. (iv) Government expectations of rural communities. (v) Finance [28]
IV. Discussion
One cannot but wonder in face of such proof and scientific material that we will cause most harm to
ourselves and our posterity if efforts are not made to encourage sports and physical activity . Our health is in our
hands, literally! And the remedy is simple and free, preventive and curative and a single solution for so many
problems. May they be from physical, mental, emotional, economic or social spheres? [29-32]
A sport never let’s a sportsperson down.
V. Conclusion
The way forward for any well intentioned administrator/ trust/ caregiver is to work on prevention rather
than cure. Exercise also serves as the best form of treatment when combined with modern treatment for
physical, mental, emotional & social maladies. It also makes the best financial sense to keep exercise as the
center of health programmes.
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[Two of the authors respond:] We agree with Herbert Nehrlich that there are many situations in which physicians would benefit from the assistance of health and fitness professionals. It is essential that such advice be sought from professionals who have received formal training and attained national accreditation. In North America1 these would be professionals certified by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology or the American College of Sports Medicine. Together, physicians and health and fitness professionals will be able to provide information that is based on sound physiological principles and a clear knowledge of the absolute and relative contraindications to exercise for a variety of populations. Giuseppe Lippi and associates correctly point out that vigorous exercise may lead to supplemental health gains in sedentary community-dwelling individuals. There is growing evidence to suggest that certain groups may benefit greatly from high-intensity exercise training. We1 have advocated high-intensity exercise training for sedentary individuals2 and patients with cardiovascular disease3 and chronic heart failure.4 However, we are careful to acknowledge that adherence to this form of exercise may be poor and the risk of musculoskeletal injury higher. Therefore, we must weigh carefully the potential advantages and disadvantages of vigorous exercise for each individual client. As pointed out by Ediriweera Desapriya and colleagues, discussion of the barriers to exercise and innovative means to deliver inclusive and culturally appropriate physical activity interventions is of great importance. Furthermore, more effective lifestyle interventions are required to address the global crisis of physical inactivity. We have worked diligently to address the barriers to physical activity and have taken a transdisciplinary approach to the creation of novel exercise interventions. More work is required to “develop and deliver” inclusive interventions for all, but we believe that our work1,5 is a step in the right direction. As Rajesh Chauhan and associates point out, the determinants of health are multifactorial and physical activity is not the sole factor influencing health status. However, physical inactivity is an independent predictor of the risk for many chronic diseases and premature mortality. In fact, the risk for chronic disease and premature mortality in North America appears to be about 20% to 50% greater among those with a physically inactive lifestyle.5 Furthermore, physical activity appears to be protective in the presence of other known risk factors for chronic disease. Therefore, there is compelling evidence to support the independent health benefits of physical activity.