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Ausgleich oder Verschärfung von Einkommensrisiken? Lebensläufe und Alterseinkommen in Deutschland aus der Paarperspektive

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Abstract

Wir analysieren Erwerbs- und Einkommensbiografien von Paaren mittels einer Multichannel -Sequenzmusteranalyse, um Rückschlüsse auf das Alterseinkommen von Frauen in Deutschland und Ausgleichsprozesse im Haushaltskontext abzuleiten. Datengrundlage ist eine Verknüpfung der administrativen Daten der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung mit dem „Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe“, die Biografieinformationen west- und ostdeutscher Personen der Geburtskohorten 1927 bis 1965 (N = 2.292) enthält. Wir identifizieren acht Paarverlaufsmuster, die sich in ihrer Nähe zu einem männlichen Alleinverdiener- oder einem Zweiverdienermodell unterscheiden. Während Frauen von kontinuierlicher Erwerbstätigkeit und kurzen Erziehungsunterbrechungen in Hinblick auf ihr Individual- und Haushaltseinkommen substanziell profitieren, stellen Biografien mit Erwerbsausstieg ein Armutsrisiko auf Haushaltsebene dar, das im Alter nur durch stark überdurchschnittliche Partnereinkommen ausgeglichen werden kann.

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... From the household perspective, the living standard of spouses does not only depend on their own but also their partners' accumulated pension rights and savings as couples typically pool their pension incomes (Möhring & Weiland, 2018). Mostly, women either opt-out from the labour market or reduce working hours to assume unpaid care tasks (Drobnič & Blossfeld, 2004). ...
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In this article, we provide a long-term East–West comparison of partnered women’s employment from the 1940s into the first decade of the new millennium in Germany, and focus on the nexus of gainful employment and family-related responsibilities in women’s lives. Based on an analysis of the institutionally and culturally shaped opportunity structures that define the conditions for partnered women’s employment, we identify distinct periods of support and derive hypotheses on cohort-specific developments. The empirical analysis largely confirms that a divergence between East and West German women’s employment patterns started as early as in the 1950s. East–West differences in labour market participation were strongest among women born around 1940. For successive cohorts of East and West German women, the employment patterns converged. Whereas the labour market participation of West German women gradually increased over time, the employment pattern of East German women adjusted to the West German pattern after unification, resulting in an increase of part-time employment and non-employment, in particular among mothers. The article concludes by discussing implications of these trends for the future of the male breadwinner model.
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In research on pensions and retirement income, it has been frequently reasoned that the economic situation in later life is determined by an interplay of individual and institutional factors. However, previous studies in this field either focus only on individual determinants or on macro-level outcomes using aggregated data. We apply a multilevel approach to examine the impact of institutional factors on the link of individual pension income and previous employment history. The underlying research question is of how national pension systems shape this relationship; whether flexible careers and atypical employment are compensated for or, on the contrary, ‘penalised’ with a low pension income. We combine the life-history data of individuals in 13 European countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARELIFE) with macro-data on national pension systems. While we find little cross-national variation for men, for women the strength of the relationship of employment history and pension income differs between countries and is significantly moderated by factors related to the pension system.
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Gesellschaftliche Veränderungen, wie die steigende Zahl von Ehescheidungen und der hohe Anteil nicht-ehelicher Lebensgemeinschaften, führen zu einer wachsenden Bedeutung einer eigenständigen, armutsvermeidenden Alterssicherung von Frauen. Zwar erscheint dieses Ziel aufgrund der gestiegenen Erwerbsbeteiligung von Frauen zunehmend erreichbar, Ungleichheiten auf dem Arbeitsmarkt wirken sich allerdings weiterhin negativ auf die Erwerbs- und Einkommenschancen von Frauen aus. Der Einfluss verschiedener erwerbsbiografischer Faktoren auf den Gender Pension Gap, also den Unterschied zwischen den Alterseinkommen von Männern und Frauen, wird hier mit den Daten „Altersvorsorge in Deutschland (AVID) 2005“ für Westdeutschland untersucht. Verglichen werden die projizierten Alterseinkünfte im Hinblick auf die gesetzliche, betriebliche und private Vorsorge für zwei Kohorten: 1942–1946 sowie 1957–1961 Geborene. Mit Hilfe einer Oaxaca-Blinder-Dekomposition wird der Anteil verschiedener Erklärungsfaktoren an der Entstehung der Lücke quantifiziert. Die Studie kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass bislang weder die gestiegene Bildungsbeteiligung von Frauen noch ihre zunehmende Erwerbsbeteiligung zu einer deutlichen Verringerung des Gender Pension Gaps geführt haben. Dieser beträgt bei den Alterseinkommen insgesamt auch für die jüngere Kohorte noch 51 %, im Vergleich zu 58 % in der älteren Kohorte. Die multivariaten Ergebnisse zeigen, dass es vor allem der Vollzeit-Teilzeit-Gap ist, der den weiterhin großen Unterschied in den Alterseinkommen von Männern und Frauen verursacht.
Chapter
All government policies affect the lives of citizens in some direct or indirect way. Despite the pervasiveness of the influence, relatively little attention has been given to the manner in which government impinges on the individual life course. This article aims to show that exploring the relationship between government and life course provides a seminal perspective both for the study of the life course and for welfare state analysis, especially with regard to cross-national comparison. “A thorough examination of the state and its policies may provide further insights into the ways in which age and the life course are treated in a society” [59].
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Applications of optimal matching analysis in the social sciences are typically based on sequences of specific social statuses that model the residential, family, or occupational trajectories of individuals. Despite the broadly recognized interdependence of these statuses, few attempts have been made to systematize the ways in which optimal matching analysis should be applied multidimensionally-that is, in an approach that takes into account multiple trajectories simultaneously. Based on methods pioneered in the field of bioinformatics, this paper proposes a method of multichannel sequence analysis (MCSA) that simultaneously extends the usual optimal matching analysis (OMA) to multiple life spheres. Using data from the Swiss household panel (SHP), we examine the types of trajectories obtained using MCSA. We also consider a random data set and find that MCSA offers an alternative to the sole use of ex-post sum of distance matrices by locally aligning distinct life trajectories simultaneously. Moreover, MCSA reduces the complexity of the typologies it allows to produce, without making them less informative. It is more robust to noise in the data, and it provides more reliable alignments than two independent OMA.
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A procedure for forming hierarchical groups of mutually exclusive subsets, each of which has members that are maximally similar with respect to specified characteristics, is suggested for use in large-scale (n > 100) studies when a precise optimal solution for a specified number of groups is not practical. Given n sets, this procedure permits their reduction to n − 1 mutually exclusive sets by considering the union of all possible n(n − 1)/2 pairs and selecting a union having a maximal value for the functional relation, or objective function, that reflects the criterion chosen by the investigator. By repeating this process until only one group remains, the complete hierarchical structure and a quantitative estimate of the loss associated with each stage in the grouping can be obtained. A general flowchart helpful in computer programming and a numerical example are included.
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In the present study, we examine employment biographies of women using the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Specifically, we compare the cohort of the baby boomers (1956–1965) with two older cohorts (1936–1945 and 1946–1955) by carrying out sequence analyses to investigate changes in their employment careers. Based on the biography sequences, we consider four different clusters to identify typical employment patterns of the three cohorts. Results show that women's careers have changed in the sense that there is an increase in the proportion of discontinuous careers and a decrease in the percentage of women with a continuous full time employment biography. At the same time, part time employment biographies gain in relevance and housewife biographies become less common. Within all types of employment patterns, the degree of plurality rises and biographies become more inhomogeneous in the sense that the number of transitions as well as the number of different states increases. Regarding the specific developments in West and East Germany, results show that on the one hand both regions are growing more alike in the sense that the high percentage of women primarily in full time employment dominated careers in East Germany has dropped and the percentage of housewife biographies in West Germany has decreased. On the other hand, there are still relevant differences between the employment patterns of West and East German women: West German women are still much more likely to experience a housewife biography, and part time work is much more relevant for women in West Germany. East German women still have to a large degree full time employment oriented biographies, but in East Germany in particular, there is a distinct trend towards discontinuous and de-standardized careers.
Frauenberufe - Männerberufe: zur Persistenz geschlechtshierarchischer Arbeitsmarktsegregation. Wien, Institut für Höhere Studien
  • Andrea Leitner
„Alterssicherung von Frauen revisited - aktuelle Entwicklungen und zukünftige Perspektiven“
  • Ute Klammer
„Employment histories and pension incomes in Europe: A multilevel analysis of the role of institutional factors“