Article

Marketing on Instagram: Social influence and image quality on perception of quality and purchase intention

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Abstract

Purpose Social network sites are becoming more visual-centric. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of visual social network sites as a marketing platform. Design/methodology/approach This paper comprises two experiments. The first experiment sought to examine the effect of social influence; while the second experiment examined the effect of image quality on the perception of quality and purchase intention. Findings The first experiment showed that social influence did not affect perceived quality or purchase intention. In the second experiment, a one-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) adjusting for sport involvement showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups. Respondents in the experimental group reported higher levels of perceived quality (adjusted M=3.68) and purchase intention (adjusted M=3.23) when compared to the control group’s perceived quality (adjusted M=3.12) and purchase intention (adjusted M=2.17). Research limitations/implications One of the limitations of this study is that it only examined the effects through a single social network site, i.e. Instagram. As there are other visual-centric social network sites, such as Tumblr and Pinterest, which operate slightly different from Instagram, it remains to be established how such effects vary across these social network sites. Practical implications The results suggest that social influence on Instagram is limited and marketers should invest in images of high quality when marketing on visual social network sites. Originality/value While there are many studies examining the effectiveness of marketing on social network sites, these studies have primarily focussed on earlier social network sites, such as Facebook. Newer social network sites that are more visual-centric, such as Instagram, are different from earlier social network sites and studied to a lesser extent. This study adds insights on the marketing effectiveness of visual-centric social network sites and deepens the understanding on marketing in general on social media.

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... Although Kao & Lin (2016) and Butt et al. (2018) postulate that electronic service quality indirectly influences brand awareness through the role of other variables, such as trust, satisfaction, and loyalty, electronic service quality dimensions-comprising system efficiency, fulfilment, responsiveness (Elsamen, 2015), and functionality (Rios & Riquelme, 2010) on the website-have a significant direct effect on brand awareness. However, we find various types of electronic service quality dimension scales concern websites, such as SITEQUAL (Yoo & Donthu, 2001), WEBQUAL (Barnes & Vidgen, 2002), ETAILQ (Wolfinbarger & Gilly, 2003), E-S-QUAL (Parasuraman et al., 2005), ETRANSQUAL (Bauer et al., 2006), and NETQUAL (Bressolles, 2006), with only a few for the social media context, namely SOME-Q (Suryani et al., 2021), and other unnamed scales (Helal et al., 2018;Teo et al., 2019). ...
... As mentioned earlier, McNely (2012) categorises Instagram as an image-based social media platform, so the quality of the content (both images and videos) becomes essential, more so than for more textual platforms (Salomon, 2013). In line with this, Teo et al. (2019) recommend that companies post high-quality content on Instagram because it is a more visual-centric platform. Referring to the signalling theory used in this study, high-quality content on Instagram will send positive signals and communicate credibility to customers. ...
... Content quality relates to how companies maintain their Instagram account by posting images or videos with good quality, proper resolution, and clear visibility. Those three criteria are essential factors in Instagram content management, because the social media platform is categorised as a visual-centric (Teo et al., 2019). The results are in line with prior studies stating that posting quality images on Instagram is critical to success (Salomon, 2013), and that high-quality images could subsequently influence customers' purchase intentions (Teo et al., 2019). ...
Article
Manuscript type: Research paper Research aims: This study investigates potential factors of electronic service quality dimensions on the improvement of brand awareness among customers through the social media platform Instagram. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study involves 398 respondents across Java Island, Indonesia, and employed a PLS-SEM approach to analyse the data. Research findings: The findings indicate that the electronic service quality dimensions of Instagram, in terms of content relevance, content quality, information quality and contact availability, significantly improve brand awareness. Theoretical contribution/Originality: This study contributes to the electronic service quality and brand awareness literature by validating four potential service quality dimensions of Instagram that are effective instruments for improving brand awareness. Practitioner/Policy implication: This study offers managerial recommendations for companies that see Instagram as a prospective social media tool for enhancing brand awareness. Companies should focus on managing their Instagram accounts by providing relevant content, qualified content, qualified information, and ensuring the availability of their contact details. Research limitation/Implications: To enhance generalisability, we suggest future studies examine how brand awareness improvement could be made across social media accounts with broader customer segments, either SMEs or big corporations.
... According to Corrada et al. (2020), there are no studies in the literature on how satisfaction acts on social media in relation to purchase and repurchase intentions, a gap that our study has also sought to fill. Furthermore, Instagram, being more recent, has been less studied than other social networks Teo et al., 2019;Silva, 2020;Qin, 2020), allowing our study to add novelty to the literature and in terms of practical implications. ...
... As a theoretical justification, this study proposes to complete the studies conducted by Casal o et al. (2017a), Teo et al. (2019), Corrada et al. (2020) and Qin (2020) about user behavior on Instagram and the generation of eWOM, providing a model that connects users' antecedents of satisfaction and their purchase intention. Our study analyzes users' active and interactive behaviors when using Instagram, assigning these behaviors an economic function, not related to celebrities or luxury brands, which has not been seen in the literature. ...
... The intention to interact emerges as the second user intention studied in our study, being related to the number of comments and shares that the user has with peers or in relation to brands (Qin, 2020). These interactions are very present on Instagram and act like essential factors for promoting online products because consumers do not have physical access to them (Teo et al., 2019). Within U&G, Corrada et al. (2020) suggest that this interactive act produced by the user, through "likes", shares, or comments can generate gratification in the use of the social network as it positions it as a generator of content information in real time, leveraging users' motivation to produce even more content and perhaps influence other people. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this research is to identify the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction when using Instagram. We also aim to verify if the intention to follow an account and interact with it positively influences the endorsed brand attitude, resulting in purchase intention on Instagram. Design/methodology/approach We undertook primary data collection through a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional approach, applying a nonprobabilistic sampling method by convenience and accessibility. We conducted data collection by means of an online questionnaire, which gained 447 respondents. The data analysis technique was SEM-PLS. Findings The results indicated that utility, entertainment and socialization tend to predict user satisfaction when using Instagram, and this satisfaction tends to generate a following and interacting behavior with other users. The results also suggest that by establishing this continuous relationship with other users, there is a greater possibility of users endorsing the brands presented to them, which may lead to greater purchase intention. Research limitations/implications We bring relevant information to companies for the development of virtual engagement, allowing them to better develop a strategy for reaching new Instagram followers by analyzing their behavior. Originality/value The study expands the field of uses and gratifications (U&G) theory in the use of Instagram, using antecedents of satisfaction. In relation to consequences, this study includes in the model a commercial base in terms of endorsed brand attitude and purchase intention.
... It is worth noting that although interactive narrative does not have a positive direct effect on purchase intention, there is a significant indirect effect. This result echoes what Teo et al. (2018) pointed out in their research on the use of augmented reality technology to promote cosmetics that interactive technology can be used to optimize shopping experience and increase consumers' purchase intention. Therefore, for designers, interactive narrative is very important. ...
... Although SVQA cannot directly affect purchase intention, it can indirectly affect purchase intention through the complete mediation of immersion and satisfaction. The finding echoes previous studies that have shown that high-quality images increase consumers' purchase intention of sneakers (Teo et al., 2018). SVQA is the audience's judgment of video image quality, and the image quality can be directly improved through adjusting the objective parameters (Bampis et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Mobile interactive video advertising is a relatively new type of media. A combination of interactivity and narrative is used to tell the video story to the audience. This study studied in three steps on mobile interactive video advertising to determine the design basis that should be paid attention to. Firstly, the research framework is proposed through expert interview and qualitative coding of the interview text. Secondly, research samples are made through surveys and conference discussions. The samples were designed into 30 types containing various interactive narrative and involvement. Finally, the qualitative results are verified in a quantitative way. The results show that in order to improve the audience's purchase intention, more attention should be paid to interactive narrative, subjective video quality assessment, immersion, satisfaction, and product involvement.
... Recent studies have also suggested that the effectiveness of social media marketing can differ across different types of social media. For example, while social influence in the form of comments by members of a social media network site can affect perception of quality and purchase intention on Facebook, the effect of social influence is more limited on a visual-centric social media platform such as Instagram (Teo, Leng, & Phua, 2019). Other studies have found that there are also differences in the motivation and gratification sought in using different types of social media (Billings, Broussard, Xu, & Xu, 2019;Lewis, Brown, & Billings, 2017;Machado, Martins, Ferreira, e Silva, & Duarte, 2020;Su et al., 2020). ...
... As such, this remains a limitation of this study and should be examined in future research. In addition, earlier studies have suggested that social media marketing differs across social network sites (Teo et al., 2019). As this study is conducted on Facebook, future research should examine whether other types of social network site can be more effective in changing perceptions and behaviour. ...
Article
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Sports organisations, including football clubs, are using social media to connect with spectators. The aim of this study is to examine whether social influence on social media can increase attendance at matches. In particular, it aims to examine the effect of negative comments on consumer behaviour and how social influence differs across fans of varying levels of fandom. Eighty-nine respondents were randomly allocated to three groups. Respondents in the control group were exposed to a Facebook page of a football club without any comments while respondents in Experimental Group 1 and 2 were exposed to the same Facebook page but with additional positive and negative comments respectively. A one-way between-groups analysis of variance showed no statistical difference between the three groups on perception of quality of the players and the coaches, and intention to watch future matches. While earlier studies have shown that social influence on social media can affect consumer behaviour, this study found that social influence may be limited in affecting spectator perceptions and behaviour.
... Dilihat dari beberapa penelitian sebelumnya. Penelitian Yudistira (2019) mendapatkan hasil bahwa social influnce tidak berpengaruh terhadap Purchase Intention, sedangkan pada penelitian Teo et al. (2019) peneliti mendapatkan hasil yang positif hubungan antara Social Influence dengan Purchase Intention. Maka dari perbedaan pendapat ini. ...
... Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan oleh Teo et al. (2019) ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of perceived quality, perceived price and social influence on the purchase intention of brodo shoes in Jakarta. The population of this study is people in the Jakarta. The sample in this study was 100 respondents using a nonprobability sampling method with a convenience sampling technique. Data collection techniques using google-form. The software used in this research is Smart Partial Least Square version 3 with the data analysis technique used is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The result of this study is that perceived quality affect purchase intention positively and significantly. Price perception influence purchase intention positively and significantly. Social influence affect purchase intention positively and significantly. Thus the results of the study can be concluded brodo company needs attention to perceived quality, perceived price and social influence to increase purchase intention. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh persepsi kualitas, persepsi harga dan pengaruh sosial terhadap niat pembelian sepatu brodo di Jakarta. Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah masyarakat yang ada di daerah Jakarta. Sampel pada penelitian ini sebanyak 100 responden dengan menggunakan metode non probability sampling dengan teknik Convenience sampling. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menyebarkan kuesioner melalui google-form. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Software yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Smart Partial Least Square versi 3 dengan. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa persepsi kualitas mempengaruhi niat pembelian secara positif dan signifikan. Persepsi harga mempengaruhi niat pembelian secara positif dan signifikan. Pengaruh sosial mempengaruhi niat pembelian secara positif dan signifikan. Dengan demikian hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan perusahaan Brodo perlu memperhatikan persepsi kualitas, persepsi harga dan pengaruh sosial untuk meningkatkan niat pembelian.
... Several previous studies have partially validated some aspects of social media's quality, including ease of use; interaction opportunities; perceived enjoyment; ease of communicating and credibility (Khatib, 2016); information quality (Kim et al., 2017); image quality; content-design quality; and content relevance to its product and audience (Helal, Ozuem and Lancaster, 2018). Since some companies, particularly SMEs, lack access to and knowledge about cutting-edge technology (Ibrahim and Shariff, 2016;Kergroach, 2020), the more straightforward construct of social media's quality, consisting of content clearness, content quality (Salomon, 2013;Teo, Leng, and Phua 2019), contact availability (Tsao, Hsieh and Lin, 2016) and content relevance (Helal, Ozuem and Lancaster, 2018) are adopted to help companies in improving the quality of their social media. ...
... From this we retrieved several relevant research instruments. As presented in Table 1, 18 research items have been adapted from several sources that fitted with the context of this study, namely Tsao, Hsieh and Lin (2016) for websites' quality constructs; Salomon (2013), Tsao, Hsieh and Lin (2016), Teo, Leng and Phua (2019), and Helal, Ozuem and Lancaster (2018) for social media's quality construct; Gvili and Levy (2018) for the electronic word of mouth construct; Langaro, Rita and Salgueiro (2018) and Poulis, Rizomyliotis and Konstantoulaki (2019) for the brand awareness construct, and Aaker (1996) for the brand image construct. The research construct was scored using a 5-point Likerttype scale (1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=neutral, 4=agree, and 5=strongly agree). ...
Article
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This study aims to validate the essential antecedents of brand image enhancement in the digital era, based on a schematic theory. This study involved 400 respondents from four capital cities in Java, Indonesia, which comprise Surabaya, Jakarta, Bandung, and Yogyakarta, based on a quota sampling technique. The findings indicate that the quality of websites and social media sites may have no direct effects on brand image; any effects are transmitted through a serial mediation of brand awareness and E-WOM. Explicitly, the effect of a website's quality on brand image is fully mediated, while social media's quality effect on brand image is partially mediated through brand awareness and E-WOM. This study extends the current literature related to SMEs' brand image. Also, this study offers practical recommendations for several stakeholders interested in empowering SMEs, including the government, entrepreneurship-based universities, and the SMEs themselves, who are all seeking strategies to enhance brand image while utilizing digital platforms such as social media and websites.
... Beberapa studi terdahulu tentang hubungan Instagram dan intensi penjualan telah dilakukan oleh beberapa peneliti. Beberapa faktor yang berpengaruh teridentifikasi pada hasil studi tersebut, seperti pentingnya pesan, grup sosial, dan kemudahan penggunaan (Amornpashara, Rompho, & Phadoongsitthi, 2015), persepsi resiko (Gunawan & Huarng, 2015), iklan berbayar (Evans, Pua, Lim, & Jun, 2017), kepercayaan konsumen (Astuti & Putri, 2018), visualisasi pada Instagram (Valentini, Romenti, Murtarelli, Pizzetti, 2018;Teo, Leng, & Phua, 2019), kredibilitas influencer (Sokolova & Kefi, 2020), persepsi terhadap sosial media (Copeland & Zhao, 2020), aktivitas pada media sosial (Aji, Nadhila, & Sanny, 2020). Namun, sejauh ini belum ada penelitian yang meneliti secara khusus tentang fitur dan konten pada Instagram yang berasal dari studi eksploratori yang melibatkan pengguna Instagram terhadap minat membeli melalui e-commerce. ...
... Foto atau gambar produk memberikan visualisasi produk dan membantu pembeli untuk mengetahui produk yang akan dibeli. Visualisasi produk yang baik membangun persepsi kualitas dan mendorong minat membeli (Teo, Leng, & Phua, 2019) dan gambar memiliki pengaruh yang kuat dari sekedar kumpulan kata-kata serta memberikan deskripsi yang lebih cepat dalam mendorong konsumen untuk membeli produk (Lee, Lee, Moon, & Sung, 2015). Hubungan emosional yang dibangun secara visual juga berpengaruh terhadap intensi pembelian (Valentini, Romenti, Murtarelli, Pizzetti, 2018). ...
Article
In line with the development of Instagram usage as social media, many companies advertise their offerings through Instagram to build consumers’ purchase intention through e-commerce. This research aims to explore and identify the factors on Instagram ads that significantly influence purchase intention on e-commerce. Mixed-methods are conducted through interviews, focus group discussion, literature review, and survey. The findings show that promotion, image, and information on Instagram significantly influence purchase intention through e-commerce. The e-commerce companies could benefit from the research findings to optimize their marketing communicationand increase the e-commerce transaction. Abstrak: Dengan semakin berkembangnya penggunaan Instagram sebagai media sosial, maka banyak perusahaan yang memasang iklan pada Instagram untuk membangun keinginan membeli konsumen. Penelitian ini bertujuan menggali faktor-faktor pada iklan di Instagram yang mempengaruhi minat membeli melalui e-commerce. Pendekatan mixed-methods dilakukan melalui wawancara, focus group discussion, tinjauan pustaka, dan survey. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan pengaruh faktor promosi, gambar dan informasi pada iklan di Instagram terhadap intensi pembelian melalui e-commerce. Perusahaan e-commerce dapat meningkatkan transaksi e-commerce dengan mengoptimalkan faktor-faktor tersebut dalam strategi komunikasi pemasarannyaKeywords: Instagram, e-commerce, promotion, image, information Kata Kunci: Instagram, e-commerce, promosi, gambar, informasi
... The number of members on such sites is increasing exponentially day by day. The popularity of social networking sites is most clearly observed among young adults, most of whom have at least one social network account and log in at least once a day (Teo, Leng, & Phua, 2019). In addition to the increasing number of social media users around the world, the number of different types of social media platforms is increasing day by day. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of influencer marketing on trust, trust inclination and consumer purchasing intentions. In addition, this study aims to turn the negative perceptions of influencer marketing of companies into positive and raise awareness accordingly. SPSS 26 and Amos programs were used. In this study; Frequency, percentage, standard deviation, average, factor analysis, correlation and regression analysis were performed on the survey form data, which was easily distributed by sampling method and filled out completely by 411 Instagram users over the age of 18. Instagram influencer marketing has been found to have a positive and positive effect on confidence, confidence trend and consumer purchasing intentions. Not all Instagram users could be reached; The method used limits the general ability of the findings. However, the findings offer preliminary insights into future studies of influencer marketing. Companies will actively interact with customers using various social media platforms and influencers, and thus it is thought that they will succeed in marketing through social media.
... The mere presence of images on social media increases engagement with posts (Li & Xie, 2020). The quality and size of product images also affect the perceived quality of products (Teo, Leng, & Phua, 2019). Colliander and Marder (2018) further found that snapshots of products on social media increase product credibility, benefitting from the authenticity of snapshots. ...
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Given the importance of crowdfunding in the media sector, this study investigates how to make media crowdfunding campaigns successful. Based on institutional theory, this study argues that, because social entrepreneurial projects create greater social values and thus more easily earn legitimacy, they are considered more meaningful and worthy than conventional entrepreneurial projects. Accordingly, this study hypothesizes that social entrepreneurial projects are more likely to achieve funding goals and that the quality signals of human capital and social capital are less important for the success of social entrepreneurial projects than for conventional entrepreneurial projects. This study's analysis of 630 media crowdfunding projects in South Korea found that social entrepreneurial projects are more likely to succeed than their conventional entrepreneurial counterparts. Social entrepreneurship orientation also negatively moderates the effects of some human capital and social capital signals on the success of media crowdfunding.
... Keunggulan media sosial dibandingkan secara konvensional adalah informasi yang didapat banyak serta cepat, feedback secara terbuka, saling berkomentar dalam waktu cepat dan tidak terbatas (Ahmadinejad & Asli, 2017) serta media sosial telah menjadi solusi yang baik bagi perusahaan untuk mempromosikan produk baru produk dengan karakteristik yang terkadang sangat khusus (Roth & Zawadzki, 2018). Peran media sosial di internet pada penerapan proses knowledge management menyatakan bahwa media sosial merupakan tempat, alat bantu, serta layanan yang memungkinkan individu untuk mengekspresikan diri mereka untuk bertemu dan berbagi dengan rekan lainnya melalui teknologi internet (Ahmadinejad & Asli, 2017;Astuti & Putri, 2018;Teo et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Online business competition (E-Commerce) in the business ecosystem has been massive because of its promising market potential. Instagram is a type of social media that is present in the community and seems to be used optimally as a marketing tool. But the debate about what factors stimulate business people to use it as a promotional medium is still being debated. So this study aims to determine what factors influence businessmen in using Instagram as a means of promotion. The study population came from businessmen who were confirmed to have business Instagram accounts in the East Jakarta area, non-probability sampling technique was used and obtained an observation sample of n = 33. Multiple linear regression analysis was used as an analytical knife with the independent variables Low Cost (X1), Feature Reliability (X2), and Target Consumers (X3), as well as the dependent variable of businessmen's decisions (Y). The results of the research H1 and H2 are accepted (X1 and X2 have an effect on Y), H3 is rejected (X3 has no effect on Y), H4 is accepted (X1, X2, and X3 simultaneously affect Y), and the R2 value is 60.2%. The research implication suggests that business people who use Instagram should pay attention to these factors in order to optimize promotions.
... Hence, looking at the dynamic nature of the platform, significance toward marketing activities, and platforms popularity, this literature review underpins the foundation stone for practical implications and future research. Furthermore, Instagram as a platform for marketing is recently popular and studied less in scholarly articles than other platforms (Mazzarolo et al., 2021;Qin, 2020;Silva, 2020;Teo et al., 2019). Thus, this literature review systematizes the Instagram marketing literature. ...
... SNSs, in particular, have become one of the most preferred communication channels for individuals, marketers, and institutions to disseminate and receive information. As such, SNS provides entertainment opportunities, social interactions, and information retrieval for individual users (Tsai and Men, 2017), information dissemination channels for institutions, and marketing platforms for marketers (Teo Li et al., 2019). These benefits guarantee its enormous popularity among its users and significantly influence every aspect of their lives and behaviors (Ketelaar et al., 2016;Liu et al., 2019;Shang et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of financial attitude and perceived behavioral control with financial behavior in the association between excessive use of social networking sites (SNSs) and financial well-being among working millennials. Design/methodology/approach A crossed-sectional survey was used to obtain data through a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 485 working millennials (M age = 32.28, years, SD age = 4.75) in Malaysia participated in the study based on a purposive sampling technique. Covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) was used to evaluate the measurement model and the proposed serial mediation model. Findings The findings of this study revealed that excessive use of SNS is negatively associated with financial well-being. Also, the findings suggested that financial attitude and perceived behavioral with financial behavior serially mediated the negative relationship between excessive use of SNS and financial well-being, respectively. Practical implications Several implications were suggested and discussed to prevent the negative impact of excessive SNS use on financial well-being among young working adults. Policymakers and financial service providers (e.g. banks) can draw from the findings by constantly framing and delivering their messages to increase the young working adults' awareness of pitfalls of excessive use of innovative technologies on their financial attitudes and self-control over their behaviors and financial well-being. Originality/value This study entails some new insights on examining the impact of excessive use of SNS on working millennials' financial well-being as well as the underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon.
... The Instagram social media platform offers a variety of features that allow users to publish and share content (photos, videos) with others [1]. Despite this, Instagram has become a popular marketing tool, especially with the support of social media influencers (SMIs) to influence consumer decisions [2]. SMI, as a new approach, has emerged as a more effective method of building relationships with consumers via Instagram. ...
Conference Paper
During the last few years, social media influencers (SMIs) have increasingly evolved into independently operating entities with the capability of influencing their audiences. SMI on Instagram is increasingly being used as a marketing communication tool by businesses due to its popularity and effectiveness. Only a few studies have investigated how social media influence travel behavior in tourism. This study examines whether SMI can affect the travel behavior of Instagram followers. SMI is determined by taking into account attractiveness, similarity, and expertise. SMI generates Para social interactions with followers and establishes trust by promoting destinations based on these three dimensions. In this study, the sample consists of Instagram users who watch travel-related content. A purposive sampling technique is used in which there is a set of criteria for selecting a participant. We obtained 364 responses from an online survey. The data were analyzed using fsQCA 3.0. The fsQCA results confirm the presence of two configurations with high travel intentions. According to the causal conditions configuration presented in this study, one exists an interdimensional relationship between SMIs (attractiveness, similarity, and expertise), trust, and parasocial interaction in terms of travel intention. This study also contributes a great deal of theoretical insight and managerial implications regarding how scholars and tourism managers can leverage SMIs to create high travel intentions.
... What the influencer conveys must be very objective. In addition, if an influencer can provide accurate and valid information and market an item, then customers can be directly affected by something the influencer offers (Teo et al. 2018). The above description is supported by Purwanto's research (2019), which states that influencers influence customer purchase intentions. ...
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Many companies use the celebgram to promote their products through their direct communications and displayed lifestyle. However, it is unclear how is the followers' response to such a promotional effort. This study aims to verify this curiosity. More specifically, this study aims to determine the effect of the celebgrams' power on the followers' purchase willingness directly and through attitude. To achieve that objective, the author chose a celebgram named @titantyra as the subject of the study. Next, the author conveniently chose as many as 110 people of his followers as respondents. The multiple linear regression model shows that @tintantyra’s power influences his followers' buying interest. Mediation test with path analysis shows that the influence also occurs through attitude toward @tytantyra's lifestyle. In short, the celebgram @titantyra has the power to influence his followers' buying intention. Further research can investigate whether that power effect followers' actual buying. Plagiarism Check
... Advertising on Instagram increases followers' willingness to purchase, enabling the platform to combine marketing with IS (Qiu et al., 2021). Finally, image-based social media networks generally serve more diverse purposes to their users than simple text-based networks like Twitter (Teo et al., 2019). However, Instagram does not allow a direct export of post and account data. ...
Conference Paper
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Recently, virtual influencers (VIs) have become a more frequent alternative to human influencers (HIs). VIs can be described as non-human agents who behave in a human-like pattern. Big enterprises such as Prada, Porsche, Samsung, or Ikea have already collaborated with VIs in the past. Even though it should be clear to users that VIs cannot practice values and virtues in the real world, VIs seem to express certain virtues. This research paper focuses on identifying virtues conveyed by VIs and the effect of expressing virtues on follower engagement by conducting a qualitative content analysis of social media posts. Furthermore, we checked on VIs being abused by companies to convey a more favorable image. Our findings suggest that conveying certain virtues seems to have a positive effect on the engagement. In addition, some VIs were used by companies for virtue signaling without being noticed by their followers.
... No additional actions in terms of engaging respondents were taken in order to have the sample as random as possible. The obtained answers were analysed in Model 1 and were referred to as a control group (Irmak et al., 2005;Teo et al, 2018). The contact data of the individuals who were for at least three years raised without one or both of their parents were obtained through the social support divisions of five Lithuanian and two Latvian municipalities, and a nonprofit organization providing social support for the disabled, struggling with financial difficulties or otherwise requiring socio-psychological support in Lithuania. ...
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The present study reveals differences in brand engagement, brand loyalty and brand evangelism among single or no parented young adults. It was found that persons who were raised without one or both parents for at least three years show higher emotional connectivity to brands compared to their counterparts from a control group. A widely recognized structural equation modelling technique—partial least squares method—has been applied in order to test the research hypotheses. Two Baltic States, namely, Lithuania and Latvia, served as an empirical basis of the study. The results of the research are relevant not only to business related disciplines, such as marketing and management, but also to other social sciences fields presuming the existence of more psychology-related differences among single or no parented persons
... However, Chen (2008) argued that the impact of informational influence is higher than normative influence when making online shopping decisions. Teo, Leng, & Phua (2018) mentioned that individuals tend to rely on the people they know for judgement and perception as evidence. Meanwhile, Hong, Xu, Wang, & Fan (2017) highlighted that the level of social influence is subject to a person's motivation and whether they are keen on knowing more information before deciding to make a purchase. ...
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The globalization trend during the Covid-19 pandemic showed that there are more consumers willing to shop online than visit physical stores. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of convenience, service quality, and social factors on consumer online grocery shopping behavior in Singapore during the Covid-19 pandemic. Data were collected from 153 respondents in Singapore via a survey, which was distributed through an online platform. A cross sectional study was applied, and the research instruments used were adapted from several past studies. Research hypotheses were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results indicate that convenience (β = 0.360, t = 4.063, p < 0.01) and service quality (β = 0.416, t = 5.495, p < 0.01) significantly influence consumer online grocery shopping. However, social factors (β = 0.042, t = 0.490, p > 0.05) have no significant influence on consumer online grocery shopping. With the help of the Theory of Planned Behavior, the present study has provided support for previous studies as well as clarified the roles played by convenience, service quality, social factors in consumer online grocery shopping behavior in Singapore.
... The effects of advertising elements in social media, Facebook included, the intention to buy or click, and any other consumer actions that lead to a sale are a field that is studied well. The impact is found from the different ad elements, such as emotions evoking, especially positivity and humor (Taylor et al. 2011;Wu et al. 2018;Lee et al. 2018), content informativeness level and type (Haj Eid et al. 2020;Lutfie and Marcelino 2020), video ad length (Munsch 2021;Nettelhorst et al. 2020;Raditya et al. 2020), and content design (Al Kurdi and Alshurideh 2021;Xin Teo et al. 2019). The importance in the same matters of information, entertaining content, advertising value, and being credible has also been confirmed by studies (Warsame et al. 2021) However, Grewal et al. (2016) pointed out the newness of mobile advertising effectiveness exploration. ...
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... This study has contributed to the literature by evaluating the moderation effect of perceived quality on brand awareness with loyalty and consumer buying behavior. However, Teo et al. (2019) have confirmed that when a brand offers substantialquality products and increased awareness in the market, it predicts the consumers' higher purchasing behavior. It implies that perceived quality can be taken as a moderator. ...
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... Fox et al. (2018) indicated that both narcissism and self-concept contribute to user-generated content on Snapchat and Instagram. In a two-experiment study, Teo et al. (2019) discovered that image quality on Instagram significantly affected consumers' perception of product quality and purchase intention. Social influence, a variable that is extremely effective on social network platforms, however, did not produce the same effects on Instagram. ...
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Riset terdahulu atau riset yang relevan sangat penting dalam suatu riset atau artikel ilmiah. Riset terdahulu atau riset yang relevan berfungsi untuk memperkuat teori dan penomena hubungan atau pengaruh antar variable. Artikel imi mereview variabel yang memepengaruhi Minat Beli menggunakan Instagram Shop, maka dilakukan review penelitian terdahulu. Hasil pra riset menunjukkan bahwa diduga persepsi kemudahan, persepsi kemanfaatan dan sikap penggunaan memiliki hubungan baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung terhadap Minat Beli menggunakan Instagram Shop.
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The rapid evolution of technology has fueled the growth of new social media applications in cyberspace. Rapid advancements in social media have emerged as viable alternatives to conventional mass media in the distribution of news and information. With 1.36 billion internet users, India is the world's second-largest internet market (TRAI, 2020). A market of this scale has undoubtedly attracted social media advertisers and administrators looking to increase their profit potential. As a result, the aim of this study is to identify the various factors that influence a consumer's purchase intent on Instagram. The findings show that Instagram has an important, positive impact on peer social influence, security, consumer trust, and electronic word of mouth. These factors played a significant role in deciding the rate of purchase of Instagram users. Keywords - Social Media (Instagram) Use and Purchase Intention, Social Influence of peers to use Instagram, Endorsement by Instagram Influencers, Security, Perceived Integrity, Consumer Trust.
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This article has been withdrawn: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been withdrawn as part of the withdrawal of the Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Materials Science, Technology and Engineering (ICMSTE2K21). Subsequent to acceptance of these Proceedings papers by the responsible Guest Editors, Dr S. Sakthivel, Dr S. Karthikeyan and Dr I. A. Palani, several serious concerns arose regarding the integrity and veracity of the conference organisation and peer-review process. After a thorough investigation, the peer-review process was confirmed to fall beneath the high standards expected by Materials Today: Proceedings. The veracity of the conference also remains subject to serious doubt and therefore the entire Proceedings has been withdrawn in order to correct the scholarly record.
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Chapter
There has been an increase in both wearable devices and social media usage. This study sets to describe how social media influences the buying intentions of Wearable Devices (WD). In doing so, constructs from Information Acceptance Model (IACM) had been compared to the resulting themes from 9 one-on-one interview responses and a relationship between social media and wearable devices was formed.
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Within the user-generated content sites, the role and growth of social networking sites has been undeniably overwhelming. Social networking sites (SNS) generate millions of dollars in revenue and advertising, yet little is known about why college students join and participate in these sites, which allow users to create their own content or space. This study adopts survey methodology to investigate the influence of college students' level of Internet self-efficacy, need to belong, need for cognition, and collective self-esteem on their attitude toward SNS. Internet self-efficacy, need to belong, and collective self-esteem all have positive effects on attitudes toward SNS. Furthermore, attitude toward SNS mediates the relationship between willingness to join SNS and (1) Internet self-efficacy and (2) need to belong, and the mediation is only partial between willingness to join and collective self-esteem. The author also draws managerial implications.
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Word of mouth marketing — the intentional influencing of consumer-to-consumer communications — is an increasingly important technique. The authors overview and synthesize extant word of mouth theory and present a study of a marketing campaign in which mobile phones were seeded with prominent bloggers. Eighty-three blogs were followed for six months. Findings reveal the complex cultural conditions through which marketing “hype” is transformed by consumers into the “honey” of relevant, shared communications. Four word of mouth communication strategies are identified — evaluation, embracing, endorsement and explanation. Each is influenced by communicator narrative, communications forum, communal norms and the nature of the marketing promotion. An intrinsic tension between commercial and communal interests plays a prominent, normative role in message formation and reception. This “hype-to-honey” theory shows that communal word of mouth does not simply increase or amplify marketing messages. Rather, marketing messages and meanings are systematically altered in the process of embedding them. The theory has implications for how marketers should plan, target and benefit from word of mouth and how scholars should understand word of mouth in a networked world.
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Undergraduates expressed their attitudes about a product after being exposed to a magazme ad under conditions of either high or low product involvement. The ad contained either strong or weak arguments for the product and featured either prominent sports celebrities or average citizens as endorsers. The manipulation of argument quality had a greater impact on attitudes under high than low involve- ment, but the manipulation of product endorser had a greater impact under low than high involvement. These results are consistent with the view that there are two relatively distinct routes to persuasion.
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The increased use of the Internet as a new tool in communication has changed the way people interact. This fact is even more evident in the recent development and use of friend-networking sites. However, no research has evaluated these sites and their impact on college students. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate: (a) why people use these friend-networking sites, (b) what the characteristics are of the typical college user, and (c) what uses and gratifications are met by using these sites. Results indicated that the vast majority of college students are using these friend-networking sites for a significant portion of their day for reasons such as making new friends and locating old friends. Additionally, both men and women of traditional college age are equally engaging in this form of online communication with this result holding true for nearly all ethnic groups. Finally, results showed that many uses and gratifications are met by users (e.g., "keeping in touch with friends"). Results are discussed in light of the impact that friend-networking sites have on communication and social needs of college students.
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This paper provides a deeper understanding of the role of social influences on positive eWOM behaviour (PeWOM) of heavy-users of online communities. Drawing on Social Interaction Utility Framework, Group Marketing and Social Learning Theories, we develop and test a research model integrating the interactions between the social climate of a website and Interpersonal Influences in PeWOM. 262 Spanish heavy-users of online communities were selected and the data analysed using partial least squares equation modelling. Overall, the model explains 59% of the variance of PeWOM on online communities. Findings reveal that interaction with other members of the online community (Social Presence) is the main predictor of PeWOM. Social Identity is a mediator between Social Presence and PeWOM. Interpersonal Influence has an important role as a moderator variable; the greater the impact of Interpersonal Influence, the stronger the relationship between Social Presence and PeWOM.
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Sports globalization is impacting the importation and exportation of sports apparel and equipment on a national and international scale. According to reported Street & Smith’s Sports Business Journal, the sport industry ranked as a top fourth industry in the United States which equaled approximately US$300,000 million in sales during 2006.1 In comparison, it revealed that South Korea had nearly US$130,000 million of sports business in 2002 (Park et al., 2004). Of the entire amount about US$26,000 million, representing 17 percent were derived from sales of sport apparel and equipment in 2002. Thus, it appears that the sports industry represents a significant and expanding consumer product market for both the United States and South Korea.
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Instagram is the fastest growing social network site globally. This study investigates motives for its use, and its relationship to contextual age and narcissism. A survey of 239 college students revealed that the main reasons for Instagram use are "Surveillance/Knowledge about others," "Documentation," "Coolness," and "Creativity." The next significant finding was a positive relationship between those who scored high in interpersonal interaction and using Instagram for coolness, creative purposes, and surveillance. Another interesting finding shows that there is a positive relationship between high levels of social activity (traveling, going to sporting events, visiting friends, etc.) and being motivated to use Instagram as a means of documentation. In reference to narcissism, there was a positive relationship between using Instagram to be cool and for surveillance. Theoretical contributions of this study relate to our understanding of uses and gratifications theory. This study uncovers new motives for social media use not identified in previous literature.
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Until now, little research has been conducted to analyse Twitter conversations about the corporate sponsors of football clubs. The conventional and most widely used method has been to use content analysis to assess the sentiment of the tweets that were sent. However, this approach may be inadequate because sports fans may be unlikely to mention a corporate sponsor in the text they tweet. This study demonstrates the use of visual analytics to assess conversations about corporate sponsors by examining the images people tweet.
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This work critically assesses the historical evolution and current state of the social media scholarship in sport management research. Methodologically, the study is based on a comprehensive census review of the current body of literature in the area of social media. The review identifies 123 social media articles in sport management research that were mined from a cross-disciplinary examination of 29 scholarly journals from January 2008 (earliest found) to June 2014. The work identifies the topic areas, the platforms, the theories, and the research methods that have received the (most/least) attention of the social media research community, and provides suggestions for future research
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The purpose of this study was to examine Olympic athletes’ self-presentation on Instagram, a social media outlet on which users post photographs as their primary communication mechanism, in order to develop an understanding of the ways in which athletes use this medium as a communication and marketing tool to build their personal brand. Additionally, this research sought to understand whether differences existed between the utilisation of Instagram by male and female athletes. Drawing on Goffman's (1959) theory of self-presentation, this study examined eight purposively selected Olympic athletes’ Instagram photos. Findings revealed similarities to previous research on athletes’ use of written social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter, as the majority of photos posted by athletes were personal in nature, thus reflecting backstage performance strategies according to self-presentation theory. The results indicated that female athletes were more likely to share photos of themselves and photos taken in private settings, but male athletes who posted a wider variety of photos encouraged greater engagement from their followers. Personal brand management implications for athletes and sport organisations are examined in greater detail in the discussion.
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Previous researchers have explained how offline word of mouth (WOM) influences consumer behaviour. Increasingly, however, consumers are turning to online WOM, especially online forums. In an online context, the research discussed in this article replicates the approaches taken to studying offline WOM. Grounded in social comparison theory, social network analysis and the theory of reasoned action, a mall intercept survey of consumers in Hong Kong showed that both similarity between a user's interests and a forum's topic and user attitudes towards the forum strongly predict purchase intentions as well as having an indirect effect through helping determine the forum's persuasiveness. Theoretical implications are discussed as well as practical implications for marketers and recommendations for further research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Advertising is the property of Warc LTD and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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The authors report the results of two experiments designed to test the effects of extrinsic cues—price, brand name, store name, and country of origin—on consumers’ perceptions of quality, sacrifice, and value. The results of the experiments support hypothesized linkages between (a) each of the four experimentally manipulated extrinsic cues and perceived quality, (b) price and perceived sacrifice, (c) perceived quality and perceived value, and (d) perceived sacrifice and perceived value. The results also indicate that the linkages between the extrinsic cues and perceived value are mediated by perceived quality and sacrifice.
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Role and identity theories provided perspective for this exploratory study of the needs and preferences of consumer athletes who participate in an emerging sport, in-line skating. Female in-line skaters (N = 54) were surveyed in Ohio and Florida regarding their skating commitment, sport clothing interests and preferences, and skating behaviors. Greater interests in achieving a unique and feminine appearance for performance enhancement and greater desire for fashion rather than comfort significantly predicted female skaters' likelihood of buying clothing specifically for in-line skating. Additionally, age and commitment to skating predicted the likelihood of purchasing special skating clothing. Findings are compared and contrasted with previous studies of sports and clothing addressing how identity in a sport without a long history and traditions in dress is enhanced with clothing, and the salience of brand name logos to sport identity. Finally, implications to manufacturers and retailers of sport clothing are suggested.
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The digital interactive transformation in marketing is not unfolding, as some thought it would, on the model of direct marketing. That model anticipated that marketing, empowered by digital media using rich profiling data, would intrude ever more deeply and more precisely into consumer lives than broadcast media had been able to. Instead the transformation is unfolding on a model of consumer empowerment, in which consumers use digital media to communicate with one another and deal with marketing's intrusions, showing none of the passivity displayed by mass media audiences. This paper categorizes five roles for the interactive consumer and draws implications for marketing practice. It concludes that the balance of power over marketplace meaning-making is shifting from marketer to consumer to the extent that media usage migrates from broadcasting to interactivity. The new marketplace rewards more participatory, more sincere, and less directive marketing styles than the old.
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This study examines the impact of fan identification on four distinct sponsorship outcomes: sponsor recognition, attitude toward the sponsor, sponsor patronage, and satisfaction with the sponsor. In addition, consistent with the identification literature we investigate the antecedents of prestige, domain involvement, and fan associations for predicting fan identification among sports spectators. Utilizing structural equation modeling the findings support the premise that highly identified fans are more likely to exhibit the investigated sponsorship outcomes. In addition, we found that the investigated antecedents may aid in predicting fan identification. Our findings are discussed, managerial implications presented, and future research directions provided.
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Abstract Social networking sites (SNS) have become increasingly popular in recent years. With the amount of data available on SNS, the potential exists for researchers to use these data for their research. However, like any research method, there are limitations in using data from SNS. First, as members of SNS are not representative of the population, there is the limitation in generalizing the findings to the population. Second, in SNS with a low level of activity, there is also the issue of whether the data are sufficient for analysis. Third, the validity of the postings by members of SNS should be considered, as members of SNS may not be truthful in their responses. In addition, as the environment for SNS favors a quick emotive response as opposed to a cognitive response, the review suggests that the researcher will need to be aware of possibly different behavior when members of a SNS are faced with a high involvement decision. This article concludes that while there is potential in analyzing data from SNS, researchers should be aware of the limitations in using these data.
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Eight groups of 15 college females each rated the quality of 1 paper plate while exposed to simulated quality evaluations of other raters. Others' evaluations were manipulated by presenting the modal evaluation as higher or lower than the control (no influence) mean rating and by varying the uniformity of others' ratings at 2 levels of dispersion. The availability of intrinsic (product composition) cues during prerating examination of the plate was manipulated by making available, or withholding, 2 comparison plates. Others' modal evaluations significantly affected the Ss' quality ratings of the plate. This effect was substantially stronger when others' evaluations were more uniform. The presence or absence of comparison plates had no effect on the influence conditions. Results are interpreted, in conjunction with those of J. B. Cohen and E. Golden (see record 1972-11926-001) as providing support for the effect of informational social influence on ratings of product quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)