As Plantas Alimentícias Não Convencionais (PANC) são plantas que possuem amplo potencial alimentício por serem fontes de diversos nutrientes. Porém, ao longo do tempo estes vegetais caíram em desuso por conta de fatores diversos, mas, podemos citar, entre tantos, a urbanização de diversas regiões com redução de áreas para quintais e hortas caseiras, a prática de cultura extensiva que leva muitas vezes à monocultura, a migração de jovens do campo para a área urbana conduzindo à quebra na cadeia de transmissão de saberes.
O Programa de Educação Tutorial (PET), e o sistema de bolsas de extensão PIBEX, desenvolvidos pelo governo federal, possibilitam a realização de atividades relacionadas ao ensino, pesquisa e extensão. Através de oficinas periódicas realizadas pelo PET-Farmácia e bolsistas PIBEX do LabFBot, com o apoio da Empresa de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural (EMATER) nos Municípios de Magé e Guapimirim, o grupo de agricultores que participa dos projetos do LabFBot lá desenvolvidos, solicitou maiores informações a respeito de algumas PANC que são usadas por eles como alimentos, tais como: Beldroega-grande (Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd), Bertalha-menor (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis), João Gomes (Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn.), Ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC), Cará (Dioscorea alata L.) e Inhame (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott), entre outras. As informações solicitadas eram a respeito da composição nutricional destas plantas, seu uso correto e a segurança da ingestão.
Sendo assim, os objetivos do presente trabalho foram a busca de informações sobre as algumas das espécies de Plantas Alimentícias Não Convencionais cultivadas e consumidas nos Municípios de Magé e Guapimirim, para assegurar seu uso de forma adequada pela população local e para os consumidores que compram os produtos comercializados pelos agricultores.
To analyze the variables associated with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in Brazilian children aged 6 to 59 months, considering a hierarchical model of determination.
This is part of the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children, held in 2006. Data analysis included 3,417 children aged from six to 59 months with retinol data. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol <0.7 mol/L. Univariate and multiple Poisson regression analysis were performed, with significance level set at 5%, using a hierarchical model of determination that considered three conglomerates of variables: those linked to the structural processes of community (socioeconomic-demographic variables); to the immediate environment of the child (maternal variables, safety and food consumption); and individual features (biological characteristics of the child). Data were expressed in prevalence ratio (PR).
After adjustment for confounding variables, the following remained associated with VAD: living in the Southeast [PR=1,59; 95%CI 1,19-2,17] and Northeast [PR=1,56; 95%CI 1,16-2,15]; in urban area [RP=1,31; 95%CI 1,02-1,72]; and mother aged ≥36 years [RP=2,28; 95%CI 1,37-3,98], the consumption of meat at least once in the last seven days was a protective factor [PR=0,24; 95%CI 0,13-0,42].
The main variables associated with VAD in the country are related to structural processes of society and to the immediate, but not individual, environment of the child.
"Determination of the phenolic content and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don, Leguminosae-mimosoideae". Acacia species are usually used as treatment for several diseases. Chemotaxonomic studies have related the Acacia genus as a source of phenolic compounds, which present several biological properties. This work emphasizes the antioxidant activity Acacia podalyriifolia. This plant is natural from Australia and vastly cultivated in the South of Brazil as ornamental feature. The plant material (flowers) was shadow-dried and submitted to the extraction with ethanol, followed by partition with hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. The phytochemical screening performed in the ethanol crude extract and in its fractions showed the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Determination of the phenolic content was performed with the Folin Ciocalteau reagent. It was found out that the ethyl acetate fraction (FAE) was the one that displayed the biggest concentration (338,5 mg of gallic acid/g of FAE). In the evaluation of the radical scavenging activity, using the free radical DPPH, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC 50 = 3,22 μg/mL from FAE).
The cactus life‐form is cited as an example of a tight relationship between organism form and function: a succulent, long‐lived, photosynthetic stem allows cacti to survive long periods of drought while maintaining a positive tissue water status. Pereskia (Cactaceae) comprises 17 species of leafy shrubs and trees that are thought to represent the original cactus condition. Recent phylogenetic work has shown that there are two separate clades of Pereskia species, which are basal and paraphyletic with respect to the rest of the cacti. We selected seven Pereskia species, representing both clades, and characterized their water relations by measuring a suite of physiological traits in wild populations. Additionally, we estimated basic climate parameters from collection localities for all 17 Pereskia species. Extant Pereskia species exhibit ecological water use patterns that are very similar to those of the leafless, stem‐succulent cacti. Ancestral trait reconstruction for the physiological and environmental data provides a preliminary assessment of the ecology and water relations of the earliest cacti and suggests that several key elements of the cactus ecological niche were established before the evolution of the cactus life‐form. We interpret these ecological traits as potentially important drivers of evolutionary innovation in the cacti.
Objectives: To evaluate acute and sub chronic oral toxicity effects of ethanol extract of Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) v. Steenis leaves. Methods: Extract was prepared by reflux method in ethanol 96%. Acute oral toxicity test was conducted in ddY mice using the conventional test. A. cordifolia extract was administered orally at dose ranging between 0.05 - 15 g/kg body weight to experimental mice and observed for any toxic symptoms up to 14 days. Sub chronic toxicity study was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by administration orally A. cordifolia extract at doses of 0.1 g/kg body weight, 0.4 g/kg body weight, and 1 g/kg body weight daily for 90 days. Behavior, mortality, and body weight of rats were observed during study period. Relative organ weight, hematology, blood biochemistry, and histopathology were observed at the end of study period. Results: The A. cordifolia extract was well tolerated at the single administration in acute toxicity study. No mortality was observed even at the highest dose of 15 g/kg body weight. In sub chronic toxicity study, A. cordifolia extract up to dose of 1 g/kg body weight did not cause mortality and behavioral changes. There were no significantly different in body weight development, relative organ weight, hematology, blood biochemistry in rats treated by A. cordifolia extract compared with control group (p > 0.05). Histology observations showed that heart, lung, liver, kidney and spleen had no different with the control group. Conclusion: Beside on acute and sub chronic study, ethanol extract of A. cordifolia leaves showed no toxic signs or abnormalities that can be considered to be safe for medical uses.