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Employees Motivation in CSR Projects: Case Study of WrOpenUp: Strategies, Opportunities and Challenges

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As a result of the political and economic transition in Poland since 1989, international corporations have opened their subsidiaries in the country. Over the last couple of decades these developments have enabled international corporations to not only invest in the Polish economy but also in CSR Projects. These corporations have a culturally diverse workforce, composed of the local and international employees who also participate in their own CSR Projects. This article will analyse the employees’ points of view and their personal incentives for participating in CSR Projects of community volunteering by a case study of the WrOpenUp project. The study is based upon the psychological theory of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of human behaviour. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the different kinds of motivation of volunteering in order to discover the main trigger for volunteers to commit themselves to a CSR Project. The main objective is to examine whether there is a significant difference in motivation among the volunteers of different nationalities, gender and religion. The core argument is to find a substantial difference of motivation between the Polish and the international employees to join a CSR Project.

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With the political and economic transformation in Central and Eastern Europe since 1989 and the increasing participation of this region into the processes of Globalisation, Poland became an emerging market. This process of economic development still continues today and as a major result of this, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Poland was and still is involved in a constant and dynamic process. This paper will focus on these changes in the field of CSR under the light of these economic and social processes by providing historical overview and an analysis of the status quo. Furthermore, the paper will examine some of the well-known case studies that will take into account Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), Multinational Enterprises (MNEs), Civil Societies and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO).
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The growing interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) noted both the academic research and company practice is driven by its crucial and fundamental assumptions on the role of companies in society and economy. The theoretical studies on CSR and its implementation by companies which have been carried out for over 30 years contributed to conceptual and methodological development. The studies enabled to confront the theory with the company practice. Although the corporate practice revealed both successful examples and severe shortcomings or even misuse of CSR, it undoubtedly helped direct the development of the concept bringing it close to company level challenges and operations. The way CSR is perceived and implemented in companies determines its importance in academia and business making it a living framework which can make a difference.
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Much of the current literature on Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) focuses on macroeconomic issues, including macroeconomic reforms and the development of the transition process. However, one needs also to question the ‘micro’ side and see, for example, the contribution foreign direct investment made to the transition process and the activity of foreign multinational enterprises. This chapter will first define what is meant by the transition process and outline current trends in FDI activity in Poland. It will then set out to analyse the impact of local sourcing activities on the transitional economy of Poland. Based on the theoretical literature of Dunning (1993) and others, a set of criteria have been developed for evaluating the effects of multinational enterprise supplier linkages to national economic competitiveness. These include linkages introducing complementary assets — for example, technology — raising standards of product quality and stimulating local entrepreneurship. These effects are analysed by drawing on empirical evidence from foreign-owned manufacturing multinational firms operating in Poland. The findings define the impact of these firms by comparing their sources of supply when entering the Polish market with the present-day situation. The findings indicate that foreign multinationals are starting to make a more favourable impact on the Polish economy through the use of increased supplier linkages, though at a very slow pace.
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Artykul jest raportem z badania prowadzonego wśrod Latarnikow – wolontariuszy projektu Polska Cyfrowa Rownych Szans, osob odpowiedzialnych za wprowadzenie osob w wieku 50+ w cyfrowy świat. Wyniki badan pokazują ogolny rys cech spoleczno-demograficznych Latarnikow, ich wcześniejsze doświadczenia z wolontariatem, specyfike pracy w projekcie PCRS oraz odbior spoleczny wolontariuszy. Poszczegolne dane prezentowane są na tle wynikow badan ogolnopolskich, a takze europejskiego i polskiego kontekstu funkcjonowania wolontariatu. Wyniki pokazują dośc duze zroznicowanie definiowania samego wolontariatu, a co za tym idzie ‒ rozne motywacje wlączania sie w tego typu dzialania, a takze rozne poziomy satysfakcji z bycia wolontariuszem. Porownanie odpowiedzi Latarnikow z wynikami ogolnopolskich badan wolontariuszy wskazuje na mozliwe podobienstwa i roznice miedzy nimi, a zaprezentowane typologie wskazują kluczowe punkty podzialu tej heterogenicznej grupy, jaką są wolontariusze.
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The Anthropology of Corporate Social Responsibility explores the meanings, practices, and impact of corporate social and environmental responsibility across a range of transnational corporations and geographical locations (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Chile, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, India, Peru, South Africa, the UK, and the USA). The contributors examine the expectations, frictions and contradictions the CSR movement is generating and addressing key issues such as the introduction of new forms of management, control, and discipline through ethical and environmental governance or the extent to which corporate responsibility challenges existing patterns of inequality rather than generating new geographies of inclusion and exclusion.
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The following chapter focuses on theoretical and practical aspects of Corporate Responsibility in Poland. It describes the influence of systemic transformation on the definition and perception of CR, the role of social capital in CR’s creation and also main trends in developing the ethical infrastructure in Poland. What is important, the article reviews not only the Polish literature treating on CR in Poland, but also international papers treating on this subject. The practical dimension of the paper takes the form of implications presented in the end.
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Corporate social responsibility is defined as a concept “whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns on their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis” (European Commission Green Paper. Promoting a European framework for Corporate Social Responsibility, COM 366, final, http:// eur-lex. europa. eu/ LexUriServ/ site/ en/ com/ 2001/ com2001_ 0366en01. pdf, 2001; Neal Comparative Labor Law and Policy Journal 29:459–474, 2008) to achieve long term sustainable growth and development. Its practical dimensions range from the regulatory framework and stakeholders activity to corporate programs and initiatives. As the CSR fundamental assumptions are addressing the practice of companies, the response of the business appears to be crucial for the successful implementation and effectiveness of this concept. The paper presents the results of the qualitative research on the CSR practice implemented in Polish companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The analysis is based on the case studies of policies and programs adopted by companies included the CSR rating known as RESPECT Index and compared to their peers operating in the same industries not covered by the benchmark. The goals of the research are to identify main differences in the two sample groups of companies (if there are any) with respect to CSR initiatives, reporting and stakeholder dialogue as well as to trace the changes in the CSR policies observed within the 5 years of 2007–2011. The paper presenting the Polish experience attempts to address the issues of CSR in emerging/transition economy where the state is weaker and its interventions appear to be rare suppressed by the corporate activities.
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„Diversity” means dissimilarity, variety, and individuality that emerges from various differences between people. Diversity of individual abilities, experiences, competencies, and qualifications of human resources builds a success factor in organisations, which enables entrepreneurial strategies of increasing flexibility and continuous learning. „Managing Diversity” is a strategic approach. It is more than a program. It is an attitude and a new understanding of how enterprises function. The authors use a theoretical frame of reference that was developed on the base of the „Theory of General Action Systems” and specified or the analysis of organisations. By this model the known concepts of diversity can be integrated and their partiality can be outgrown.
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Twenty five years after the fall of the Berlin Wall and 10 years after their accession to the European Union (EU), Central and Eastern Europe Countries (CEECs) still show marked differences with the rest of Europe in the fields of labour, work and industrial relations. This book presents a detailed and original analysis of labour and social transformations in the CEECs, which illustrate and apply the theoretical concept of "dependent capitalism(s)" in the sphere of labour, employment and industrial relations, regulations and practices. The book examines a wide range of countries in Central Europe, rather than just the most well-documented ones, and in doing so is able to offer a comprehensive and contrasting view of labour developments in Central and Eastern Europe. http://www.taylorandfrancis.com/books/details/9781138927995/
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In diesem Beitrag geht es um einen systematischen, empirisch unterlegten Konzeptvergleich zwischen Diversity Management und Corporate Social Responsibility. Anhand von mehreren Kernfragen werden zunächst die historischen Ursprünge, gesellschaftlichen Treiber, zentralen Zielsetzungen, Wege der Implementierung, eingesetzten Instrumente und die Möglichkeiten der Erfolgsmessung beider Managementkonzepte miteinander verglichen. Anschließend geht es um die Darstellung der Themen in Unternehmensberichten sowie die Synergien und Konflikte zwischen CSR und DiM. Die Beantwortung der Frage, wie sich aus Sicht der Autoren eine Win-Win-Situation zwischen den beiden Konzepten herstellen lässt, rundet die Ausführungen ab.
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The focus of this paper is institutional change and the changing role of business in Germany. Back in the 1980s, the German institutional framework was characterized by implicit mandatory and obligatory regulations that set a clear context for responsible corporate behavior. Today, this framework has eroded and given way to a situation in which corporations explicitly and voluntarily take responsibility for social issues. This shift from implicit to explicit corporate social responsibility is an indication of a major institutional change epitomized by the deconstruction of 'old' and the reconstruction of 'new' institutions. In the course of this change, corporations, state actors, and civil society organizations compete for their ideas and interests in what we call a fight for myths. The paper traces this fight for myths and the changing understanding of corporate responsibility in Germany.
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This important handbook provides a comprehensive, authoritative review of achievement motivation and establishes the concept of competence as an organizing framework for the field. The editors synthesize diverse perspectives on why and how individuals are motivated in school, work, sports, and other settings. Written by leading investigators, chapters reexamine central constructs in achievement motivation; explore the impact of developmental, contextual, and sociocultural factors; and analyze the role of self-regulatory processes. Focusing on the ways in which achievement is motivated by the desire to experience competence and avoid experiencing incompetence, the volume integrates disparate theories and findings and sets forth a coherent agenda for future research.
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One of the new ways used by companies to demonstrate their social responsibility is to encourage employee volunteering, whereby employees engage in socially beneficial activities on company time, while being paid by the company. The reasoning is that it is good for employee motivation (internal effects) and good for the company reputation (external effects). This article reports an empirical investigation of the internal effects of employee volunteering conducted amongst employees of the Dutch ABN-AMRO bank. The study showed that (a) socio-demographic characteristics from employee volunteers markedly differ from those of non-volunteers and community volunteers and (b) employee volunteering seems to have positive effects on attitudes and behavior towards the organization.
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This study identifies predictors of retention and turnover among volunteers in three Israeli community centers. The entire service volunteer population was examined at two points in time with an interval of 6 months. At T2 a distinction was made between “stayers ”, “leavers for objective reasons ” (uncontrollable turnover), and “leavers by choice ” (controllable turnover). On the basis of their responses at T1discriminant analysis was used to identify the specific personal, organizational and attitudinal variables which could distinguish the “stayers ” (41) from the “leavers by choice ” (35). In the combined analysis of all three categories of independent variables, one organizational (preparation for task) and three attitudinal variables (task achievement, relationship with the other volunteers, and the work itself) were identified as best discriminatingbetween the two groups. The classification analysis found that these variables could better predict retention than turnover. The findings are compared to studies of paid workers and the implications for future research and the management of volunteer workers are discussed.
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The present study incorporated the constructs of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation into an investigation of dispositional factors that contribute to volunteering. Recent research has conceptualized motivational tendencies as akin to personality variables, stable across time and situations. Volunteer motives, volunteer role identity, and prosocial personality were assessed, along with motivational orientation and time devoted to volunteering. Intrinsic motivation was positively associated with a volunteer self-concept, prosocial personality, volunteer time, and motive strength. This was particularly true for “internal” motives, those that are satisfied by the volunteer activity itself. Extrinsic orientation was most closely associated with “external” motives (specifically career aspirations), which require an outcome separate from the volunteer work in order to be fulfilled. The study was the first to consider constructs from the prevailing conceptual view of the volunteer process in the context of motivational orientation. The wider theoretical perspective offers insight into human behavior beyond volunteerism.
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Volunteer service accounts for a substantial percentage of America’s workforce and GDP. Numerous organizations such as Habitat for Humanity and the American Red Cross have come to rely heavily on volunteer service. Due to the recent economic downturn and resulting budgetary cuts in the government sector, non-profit organizations have had to assume greater responsibility for providing services such as health care and education. Considering the importance of volunteer service to society, this literature review seeks to identify the key functional motives for volunteers. With a particular focus on the functional motivation theory and the six most prominent motives – values, enhancement, understanding, career, social, and protective – this paper explores the general trends, gender difference, and age differences in volunteer motivation. In addition, it discusses the practical implications of knowledge about volunteer motivation on recruiting and retaining volunteers.
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http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/35514/2/b1707061.0001.001.pdf http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/35514/1/b1707061.0001.001.txt
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The present study focused on changes in volunteering over time among Italian adults and examined a model in which motives from self-determination theory (SDT) were hypothesized to influence a series of social-cognitive processes including self-efficacy judgments and constructs from the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The study was conducted with 312 male (mean age = 66.10; SD = 5.28) and 253 female adults (mean age = 66.67; SD = 5.79) who worked as volunteers in several associations and organizations in Italy. In two occasions over the course of several months, participants respectively completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires and responded to telephone interviews which assessed the study's constructs of interest. Structural equation model analyses provided support for the guiding hypothesis and findings suggested that the more general approach of SDT can be successfully integrated with a social-cognitive framework such as the TPB to provide a better insight onto the origins of the cognitive predictors of intentions in older volunteers.