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The value of our personal data in the Big Data and the Internet of all Things Era

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Abstract

The fourth industrial revolution, in which we transit, is preceded by a digital economy based fundamentally on information. And although estimates have been made on whether the data moving in the digital economy flow are from sensors or machines or come from each of us, one thing is certain, all information has a monetary value. Within this flow of information are our personal data. Every moment that we use an electronic device we leave behind vestiges of our life, which are collected by the machines to generate value to the companies. In this way our information is subject to market rules, supply and demand. We have become intangible beings, mercantilized, giving our bodies of data to the science, innovation and technological development. With the use of technologies such as Big Data and IoT, more information less is better. The speed with which our information is collected and treated as well as commercialized is undermining confidence in the digital market. Concern about the misuse of our personal data, or about the information we know about us, raises fundamental questions about privacy, ownership of information and human rights. The question of who should benefit from products and services based on digital data (generated by users) are the main uncertainties that shape the digital market opportunities. But, how can we measure trust in companies if we are not aware of the value our personal information has in the digital economy? What is the value that, as headlines, we give to our personal data? Perhaps therein lies the problem of allowing others to have power over our information. To promote the digital market and trust in it, we need to know the value of our information. Becoming aware of the fact and consequences of collecting our data, as well as its monetary value and importance in the digital economy, is the first beneficial step towards the empowerment of our information
71
Anahiby Becerril
The value of our personal data in the Big Data
and the Internet of all Things Era
ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing and Articial Intelligence Journal
Regular Issue, Vol. 7 N. 2 (2018), 71-80
eISSN: 2255-2863
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/ADCAIJ2018727180
ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing
and Articial Intelligence Journal
Regular Issue, Vol. 7 N. 2 (2018), 71-80
eISSN: 2255-2863 - http://adcaij.usal.es
Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca - cc by nc dc
The value of our personal data in
the Big Data and the Internet
of all Things Era
Anahiby Becerril
Doctor in Law and Globalization, Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Tecnologías de la Información y
la Comunicación (INFOTEC). anahiby.becerril@infotec.mx
KEYWORD
ABSTRACT
Big Data; IoT;
Personal;
Value
The fourth industrial revolution, in which we transit, is preceded by a digital econo-
my based fundamentally on information. And although estimates have been made on
whether the data moving in the digital economy ow are from sensors or machines
or come from each of us, one thing is certain, all information has a monetary value.
Within this ow of information are our personal data. Every moment that we use an
electronic device we leave behind vestiges of our life, which are collected by the ma-
chines to generate value to the companies. In this way our information is subject to
market rules, supply and demand. We have become intangible beings, mercantilized,
giving our bodies of data to the science, innovation and technological development.
With the use of technologies such as Big Data and IoT, more information is less better.
The speed with which our information is collected and treated as well as commer-
cialized is undermining condence in the digital market. Concern about the misuse
of our personal data, or about the information we know about us, raises fundamental
questions about privacy, ownership of information and human rights. The question of
who should benet from products and services based on digital data (generated by
users) are the main uncertainties that shape the digital market opportunities. But, how
can we measure trust in companies if we are not aware of the value our personal in-
formation has in the digital economy? What is the value that, as headlines, we give to
our personal data? Perhaps therein lies the problem of allowing others to have power
over our information. To promote the digital market and trust in it, we need to know the
value of our information. Becoming aware of the fact and consequences of collecting
our data, as well as its monetary value and importance in the digital economy, is the
rst benecial step towards the empowerment of our information.
1. Introduction
We are currently moving into the fourth industrial revolution where mobile communications, social networks
and sensors are blurring the boundaries between people, the Internet and the physical world (Marcus, 2015).
This new revolution is preceded by the digital economy where markets leave space for networks and access
constitutes a property (Rifkin, 2013, p. 14).
71 2018 7 2
ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing and Articial Intelligence Journal. Vol. 7 N. 2 (2018), 71-80
72
Anahiby Becerril
The value of our personal data in the Big Data
and the Internet of all Things Era
ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing
and Articial Intelligence Journal
Regular Issue, Vol. 7 N. 2 (2018), 71-80
eISSN: 2255-2863 - http://adcaij.usal.es
Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca - cc by nc dc
Companies in the technological sector lead the digital economy 1. All of them handle large volumes of infor-
mation. For Pentland (2013) the digital economy allows us to study billions of exchanges made by individuals
(p. 34) where people daily make transactions with ideas, money, goods or comments. In this sense, the greatest
opportunity for growth revolves around the extraordinary volume, variety and timeliness of available digital
data. The Internet, mobile phones, integrated sensors to equipment and other electronic devices generate data
daily (Brynjolfsson & Mcafee, 2016, p. 123). Every minute that we use some electronic device we are leaving
traces of our life. Electronic devices become collectors of the information that we all generate. And all this
information allows companies to gain competitive advantage and prots. From this perspective, information is
presented as a key element of power. This is subject to market rules, supply and demand, in addition to being
consumed, stored, processed (Araujo Carranza, 2009, p. 69) and exchanged. Our personal data have been im-
mersed in this commodication of information.
We currently live in a tsunami of data (Bauman & Lyon, 2015, p. 31). Everything is data (Simon, 2013, p.
29) or it will be. As individuals, what denes us is no longer our person, but our value in data. We have been
demateried and we have become the digital “zeros” and “ones”2, irrigated in companies’ databases and it is
through these that we demonstrate our existence.
The essence of social networking services is in exposing our privacy and sharing personal information. As
users of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest and other types of content online, we not only consume this
“free” content, but we have become the intangible asset of companies. We have become marvelous beings; our
information, ideas, experiences, habits and feelings are accessible on the Internet. Facebook and Google, do
not sell anything to Internet users, instead they sell billions of users to advertisers, which is why the wealth of
ineludible companies is their number of connected/users (Ramonet, 2015, p.). As users of social networking and
technology services, we have been commodied, and the voluntary delivery of our personal information is the
price to pay not to suffer from social exclusion.
For the United Nations (2014, p. 7) and the World Bank (2016, p. 20), the extent to which we as consumers
or users of electronic media really know what data we are sharing, how and with Who, as well as the use that
will be made of the information, and in some cases, the companies do not communicate it. The World Economic
Forum (2014, page 3) has recognized the existence of an asymmetry of power between institutions and individ-
uals created by an imbalance in the amount of information about people and the lack of knowledge and capacity
of the same to control the use of the information.
Internet is largely free service, and the exchange of personal data, is the price we pay (Ehrenberg, 2014) for
its access. And while some people are willing to pay with this information, others consider that the use of this
information, often without consent, may constitute a violation of privacy.
The speed with which our information is collected and treated as well as commercialized is undermining
condence in the digital market. Concern about the misuse of our personal data, or about the information we
know about us, raises fundamental questions about privacy, ownership of information, global governance3 and
human rights. The question of who should benet from products and services based on digital data (generated
by users) are the main uncertainties that shape the digital market opportunities (Marcus, 2015). But how can
we measure trust in companies if we are not aware of the value our personal information has in the digital
economy? What is the value that, as headlines, we give to our personal data? Perhaps therein lies the problem
of allowing others to have power over our information.
1 Among the companies with the highest value of the sector are: Apple, value 586 billion US dollars; Facebook, value 314.8
billion; Amazon: 292.6 trillion; Google: 82.5 billion.
2 Referring to the binary system consisting of “0” and “1”. System used by computers to store information.
3 That is why we also aim for a governance of personal data as a response to the existing asymmetries in the market and
data. Through the creation of technological tools, based on users that promote co-responsibility, in the collection and processing of
information, between individuals, companies and the government. In this way there may be a coordination that implies benets for
all parties in the use and market of information.
73
Anahiby Becerril
The value of our personal data in the Big Data
and the Internet of all Things Era
ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing
and Articial Intelligence Journal
Regular Issue, Vol. 7 N. 2 (2018), 71-80
eISSN: 2255-2863 - http://adcaij.usal.es
Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca - cc by nc dc
2. Big Data and The Internet of things, in the use of our data
Characterized as “the new oil” and “a new class of assets” (Kuneva, 2009, p. 1), personal data are at the epi-
center of the digital economy, as determined by Big Data and in the near future, IoT (acronym for Internet of
Things). And if digitization and therefore data generation is considered “new oil”, the context through which
this information is generated is now the new oil eld, with industries doing their best to control territories to
drill in their Search (Ng, 2013, p. 8) and to obtain greater digital dividends4. This is why Big Data and IoT are
often promoted as key tools of market predictions and economic/social dynamics (Gónzalez & Scherrer, 2015,
p. 5). The World Bank has stated the importance of Big Data and open data in development. However, it rec-
ognizes that most of the mass data is in private hands (large telecommunications companies and the Internet),
which are reluctant to share them for fear, among other things, of jeopardizing their competitiveness (2016, p.
28).
Described as the revolution that will transform how we live, work and think (Mayer-Shónberger & Cuk-
ier, 2013, p. 1), the World Economic Forum (WEF) denes Big Data as a collection of data sets so large and
complex that They become difcult to process using available database management tools or traditional data
processing applications (2013, p. 3). Garriga Domínguez5 explains that the concept of Big Data refers to the
large amount of data available, i.e. the existence of an enormous amount of data that can be used for different
purposes (2016, p. 28).
The IoT has been dened by the European Union (EU) as the next great wave of economic and social inno-
vation enabled by the Internet. This has been valued, by the year 2020, in more than one trillion euros (2016,
page 4). The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) denes it as a global infrastructure of the infor-
mation society, which supports the “burgeoning network of physical objects and devices” that have an Internet
Protocol (IP) address, as well as communication Occurs between “these objects and other devices and systems
that can be activated on the Internet” (2015, p.39). The IoT platform will continuously send huge amounts of
data to each node – companies, homes, and vehicles – in real time at any moment. Its operational logic is to
optimize the horizontal production between equals, universal access and inclusion, the same qualities that are
essential to generate and cultivate social capital in civil society (Rifkin, 2014, p.18). The development of IoT
requires not only an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure, but also the appropri-
ate use of large data volumes or Big Data. This is why, with its use for data processing, more is better than less
(Mayer-Shónberger & Cukier, 2013, p.58).
ITU recognizes that more than 50% of IoT’s activity is currently focused on manufacturing, transportation,
smart cities and consumer applications, but estimates that within ve years all industries will have IoT (2015,
p. 40), for which large volumes of information will be needed and generated. The majority consists of data that
will be generated through our personally identiable information and that through its treatment will generate
income for IoT companies. In addition, it expects that by the year 2020, between 26,000 and 100,000 million
devices will be connected as part of the IoT (2015, p.41). While the EU estimates that by the same year there
will be 6 billion connections in its territory that will use this technology. For its part, the EMF estimates that
by the year 2022, a trillion sensor networks will be embedded in the market (Hult, 2016). All these sensors will
contribute to generating and collecting more information about habits, our activities, tastes, feelings, bodies and
us will be reected in data. As a result, the whole volume of information will become increasingly valuable.
4 The World Bank denes digital dividends as: “the broader development benets derived from the use of digital technolo-
gies”; Cf. World Bank (2016, p. 2).
5 She also points out that when referring to Big Data it is possible to refer to the set of technologies used for the purpose of
measuring large amounts of information or data, using complex algorithms and statistics for the purpose of making predictions, ex-
tracting hidden information or relationships, favoring the taking of decisions; Cf. Garriga Domínguez (2016, p. 28). In the present
work, we use the rst meaning.
74
Anahiby Becerril
The value of our personal data in the Big Data
and the Internet of all Things Era
ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing
and Articial Intelligence Journal
Regular Issue, Vol. 7 N. 2 (2018), 71-80
eISSN: 2255-2863 - http://adcaij.usal.es
Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca - cc by nc dc
3. The Information We Generate
We create the 70% of the digital universe (Garriga Domínguez, 2016, p.29), through our daily interaction with
electronic media and services. In this perspective, the digital economy is based on the information that we all
generate, although we have not become aware of it.
In the Cisco Report “The Zettabyte Era-Trends and Analysis”, the company recognizes the dramatic growth
experienced by Internet trafc over the past two decades. In 1992, global Internet networks carried about 100
GB6 of trafc per day. Ten years later, in 2002, the sum was 100 gigabytes per second (GBps). In 2012, the sum
of global Internet trafc reached 12,000 GBps. Per capita; IP trafc reached 17 GB, up from 7 GB in 2013.
While Internet trafc reached 14 GB per capita in 2018, over 5 GB in 2013 (Cisco, 2016).
According to The Internet in Real Time7, approximately every 60 seconds, 1354440 GB of data is trans-
ferred through the Internet, which generates around 141,780 dollars of prots to the “Internet giants”8. Google
processes more than 24 petabytes9 of data a day, Facebook uploads 10 million photos every hour, and every sec-
ond 800 million users “upload” more than an hour of video (Mayer-Shónberger & Cukier, 2013, p. 19). Cisco
(2016) has estimated that global mobile data trafc grew by 47% by 2015. Reaching 3.7 Exabyte’s10 per month.
In 2015 more than half a trillion (563 million) of mobile devices and connections were added. Growing a total
of 7.9 billion, up from 7.3 billion in 2014. In its report Connected World Technology Report (CCWTR), the
company estimated that by the year 2015 large data centers would have stored 1.3 zettabytes11 of information
(2012).
And while the WB has acknowledged that more than 40% of the world’s population now has Internet access,
there are still 4 billion people worldwide who do not have access to this technology. However, the uncontested
task of having access to the Internet is one of the goals of the Sustainable Development Goals (ODS) (2016, p.
5). It is therefore estimated that in the coming years, almost the entire world population will be connected. So
we are talking about a huge amount of information that will be generated by us with the use of electronic de-
vices connected to the Internet. What will potentiate the scenario that Big Data and IoT poses, i.e. the existence
of more information about us.
At present we are constantly transmitting our coordinates, to our electronic devices we deliver our clicks,
which allows us to know that we still exist, that we are in constant activity and even measure the variations of
our behavior. This is why Big Data is the Holy Grail of behavioral knowledge (Mayer-Shónberger & Cukier,
2013, p. 100). Through data analysis, companies can design personalized advertising strategies for companies.
The search for the creation of better services and products is based on the proling that companies carry out
through our habits in the use of devices. For this reason, both the information obtained through social networks
and through the browsers can be used to offer publicity based on people and interests in a very effective way
(Suárez Sánchez-Ocana, p. 252).
We also contribute to generate prots through advertising campaigns based on user-generated content
(UGC), which allow companies to delegate some of the responsibilities of building a brand to their customers.
For example, with apps like Trip advisor, Yelp or Amazon, we give reviews and ratings on the quality of ser-
vices. The contents generated and consumed by users, involve a value, and it is through this that companies im-
prove services to consumers and position themselves with a better category within the market. In a study carried
out in 2012, it was determined that 66.3% of consumers in the United States based their purchase decision on
the reviews and recommendations of other users (MacKinnon, 2012, p. 18)12.
6 1 gigabyte (GB) is an information storage unit equivalent to 1,000,000,000-billion-bytes.
7 Vine. The Internet in Real Time, seen at: http://pennystocks.la/internet-in-real-time/ (Date of Consultation: June 5, 2016).
8 Vine. The Internet in Real Time, seen at: http://pennystocks.la/battle-of-internet-giants/ (Date of consultation: June 5, 2016).
9 1 petabyte (PB) is an information storage unit equivalent to 1015 (1,000,000,000,000,000) bytes.
10 1 exabyte (EB) is a unit of measure of data storage that is equivalent to 1018 bytes.
11 1 zettabyte (ZB) is an information storage unit equivalent to one trillion gigabytes.
12 Amazon proved to be the most popular website to view comments before buying products or services, 66.7% of respon-
dents attribute their review habits to the site. Travel sites were also very popular among participants, 42.1% of participants acknowl-
edged visiting these sites before determining vacation options (MacKinnon, 2012, p.18).
75
Anahiby Becerril
The value of our personal data in the Big Data
and the Internet of all Things Era
ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing
and Articial Intelligence Journal
Regular Issue, Vol. 7 N. 2 (2018), 71-80
eISSN: 2255-2863 - http://adcaij.usal.es
Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca - cc by nc dc
While the Local Consumer Review Survey of 2015 determined that 92% of consumers consult online re-
views before making a purchase (Anderson, 2015). For its part, the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB, 2016)
reported that 75.95% of users generate some response towards the brands that appear in their social network-
ing services. He also concluded that 20.53% of fans / followers suggest or recommend the brand they follow
through social networking services. Therefore, says the IAB: “rrss are already the channel of customer service
par excellence. They are not a channel of communication, they are a channel of attention” (2016). That is why
it is essential that as individuals we are aware of the economics of personal data and their relationship with the
options of use and treatment of them. It is necessary to appreciate all of our information, Big Data and IoT to
build a frame of reference for its proper use.
The Value of Our Personal Information
In 2014, Shawn Buckles addressed the problem around the monetary value of his information. He decided to
sell his data in an auction through the Internet. He received £ 288 from The Next Web page, for his information.
Among the information he put on the sale was: personal prole, conversations via email, online conversations,
his thoughts, consumer preferences and his web browsing history13. Referring to the causes for the auction, he
argued: “I’ve read that a person’s data is worth less than 50 cents at the moment, so I guess I’ve added a lot of
value to my data. On the other hand, I have sold my most intimate information. I do not know if there is any
amount for it “(Ehrenberg, 2014). And this was so, according to a report in The Financial Times, advertisers
were willing to pay $ 0.0005 per person for general information, such as their age, sex and location, or $ 0.50
for the same data of 1,000 people (Steel, Locke, Cadman, & Freese, 2013). In the year 2013 the newspaper
published on its website an interactive calculator14, which allows to explore the value of our data.
For the OECD, there is no commonly accepted method for estimating the value of personal data. Some
approaches are based on two aspects: (i) market valuations around personal data or other market-related medi-
cines; or (ii) individual perceptions of personal data and privacy (2013, p. 18). Regarding the rst, applications
created in personal data can provide quantiable benets for businesses of around € 330 billion per year by the
year 2020. Advertising Revenue Per User (ARPU), which for Google in the rst quarter of 2014 was as much
as 45 USD, shows the value of personal data, from online platforms, average. Google has achieved a constant
ARPU of more than 40 USD on average since the fourth quarter of 2012. For Facebook the ARPU was of 9.45
USD in 2014, 39% more than in 2013. In the year 2014 Facebook obtained revenues for 12,466 million Of
USD, of which 92%, or 11,468 million USD corresponded to advertising. While for the rst quarter of 2015
were 3.543 million USD (BBC, 2016). For Google, which has always been an important revenue generator, this
constitutes more than 90% of its total revenues in the last decade. Considering that in the year 2015 the com-
pany had revenues of 21.3 billion USD, of which 19,078 million correspond to advertising (Martínez, 2016).
While for our users, our personal data has the value of a Big Mac or we estimated it in 2013. In a study
carried out by Carrascal et al (2013), concerning a measurement on the value of the Personally Identiable
Information (PII) of web-browsing information, they came to this conclusion. By means of price auctions
for the data provided during the web browsing of 168 user subjects, who lived in Spain15, carried out for two
weeks, information assessments were extracted in different contexts (eight categories16). The results showed
that browsing history was valued at around € 7 (approximately USD 10). The age and address between 25 € or
36 USD. When it came to share PII in specic line services, users valued information relating to their nancial
transactions on social networks, rather than search and purchase activities. The results also showed that users
prefer PII goods, including money (32% - 37%) and service improvements (33% - 37%), followed by free ser-
vices (14% -18%), and directed advertising (3% - 7%). The results of this study showed that, within the most
13 Vine. Http://www.shawnbuckles.nl/dataforsale/ (Date of consultation June 20, 2016).
14 Vine. Http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/927ca86e-d29b-11e2-88ed-00144feab7de.html#axzz2z2agBB6R (Date of consultation
June 20, 2016)
15 Of the 168 study subjects, 94% were Spanish.
16 The categories on which the study was based were: e-mail, entertainment, nance, news, searches, shopping, social and
health. The categories used respond to the popular eight that the online ad-networks like Doubleclick used. Among the results were
also counted which of these categories were the most and least consulted, with the following results: Searches 82%, Entertainment:
82%, Social: 78%; News: 76%, nance: 75% Purchases: 75%; Email: 64%, Health: 2%.
76
Anahiby Becerril
The value of our personal data in the Big Data
and the Internet of all Things Era
ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing
and Articial Intelligence Journal
Regular Issue, Vol. 7 N. 2 (2018), 71-80
eISSN: 2255-2863 - http://adcaij.usal.es
Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca - cc by nc dc
valued information, the nancial and social, on the one of searches and purchases. The study has implications
for the monetization of personal information online, since its objective was based on the understanding of the
economic aspects of the PII.
Based on the study by Carrascal et al., Staiano et al. (2014) presented the results of a study carried out to
determine the monetary value that people assign to different types of PII while being collected by their mobile
phones, including Location and communication patterns. In this study we evaluated the PII corresponding to 4
categories: communications17, location18, media19 and apps20. Held in 6 weeks21, with 60 participants. An ad hoc
Java code was developed, which was scheduled to run every night on a secure server in order to automatically
generate personalized daily surveys for each participant22. Unlike the study by Carrascal et al, the results of the
Staiano et al study, resulted in an average of 2 € for the information. The information on location23 is the most
highly valued by users, in some cases the least auctioned (56%), followed by the media (24%), apps (18%) and
communications (2%).
More recently, according to a new survey of 5,000 consumers by digital storage company Western Digital,
the average consumer values their personal data at £ 3,241 (Curtis, 2016). That report shows that men tend to
rate their personal data higher than women, with the average male consumer placing a value of £ 4,174 on their
data, compared with £ 3,109 for women. However, women are less willing to “sell” their personal data, with
31% claiming their “priceless” data, compared to 23% of men.
4. Conclusions
Data that are related to or derived from us can not be considered value-neutral. Therefore, we rst need to be
aware of the simplicity with which our information is collected. Remember that we have become a data driven
society. Second, we need to become aware of the data itself and its implications. To leave the world of the tan-
gible, of the physical damages and to see towards the intangible thing and the repercussions that the treatment
of our personal information in us has.
We must consider that the voluntary delivery of our information is the price to pay for access and services,
but this will not always be the case. There are other possibilities. Today, data technologies allow us to be
empowered to be able to collect, store, manage, use and share our information in accordance with our own
standards of privacy, comfort and use. This is with the development of user-centred technologies as subject
of control and management of their personal data. In this sense, it has been recognized the importance of em-
powering individuals in a way that allows them to exercise decision making regarding the management of their
information (FEM, 2014, p.1). That is why the knowledge and creation of new tools that inform us about the
generation and collection of our data, as well as the practices used around them, are essential for the growth
of the digital market. As a result, studies and laboratories of Personal Data Stores (PDS) have been promoted.
These stores constitute a technology through which individuals sell their personal data to entities interested in
17 This was restricted to voice calls made / received, missed calls were discarded. For example, they were informed: “yester-
day you made / received 8 phone calls” or “Yesterday, you spoke on the phone with 3 different people”.
18 The individual location referred to a specic place that the participant had visited the previous day. In this way they were
informed: “yesterday, at 23:56 you were in Via Degli Orbi 4, Trento”. They were also informed about the total distance traveled
in previous days, such as: “yesterday you covered a total of 13 kms away.” In the same way it was considered a question about
location: “yesterday you were in 23 different places”
19 This measurement was made around the making of photographs at a specic time, for example: “Yesterday at 14:23, you
took a photograph”, or “yesterday you took 9 pictures”.
20 Running Applications The individual variable includes the date and time and the name of the application running in the
foreground. Some of the questions related to this information were: “Yesterday, at 10:23 you were using Firefox Browser”; “Last
night, the Google Talk app was used on your device for 82 minutes,” and “yesterday 8 applications were used on your device”
21 The study was conducted between the weeks of October 28 to December 11 of 2013.
22 Each day at 12 pm participants received an SMS message reminding them of the completion of their survey.
23 Within the study it was determined that users consider the information about their location as the most sensitive. Within
the explanations they indicated: “I do not like the idea of being geo-located”, “This type of information is very detailed and very
personal”.
77
Anahiby Becerril
The value of our personal data in the Big Data
and the Internet of all Things Era
ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing
and Articial Intelligence Journal
Regular Issue, Vol. 7 N. 2 (2018), 71-80
eISSN: 2255-2863 - http://adcaij.usal.es
Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca - cc by nc dc
purchasing them. Its system is based on an effective and explicit informed consent, developed through adequate
protection systems, infrastructure and services (Zhang, 2015, p.16). An example of this is the multi-disciplinary
project promoted by the Research Council’s UK Digital Economy Program, called The HAT: Hub of All Things.
The HAT is the rst multifunctional technology platform in the market, installed in houses, that allows to mar-
ket with personal data by customized products and future services (UW, 2015). This platform is completely
controlled by individuals (Ng, 2014, p.7), allowing them to market their contextualized personal information
to other stakeholders, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity for companies to understand the context
that inuences decision making by the consumers. This platform, launched in June 2014, collects information
and analyzes the data generated by a group of volunteers, called digital persons zeros (DP0s). Through sen-
sors placed in the objects of their homes, that is, through the IoT, information is collected and integrated with
other personal data. The purpose of the project is to discover in depth how we live our lives in relation to the
experience with the things and people around us. All data collected by the HAT is owned by the person. By
this, the HAT turned into the rst digital vault of personal data available as a digital asset for the trade of future
personalized products (UW, 2015).
The EU has emphasized that building user condence is key to economic development, recognizing the need
for a more comprehensive and coherent policy on the fundamental right to personal data protection. This has
been reected with the approval of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). This Regulation ensures
a single set of applicable rules, which provide a regulatory framework that encourages the development of the
PDS, namely: Article 5, regarding the principles regarding the processing of personal data, related to the legality
of the established treatment In Art. 6; Article 7, which claries the conditions for the validity of consent as the
legal basis for data processing, is particularly relevant for a PDS system, where its treatment is most likely to be
based on consent; Article 9, which establishes the general prohibition for the treatment of special categories of
personal data (sensitive data) and exceptions to this general rule, based on Article 8 of the European Directive
95/46 / EC. Article 17 on the right of cancellation, and Article 18 on the right of portability are particularly rel-
evant for a PDS provider, and for any public entity that tries to facilitate the adoption of a PDS, because a data
management model User-centric could enable the full and informed exercise of these rights in an unprecedented
way. However, if such rights are to be fully exercised, interoperability between systems is essential.
The era of Big Data and IoT will bring with it new challenges regarding the use and value of our infor-
mation. As a consequence of this and to promote the digital economy and the growing data ecosystem, it is
necessary for users and individuals to understand how we understand and interact with our information. This
power should not be left only in the hands of companies and the lex mercatoria. The better we understand how
we relate to our environment in different contexts, we can use this information for better decision-making and
improve our lives. In addition, we must be able to decide, effectively, what information we generate we want to
share and what not. Becoming aware of the fact and consequences of collecting our data, as well as its monetary
value, is the rst benecial step toward empowering our information.
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and Articial Intelligence Journal
Regular Issue, Vol. 7 N. 2 (2018), 71-80
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Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca - cc by nc dc
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... BT has been created with the intention of replacing the current, centralized financial system. In [60][61][62][63][64][65] it is claimed that BT is capable of replacing intermediaries while ensuring the security of platforms. But, although BT offer resistance to traditional cyberattacks, as it gains widespread adoption, they are being developed new attacks specifically for hacking it [66]. ...
... The most used approach in this kind of systems is the one in which the blockchain is not stored inside the IoT devices, rather used as a service from outside the IoT network. This is due to IoT devices being resources-constrained, while the use of a blockchain normally involves the use of many computational resources and bandwidth [51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63]. ...
Chapter
The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians, from both academic and business areas, is essential in order to ease the development of systems which can meet the demands of today’s society. Technology transfer in this field is still a challenge and, for that reason, this type of contributions are notably considered in this compilation. This book brings in discussions and publications concerning the development of innovative techniques of IoT complex problems. The technical program focuses both on high quality and diversity, with contributions in well-established and evolving areas of research. Specifically, 10 chapters were submitted to this book. The editors particularly encouraged and welcomed contributions on AI and distributed computing in IoT applications. The editors are specially grateful for the funding supporting by the project “Virtual-Ledgers-Tecnologías DLT/Blockchain y Cripto-IOT sobre organizaciones virtuales de agentes ligeros y su aplicación en la eficiencia en el transporte de última milla”, ID SA267P18, financed by regional government of Castilla y León and FEDER funds.
... Not to mention that the bandwidth and reliability of the current network would be threatened by its ability to support a large number of vehicles in a single area. In this case, data needs to be processed at the edge for shorter response time, more efficient processing and less network pressure [48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55]. ...
Chapter
The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians, from both academic and business areas, is essential in order to ease the development of systems which can meet the demands of today’s society. Technology transfer in this field is still a challenge and, for that reason, this type of contributions are notably considered in this compilation. This book brings in discussions and publications concerning the development of innovative techniques of IoT complex problems. The technical program focuses both on high quality and diversity, with contributions in well-established and evolving areas of research. Specifically, 10 chapters were submitted to this book. The editors particularly encouraged and welcomed contributions on AI and distributed computing in IoT applications. The editors are specially grateful for the funding supporting by the project “Virtual-Ledgers-Tecnologías DLT/Blockchain y Cripto-IOT sobre organizaciones virtuales de agentes ligeros y su aplicación en la eficiencia en el transporte de última milla”, ID SA267P18, financed by regional government of Castilla y León and FEDER funds.
... The BB84 protocol is considered the first quantum key distribution protocol. It was proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 [36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]. It uses quantum properties. ...
Chapter
The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians, from both academic and business areas, is essential in order to ease the development of systems which can meet the demands of today’s society. Technology transfer in this field is still a challenge and, for that reason, this type of contributions are notably considered in this compilation. This book brings in discussions and publications concerning the development of innovative techniques of IoT complex problems. The technical program focuses both on high quality and diversity, with contributions in well-established and evolving areas of research. Specifically, 10 chapters were submitted to this book. The editors particularly encouraged and welcomed contributions on AI and distributed computing in IoT applications. The editors are specially grateful for the funding supporting by the project “Virtual-Ledgers-Tecnologías DLT/Blockchain y Cripto-IOT sobre organizaciones virtuales de agentes ligeros y su aplicación en la eficiencia en el transporte de última milla”, ID SA267P18, financed by regional government of Castilla y León and FEDER funds.
... Unlike the largest economies, such as Germany or the United States, some countries in the European Union have not been able to take advantage of all the benefits offered by the so-called digital revolution. The crisis in 2008 made governments implement austere fiscal policies which reduced spending on research and development [42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50] and business investment. Nevertheless, the situation changed noticeably in 2014. ...
Chapter
The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians, from both academic and business areas, is essential in order to ease the development of systems which can meet the demands of today’s society. Technology transfer in this field is still a challenge and, for that reason, this type of contributions are notably considered in this compilation. This book brings in discussions and publications concerning the development of innovative techniques of IoT complex problems. The technical program focuses both on high quality and diversity, with contributions in well-established and evolving areas of research. Specifically, 10 chapters were submitted to this book. The editors particularly encouraged and welcomed contributions on AI and distributed computing in IoT applications. The editors are specially grateful for the funding supporting by the project “Virtual-Ledgers-Tecnologías DLT/Blockchain y Cripto-IOT sobre organizaciones virtuales de agentes ligeros y su aplicación en la eficiencia en el transporte de última milla”, ID SA267P18, financed by regional government of Castilla y León and FEDER funds.
... Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been applied in the clinic for more than two decades, but even so, the fundamental mechanisms underlying the improvement that the procedure induces in epilepsy are not entirely clear, so it is essential to continue research on the subject [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Chapter
The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians, from both academic and business areas, is essential in order to ease the development of systems which can meet the demands of today’s society. Technology transfer in this field is still a challenge and, for that reason, this type of contributions are notably considered in this compilation. This book brings in discussions and publications concerning the development of innovative techniques of IoT complex problems. The technical program focuses both on high quality and diversity, with contributions in well-established and evolving areas of research. Specifically, 10 chapters were submitted to this book. The editors particularly encouraged and welcomed contributions on AI and distributed computing in IoT applications. The editors are specially grateful for the funding supporting by the project “Virtual-Ledgers-Tecnologías DLT/Blockchain y Cripto-IOT sobre organizaciones virtuales de agentes ligeros y su aplicación en la eficiencia en el transporte de última milla”, ID SA267P18, financed by regional government of Castilla y León and FEDER funds.
... Routing service is a routing application that provide recommended, shortest and fastest routes in interactive onscreen map [72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80]. Users simply can route and manage their routes. ...
Chapter
The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians, from both academic and business areas, is essential in order to ease the development of systems which can meet the demands of today’s society. Technology transfer in this field is still a challenge and, for that reason, this type of contributions are notably considered in this compilation. This book brings in discussions and publications concerning the development of innovative techniques of IoT complex problems. The technical program focuses both on high quality and diversity, with contributions in well-established and evolving areas of research. Specifically, 10 chapters were submitted to this book. The editors particularly encouraged and welcomed contributions on AI and distributed computing in IoT applications. The editors are specially grateful for the funding supporting by the project “Virtual-Ledgers-Tecnologías DLT/Blockchain y Cripto-IOT sobre organizaciones virtuales de agentes ligeros y su aplicación en la eficiencia en el transporte de última milla”, ID SA267P18, financed by regional government of Castilla y León and FEDER funds.
... The combination of these findings suggests that together, both awareness and personal valuation of information can encourage users to protect their privacy and information online. Thus, becoming aware of personal data collection and the consequences of this, together with an understanding of the importance and value data has in the digital economy, is the first step towards empowerment (Becerril, 2018). ...
Article
Purpose Social media has created a new level of interconnected communication. However, the use of online platforms brings about various ways in which a user’s personal data can be put at risk. This study aims to investigate what drives the disclosure of personal information online and whether an increase in awareness of the value of personal information motivates users to safeguard their information. Design/methodology/approach Fourteen university students participated in a mixed-methods experiment, where responses to Likert-type scale items were combined with responses to interview questions to provide insight into the cost–benefit analysis users conduct when disclosing information online. Findings Overall, the findings indicate that users are able to disregard their concerns due to a resigned and apathetic attitude towards privacy. Furthermore, subjective norms enhanced by fear of missing out (FOMO) further allows users to overlook potential risks to their information in order to avoid social isolation and sanction. Alternatively, an increased awareness of the personal value of information and having experienced a previous privacy violation encourage the protection of information and limited disclosure. Originality/value This study provides insight into privacy and information disclosure on social media in South Africa. To the knowledge of the researchers, this is the first study to include a combination of the theory of planned behaviour and the privacy calculus model, together with the antecedent factors of personal valuation of information, trust in the social media provider, FOMO.
Article
Full-text available
The article is devoted to the research of the problematic aspects and modern challenges of data protection in the digital age from the perspective of the digital integrity of the person. We believe that personal data cannot be effectively protected as components of digital integrity of the person in the context of regulation of a separate right to personal data protection, which, in its turn, acts more as a tool of market regulation rather than a classical fundamental right. We argue that the consideration of digital integrity as a new foundation for digital rights and as a new manifestation of the restrictive concept of human dignity may help increase the level of effective protection of the person in the digital sphere as well as properly cover the existing gaps in the protection of the digital rights of the person.
Chapter
The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians, from both academic and business areas, is essential in order to ease the development of systems which can meet the demands of today’s society. Technology transfer in this field is still a challenge and, for that reason, this type of contributions are notably considered in this compilation. This book brings in discussions and publications concerning the development of innovative techniques of IoT complex problems. The technical program focuses both on high quality and diversity, with contributions in well-established and evolving areas of research. Specifically, 10 chapters were submitted to this book. The editors particularly encouraged and welcomed contributions on AI and distributed computing in IoT applications. The editors are specially grateful for the funding supporting by the project “Virtual-Ledgers-Tecnologías DLT/Blockchain y Cripto-IOT sobre organizaciones virtuales de agentes ligeros y su aplicación en la eficiencia en el transporte de última milla”, ID SA267P18, financed by regional government of Castilla y León and FEDER funds.
Chapter
Over the past five years the Internet of Things (IoT) technology has grown rapidly, finding application in several sectors. It plays an important role in environmental monitoring. This research proposal aims to develop a Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle (ROUV) for the evaluation and monitoring of marine environments.
Article
Texto que aborda teórica y jurídicamente los retos que supone la conciliación del derecho ciudadano a la información y la transparencia administrativa, con el derecho a la intimidad y la protección de los datos personales que asiste a todo sujeto. El abordaje se ocupa del ámbito internacional, iberoamericano y mexicano, en ese orden.
The Second Machine Age. Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a time of Brilliant Technologies
  • E Brynjolfsson
  • A Mcafee
Brynjolfsson, E., & Mcafee, A., 2016, The Second Machine Age. Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a time of Brilliant Technologies, Norton, New York.
  • S Buckles
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  • Data
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How much is your personal data worth?
  • S Curtis
Curtis, S., How much is your personal data worth?, The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/ news/12012191/How-much-is-your-personal-data-worth.html (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)
How much is your personal data worth?
  • B Ehrenberg
Ehrenberg, B., 2014, How much is your personal data worth?, The Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/ news/datablog/2014/apr/22/how-much-is-personal-data-worth (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)
Advancing the Internet of Things in Europe. Digitising European Industry. Reaping the full benefits of a Digital Single Market
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EUROPEAN COMISSION, COM (2016) 180. Advancing the Internet of Things in Europe. Digitising European Industry. Reaping the full benefits of a Digital Single Market. European Comission, Brussels, 2016.