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MOVEMENTS AND HABITAT USE OF RIVER DOLPHINS (CETARTIODACTYLA: INIIDAE) IN THE AMAZON AND ORINOCO RIVER BASINS, DETERMINED FROM SATELLITE TAGGING

Authors:

Abstract

Satellite telemetry is a valuable tool to identify the movement patterns and habitat use of river dolphins in South America. A total of 15 dolphins of the genus Inia were tagged in the rivers Tapajós (Brazil), Amazon and Orinoco (Colombia) and San Martín (Bolivia) with transmitters Spot 299A and Spot F-368, connected by Argos satellite (Wildlife Computers, Redmond, WA, USA). This study is the first to identify patterns of movement and habitat use of I.g.geoffrensis, I.g. humboldtiana and I. boliviensis using this type of technology in the broader Amazon region. The results show that the largest displacements were conducted by I. boliviensis, where a male individual managed to move 333.7 km between the rivers San Martín and Iténez in Bolivia, followed by one male of I.g.geoffrensis marked in the Tapajós river (85 km), a female I.g.geoffrensis tagged in the Colombian Amazon (78.8 km) and lastly an I.g. humboldtiana, with a displacement of 48.8 km. These results show long differential transboundary movements between the subspecies studied as a result of spatial heterogeneity, water types, system productivity, biomass, and a differential use of habitats. Finally, the importance of the confluences, small tributaries and wetland complexes within the protected areas, such as the national and departmental natural parks Juruena (Brazil), Iténez (Bolivia), Amacayacú and the Tarapoto Ramsar site (Colombia) is highlighted.
Mosquera Guerra, Federico, Trujillo Fernando, Oliveira-da-Costa Marcelo, Marmontel
Miriam, Van Damme Paul A, Carvajal-Castro Juan David, Mantilla- Meluk Hugo, Franco
Nicole, & Armenteras-Pascual Dolors.
© Luis Barreto
Context
González-Carmen et al. 2016
Wells et al. 2017
Context
Bonetti et al. 2016
Context
Christel et al. 2012
Context
Largest diversity of river dolphins on the
planet
Cetaceans most threatened on the planet
Context
Hydroelectric
110-142
99-160 Planned
7 Construction
4 Operation
Wildlife Computers Proprietary Drawing
N
ot to be reproduced, copied, or used as the basis
for manufacture or sale without written permission.
5.4 TYP
38.4
60.4
82.5
TRIM TO SUIT
APPLICATION
WET/DRY SENSOR
PRESSURE SENSOR
EXTERNAL
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
ARGOS ANTENNA
(length not to scale)
SCALE 1:1
Wildlife Computers
DIMENSION (L x W x H)
mm
g
m
Finmount
ATTACHMENT
212 x 21 x 31
89
2000
SPLASH10-268D, Single-point Finmount,
268D, 2-Lay
PRESSURE RESISTANCE
WEIGHT IN AIR
A
SIZE
DRAWN
NAME
DWG. NO.
REV.
-
SCALE: 2:3
SHEET 1 OF 1
DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
AM-A268D-A-00
ZTV
16-Jul-14
DATE
Spot 299A
A
B
C
Material and Methods
A. Capture; B. Transfer; C. Veterinary
evaluation.
© Luis Barreto
© Luis Barreto
© Luis Barreto
C
D
E
Material and Methods
C. Roles; D. Hydration; E. Sedation and
Sampling.
© Luis Barreto
© Luis Barreto
© Luis Barreto
F
G
H
Material and Methods
F. Installation of the Tag; G. Hydration;
H. Stabilization and liberation.
© Luis Barreto
© Luis Barreto
© Luis Barreto
Material and Methods
Brasil
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Brasil 40663 54,4 12/01/18 23/01/18 1054
Results
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Brasil 40681 87,0 25/12/17 27/01/18 2194
Results
Brasil
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Brasil 40687 70,5 18/10/17 18/11/17 327
Results
Brasil
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Brasil 40693 46,9 19/11/17 14/12/17 497
Results
Brasil
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Brasil 171926 85,0 1/01/18 6/02/18 550
Results
Brasil
Bolivia
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Bolivia 40674 333,7 2/12/17 20/12/17 1184
Results
Bolivia
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Bolivia 40662 114,1 1/12/17 3/01/18 1259
Results
Bolivia
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Bolivia 40644 4,8 1/12/17 1/12/17 15
Results
Bolivia
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Bolivia 40640 192,3 14/01/18 26/01/18 1057
Results
Bolivia
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Bolivia 171928 113,1 2/12/17 15/02/18 1060
Results
Colombia
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Colombia
40679 78,8 10/11/17 4/12/17 2567
Results
Colombia
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Colombia
40641 48,8 27/02/18 9/03/18 57
Results
Colombia
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Colombia
40691 12,9 20/02/18 12/03/18 199
Results
Colombia
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Colombia
40688 19,9 17/02/18 25/02/18 399
Results
Colombia
Country PTT ID Length
Km First
emission
!
Last
emission Number of
emissions
Colombia
171929 14,3 4/03/18 9/03/18 59
Results
Results
Colombia
78.8 km 110.3 km
ascent
waters descent
waters
The rivers
Motors of the
Diversity of
Species in
the Amazon
Wetlands in Amazon
1980 = 2-4%
2015 = 12-14%
980.000 km2
Mainland
www.aguasamazonicas.org!!|!WCS!!|!
Discussion
Of!colors!=!Wetlands!
www.aguasamazonicas.org!!|!WCS!!|!
GIS$–Classification!of!Amazonian!rivers!
$$
www.aguasamazonicas.org!!|!WCS!!|!
Large movements inter-borders different
between the species due to the territory
heterogeneity, biomass, water types and
different use of the habitats and genre.
More movement of I boliviensis (black
waters), then of Inia geoffrensis (white
water, Amazon) and less of Inia
geoffrensis (clear waters, Tapajos).
Frequent use of the protected areas with
focus on conservation (PNN and Ramsar
sites).
The river dolphin needs clean, trans-
borders, connected and protected
habitats.
Protected areas are very important for
the conservation.
Conclusions
© Luis Barreto
© Jaime Rojo
Acknowledgments$!
This research was conducted as part of the South
America River Dolphins Conservation Programme,
sponsored by the Whitley Fund for Nature, Foundation
Segré, and Colciencias through the National Doctorate
Scholarship 785. It is part of the strategic plan set by
the South American River Dolphin Initiative, supported
by WWF offices in Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and
Bolivia. Special gratitude goes to Saulo Usma, Diego
Amorocho, Daphne Willems, Lila Sainz, Jorge Rivas,
Jose Luis Mena, and Karina Berg from the WWF
network. The authors would also like to express their
gratitude to the fishing communities, and the local and
national authorities who participated and gave their aid
and attention to the strandings and the process of
capture of river dolphins during the satellite tracking
programme, aiming to study the ecology of movement
in the Amazon and Orinoquia river basins.
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