Demands in Wireless Power Transfer of both Artificial Intelligence and Industry 4.0 for Greater Autonomy

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There are many autonomous applications in daily life and they are limited only by our engineering. It is critical barrier for Industry 4.0 to make efficient communication between all physical objects to transfer of information and power in today's technology. This paper presents the efficient wireless energy transfer methods for different applications which is already used and will be widely used for Artificial Intelligence technology. After the review of historical background, mostly used inductive coupling and capacitive coupling methods in Artificial Intelligence and their importance related with Industry 4.0 applications are demonstrated. Energy transfer demands for radio frequency identification (RFID) application are discussed with the definition of backscatter coupling. Finally, using wireless communication and power transfer methods for greater autonomy is investigated.

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Wireless power transfer technologies typically include inductive coupling, magnetic resonance, and capacitive coupling methods. Among these methods, capacitive coupling wireless power transfer (CCWPT) has been studied to overcome the drawbacks of other approaches. CCWPT has many advantages such as having a simple structure, low standing power loss, reduced electromagnetic interference (EMI) and the ability to transfer power through metal barriers. In this paper, the CCWPT system with 6.78MHz class D inverter is proposed and analyzed. The proposed system consists of a 6.78MHz class D inverter with a LC low pass filter, capacitor between a transmitter and a receiver, and impedance transformers. The system is verified with a prototype for charging mobile devices.
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On-line monitoring of polymer melt state is critical to ensuring part quality in injection molding. This paper presents the design of a dual-parameter acoustic wireless sensor for simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature variations within the mold cavity. The sensor consists of three major functional components: a piezoceramic energy harvester, a modulator circuit, and an electric-acoustic signal converter. It discretizes pressure and temperature variations during the molding cycle into a number of acoustic pulses with varying carrier frequencies, and transmits them to an remote receiver for data retrieval. To minimize sensor dimension and optimize functionality, the mechanical and electronic portions of the sensor are concurrently designed as a mechatronic system. The sensor is prototyped and evaluated on a production grade injection molding machine. Good agreement is found between the new, wireless sensor and traditional wired sensors.
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This paper introduces a very high frequency (VHF) capacitive wireless power transfer architecture capable of achieving very high power transfer densities and high efficiencies. High power density is achieved using an operating frequency of 100 MHz and through appropriate design of matching networks. High efficiency is achieved using a custom designed half-bridge GaN chip with integrated gate drivers. To validate performance of the proposed architecture, a prototype capacitive wireless power transfer system is built and tested. Experimental results demonstrate that the system transfers 2.5 W of power across a 1 pF capacitive interface at a very high power transfer density of 1.1 W/mm 2 , at close to 90% efficiency.
The highly efficient operation of power amplifier can be obtained by applying biharmonic or polyharmonic modes when an additional single-resonant or multi-resonant circuit tuned to the odd harmonics of the fundamental frequency is added into the load network. An infinite number of odd-harmonic resonators result in an idealized Class-F mode with a square voltage waveform and a half-sinusoidal current waveform at the device output terminal. In Class-F power amplifiers analyzed in frequency domain, the fundamental and harmonic load impedances are optimized by short-circuit termination and open-circuit peaking to control the voltage and current waveforms at the device output to obtain maximum efficiency. This chapter analyzes different Class-F techniques using lumped and transmission-line elements, including a quarter-wave transmission line. The effect of the saturation resistance and parasitic shunt capacitance is demonstrated in the chapter. The design examples and practical radio frequency (RF) and microwave Class-F power amplifiers are discussed in the chapter.
The capacitive power transfer (CPT) system and inductively power transfer (IPT) system are the two typical wireless power transfer systems. Based on the power transfer characteristics, the power transfer capacity of the two wireless power transfer systems were analyzed. Firstly, the maximum power transfer capacity and its existing condition of the two wireless power transfer systems were analyzed, and the choose gist of wireless power transfer system was presented according to the analysis result; then, the mutual inductance of 4 typical IPT systems was optimized for achieving maximum power transfer; finally, the theoretical research was justified via a simulation and experiment.
The development of capacitive power transfer (CPT) as a competitive wireless/contactless power transfer solution over short distances is proving viable in both consumer and industrial electronic products/systems. The CPT is usually applied in low-power applications, due to small coupling capacitance. Recent research has increased the coupling capacitance from the pF to the nF scale, enabling extension of CPT to kilowatt power level applications. This paper addresses the need of efficient power electronics suitable for CPT at higher power levels, while remaining cost effective. Therefore, to reduce the cost and losses single-switch-single-diode topologies are investigated. Four single active switch CPT topologies based on the canonical Ćuk, SEPIC, Zeta, and Buck-boost converters are proposed and investigated. Performance tradeoffs within the context of a CPT system are presented and corroborated with experimental results. A prototype single active switch converter demonstrates 1-kW power transfer at a frequency of 200 kHz with >90% efficiency.
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Wireless power transmission is a promising technology which attracts attention in many fields and products. With mobile electronic products being prevalent, such as cellphones and PDAs, removing the power cord becomes a natural progression of achieving the ultimate mobility of the product. Wireless chargers for Electric Vehicles (EVs) would also be a convenient feature, avoiding any need to remember to plug in a power cord after parking the vehicle. Additional safety advantages may also be achieved due to eliminating exposed contacts. Nevertheless, wireless charging for EV is an application requiring high electrical power (up to hundreds of kilowatts) and larger area of wireless power transmission which increases electromagnetic field exposure. Thus, application of wireless charging to an EV requires a comprehensive analysis to ensure consumer safety. This paper focuses on the safety considerations of wireless charging for EVs, including potential electrical shock hazards, magnetic field exposure hazards, fire hazards, etc. It provides a historical background of wireless charging, particularly for EVs. It also reviews two potential technologies applicable to wireless charging of EVs. The concept of Hazard Based Safety Engineering (HBSE) is applied to the problem and UL's training's program is introduced.
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In wireless power systems for charging battery-operated devices, the selection of component values guaranteeing certain desired performance characteristics can be a tedious trial-and-error process, either sweeping component values in circuit simulations or changing components by hand. This difficulty is compounded by the variable nature of the load resistance presented by a device under charge. This brief considers component selection for a specific wireless power system architecture, which is an open-loop class-e inverter using a series-parallel arrangement for load impedance transformation. Formulas for the optimal receiver, transmitter, and class-e components are derived given a set of constraints on the resistance, phase, quality factor, and drain voltage waveform. Using a 16 cm times 18 cm primary and a 4 cm times 5 cm secondary coil, the derived formulas are used to build a wireless power system. We show that the system has desirable performance characteristics, including a power delivery of over 3.7 W, peak efficiency of over 66%, and decreasing power delivery with increasing load resistance.
RF wireless interface enables remotely-powered implantable devices. Current studies in wireless power transmission into biological tissue tend to operate below 10 MHz due to tissue absorption loss, which results in large receive antennas. This paper examines the range of frequencies that will optimize the tradeoff between received power and tissue absorption. It first models biological tissue as a dispersive dielectric in a homogeneous medium and performs full-wave analysis to show that the optimal frequency is above 1 GHz for small receive coil and typical transmit-receive separations. Then, it includes the air-tissue interface and models human body as a planarly layered medium. The optimal frequency is shown to remain in the GHz-range. Finally, electromagnetic simulations are performed to include the effect of load impedance and look at the matched power gain. The optimal frequency is in the GHz-range for mm-sized transmit antenna and shifts to the sub-GHz range for cm-sized transmit antenna. The multiple orders of magnitude increase in the operating frequency enables dramatic miniaturization of implantable devices.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an integral part of our life, which increases productivity and convenience. It is the term coined for short-range radio technology used to communicate mainly digital information between a stationary location and a movable object or between movable objects. This RFID system uses the principle of modulated backscatter where it can transfer the data from the tag to the reader. The tag generally reads its internal memory of stored data and changes the loading on the tag antenna in a coded manner corresponding to the stored data. RFID is a technology, which spans systems engineering, software development, encryption etc., and thus there are many engineers involved in the development and application of RFID and at present the shortage of technical and business people trained in RFID is hampering the growth of the industry.
This article discusses the basics of passive RFID technologies, with an emphasis on tags, for general readers and entry- level practitioners. Following a brief history of RFID, it describes the types of tags and their operation, and regulations and frequency ranges. It then presents representative applications and describes the major technical hurdles still to be overcome before the adoption of RFID can be widespread, and offers a vision of the technology's future.
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