ArticleLiterature Review

Effects of Mind‐Body Exercises on Cognitive Function in Older Adults: A Meta‐Analysis

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Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Mind‐body exercise has positive effects on cognitive performance, according to clinical observation and experts’ recommendations. However, its potential benefits for the cognitive function of aging adults are uncertain and still lack systematic estimations. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis to evaluate the overall efficacy and effectiveness of mind‐body exercises for cognitive performance in aging individuals with or without cognitive impairment. DESIGN A systematic review and meta‐analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS We searched related trials through June 2018 from four databases: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO (all via Ovid), and the Cochrane Library/Central Register of Controlled Trials. MEASUREMENTS Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A meta‐analysis of comparative effects was performed using Review Manager v.5.3 software, and publication bias was examined using Egger's test. RESULTS A total of 32 randomized controlled trials with 3624 participants were ultimately included in this meta‐analysis. The results revealed that mind‐body exercises as a whole had benefits in improving global cognition compared with that of the control group (mean difference [MD] = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33‐1.51; p = .002) and were more effective than control interventions in promoting cognitive flexibility (MD = −8.80; 95% CI = −15.22 to −2.38; p = .007), working memory (MD = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.01‐0.64; p = .05), verbal fluency (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.09‐0.45; p = .003), and learning (SMD = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.10‐0.39; p = .001) on cognitively intact or impaired older adults. In dose‐subgroup analysis, only moderate exercise intensity (60‐120 min per week) significantly increased global cognition scores compared with those of the control group (MD = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.34‐1.97; p = .006). CONCLUSION Mind‐body exercises, especially tai chi and dance mind‐body exercise, are beneficial for improving global cognition, cognitive flexibility, working memory, verbal fluency, and learning in cognitively intact or impaired older adults. Moderate intensity is recommended as the optimal dose for older adults.

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... These cognitive and physical exercise demands may exert synergistic effects on brain structural and functional adaptations as well as on cognition, indicating an advantage for combined training against isolated training of either physical or cognitive functions (Lauenroth et al., 2016;Joubert and Chainay, 2018). Indeed, meta-analytic results have recently synthesized simultaneous motor-cognitive training to be the most effective type of training for improving cognitive functioning in HOA (Chen et al., 2020;Gavelin et al., 2021) and older adults with mNCD (Wu et al., 2019;Biazus-Sehn et al., 2020;Gavelin et al., 2021). This is also evidenced by slightly superior effects of exergames on cognitive functioning when compared to physically or cognitively active control interventions (Howes et al., 2017;Stanmore et al., 2017;Wang et al., 2019). ...
... When considering specific training types, aerobic and multicomponent physical training were shown to be beneficial training types (Groot et al., 2015;Panza et al., 2018;Sanders et al., 2019;Law et al., 2020), while cognitively engaging training appears to have the strongest effect on cognition (Lauenroth et al., 2016;Howes et al., 2017;Levin et al., 2017;Stanmore et al., 2017;Joubert and Chainay, 2018;van Santen et al., 2018;Stojan and Voelcker-Rehage, 2019;Wang et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2019;Biazus-Sehn et al., 2020;Chen et al., 2020;Gallou-Guyot et al., 2020;Mansor et al., 2020;Zhu et al., 2020;Gavelin et al., 2021). These findings are consistent with the 'guided-plasticity facilitation' framework (Fabel and Kempermann, 2008;Kempermann et al., 2010;Herold et al., 2018): Acute physical exercise is assumed to enhance brain metabolism and promote neuroplastic processes, whereas these changes in brain plasticity are guided by cognitive stimulation (Fabel and Kempermann, 2008;Kempermann et al., 2010;Joubert and Chainay, 2018). ...
... Multiple meta-analyses in HOA have synthesized evidence for significant improvements in executive functions (Howes et al., 2017;Chen et al., 2020;Mansor et al., 2020) and working memory (Mansor et al., 2020) in response to sequential or simultaneous motor-cognitive training while the evidence for global cognition [i.e., improvement (Stanmore et al., 2017;Northey et al., 2018;Chen et al., 2020;Zhu et al., 2020;Gavelin et al., 2021) vs. no effect (Wu et al., 2019)] and learning and memory {i.e., mixed findings [improvement in updating memory but no effect on delayed memory (Mansor et al., 2020)]} remains conflicting, and no significant effects were synthesized for complex attention (Vaportzis et al., 2019;Mansor et al., 2020), and verbal fluency (Stanmore et al., 2017). Additionally, improvements in balance (Howes et al., 2017;Pacheco et al., 2020) and functional exercise capacity (Howes et al., 2017) have been synthesized while the evidence for mobility remains conflicting [i.e., improvement (Pacheco et al., 2020;Gavelin et al., 2021) vs. no effect (Howes et al., 2017)] and no significant effects have been synthesized for activities of daily living (Corregidor-Sánchez et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Background: Utilizing information technology (IT) systems, for example in form of computerized cognitive screening or exergame-based (also called active videogames) training, has gained growing interest for supporting healthy aging and to detect, prevent and treat neurocognitive disorders (NCD). To ameliorate the effectiveness of exergaming, the neurobiological mechanisms as well as the most effective components for exergame-based training remain to be established. At the same time, it is important to account for the end-users’ capabilities, preferences, and therapeutic needs during the design and development process to foster the usability and acceptance of the resulting program in clinical practice. This will positively influence adherence to the resulting exergame-based training program, which, in turn, favors more distinct training-related neurobiological effects. Objectives and Methods: This methodological paper describes the design and development process of novel exergame-based training concepts guided by a recently proposed methodological framework: The ‘Multidisciplinary Iterative Design of Exergames (MIDE): A Framework for Supporting the Design, Development, and Evaluation of Exergames for Health’ (Li et al., 2020). Case Study: A step-by-step application of the MIDE-framework as a specific guidance in an ongoing project aiming to design, develop, and evaluate an exergame-based training concept with the aim to halt and/or reduce cognitive decline and improve quality of life in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder (mNCD) is illustrated. Discussion and Conclusion: The development of novel exergame-based training concepts is greatly facilitated when it is based on a theoretical framework (e.g., the MIDE-framework). Applying this framework resulted in a structured, iterative, and evidence-based approach that led to the identification of multiple key requirements for the exergame design as well as the training components that otherwise may have been overlooked or neglected. This is expected to foster the usability and acceptance of the resulting exergame intervention in “real life” settings. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to implement a theoretical framework (e.g., the MIDE-framework) for future research projects in line with well-known checklists to improve completeness of reporting and replicability when serious games for motor-cognitive rehabilitation purposes are to be developed.
... The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England recommends dancing as an intervention for dementia (Lyons et al., 2018). Literature shows that dancebased interventions as a mind-body movement can improve the cognitive function among aging adults (Wu et al., 2019), or persons with MCI (Chan et al., 2020;Hewston et al., 2020), and dementia (Lyons et al., 2018;Mabire et al., 2018). Regarding global cognition, dance-based interventions are more effective than physical exercises among persons with MCI, and more effective than combined training of cognitive and physical exercise among persons with cognitive impairments (Wang et al., 2018). ...
... Literature also highlights the advantages of dance-based interventions which include multidimensional components (Bruyneel, 2019), showing that it could effectively deal with the complexity of symptoms (Karkou and Meekums, 2017) and with no adverse effects (Bruyneel, 2019). They can also relieve depression and anxiety for persons with neurocognitive disorders from physical, psychological and other dimensions by adopting mind-body movement (Bruyneel, 2019;Wu et al., 2019). Dance-based interventions are recognized as more integrated interventions (Lyons et al., 2018) and holistic interventions (Mabire et al., 2018). ...
... This means that we need more evidence to confirm the effect of dance-based interventions on anxiety among persons with MCI and dementia. Notably, anxiety is a risk factor for persons with MCI and dementia (Rosenberg and Lyketsos, 2013;Somme et al., 2013), and dance-based interventions as a type of embodied psychological intervention can address mental symptoms (Wang et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2019). However, a presentation of anxiety in the context of MCI and dementia can be different from a typical early-onset anxiety disorder, and it is not easy to identify and quantify anxiety reliably (Kwak et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Background: There is a growing need to offer appropriate services to persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia who are faced with depression and anxiety distresses beyond traditional pharmacological treatment. Dance-based interventions as multi-dimensional interventions address persons' physical, emotional, social, and spiritual aspects of well-being. However, no meta-analysis of randomized controlled treatment trials (RCTs) has examined the effectiveness of dance-based interventions on depression and anxiety among persons with MCI and dementia, and the results of RCTs are inconsistent. The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of dance-based interventions on depression (a primary outcome) and anxiety (a secondary outcome) among persons with MCI and dementia. Methods: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted. The inclusion criteria were: population: people of all ages with MCI and dementia; intervention: dance-based interventions; control group: no treatment, usual care, or waiting list group; outcome: depression and anxiety; study design: published or unpublished RCTs. Seven electronic databases (Cochrane, PsycINFO, Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, CNKI, WanFang) were searched from 1970 to March 2021. Grey literature and reference lists from relevant articles were also searched and reviewed. The Cochrane “Risk of Bias” tool was used to assess study quality. RevMan 5.4 was used for meta-analysis and heterogeneity was investigated by subgroup and sensitivity analysis. GRADE was applied to assess the evidence quality of depression and anxiety outcomes. Results: Five randomized controlled trials were identified. Sample sizes ranged from 21 to 204. The risk of bias was low, except for being rated as high or unclear for most included studies in two domains: allocation concealment, blinding participants and personnel. Meta-analysis of depression outcome showed no heterogeneity ( I ² = 0%), indicating that the variation in study outcomes did not influence the interpretation of results. There were significant differences in decreasing depression in favor of dance-based interventions compared with controls [SMD = −0.42, 95% CI (−0.60, −0.23), p < 0.0001] with a small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.3669); Compared with the post-intervention data, the follow-up data indicated diminishing effects (Cohen's d = 0.1355). Dance-based interventions were more effective in reducing depression for persons with dementia than with those having MCI, and were more effective with the delivery frequency of 1 h twice a week than 35 min 2–3 times a week. Also, one included RCT study showed no significant benefit on anxiety rating scores, which demonstrated small effect sizes at 6 weeks and 12 weeks (Cohen's d = 0.1378, 0.1675, respectively). GRADE analysis indicated the evidence quality of depression was moderate, and the evidence quality of anxiety was low. Conclusions: Dance-based interventions are beneficial to alleviate depression among persons with MCI and dementia. More trials of high quality, large sample sizes are needed to gain more profound insight into dance-based interventions, such as their effects of alleviating anxiety, and the best approaches to perform dance-based interventions.
... Cognitive interventions using non-invasive and non-pharmacological treatments based on the theories of neuroplasticity (Greenwood and Parasuraman, 2010;Rajji, 2019) and rich environments have attracted more attention (Marlats et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2021). A previous study reported that older adults with and without MCI showed signs of cognitive decline to varying degrees, and combined cognitive and physical intervention effectively improves cognition (Wu et al., 2019), which also becomes a research hotspot in recent years. Shatil (2013) conducted a 16-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) of combined cognitive and physical intervention, single cognitive intervention, and sham intervention in 29, 33, and 29 cognitively healthy older adult subjects, respectively, and found that combined intervention was significantly better than single cognitive intervention in improving memory and naming, while sham intervention showed no improvement in cognition. ...
... Our review reported that there was no statistical difference in the efficacy of the combined intervention for improving cognition in older adults with and without MCI, which is inconsistent with the findings of Wu et al. (2019), who suggested that the combined intervention was more effective in improving global cognition in older adults with MCI compared to cognitively healthy older adults (Wu et al., 2019). We used the same comparison and outcome assessment scales to assess efficacy differences, resulting in a limited number of studies included for this outcome; therefore, the results should be interpreted cautiously. ...
... Our review reported that there was no statistical difference in the efficacy of the combined intervention for improving cognition in older adults with and without MCI, which is inconsistent with the findings of Wu et al. (2019), who suggested that the combined intervention was more effective in improving global cognition in older adults with MCI compared to cognitively healthy older adults (Wu et al., 2019). We used the same comparison and outcome assessment scales to assess efficacy differences, resulting in a limited number of studies included for this outcome; therefore, the results should be interpreted cautiously. ...
Article
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Background Combined cognitive and physical intervention is commonly used as a non-pharmacological therapy to improve cognitive function in older adults, but it is uncertain whether combined intervention can produce stronger cognitive gains than either single cognitive or sham intervention. To address this uncertainty, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of combined intervention on cognition in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods We systematically searched eight databases for relevant articles published from inception to November 1, 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) were used to compare the effects of the combined intervention with a single cognitive or sham intervention on cognition in older adults with and without MCI aged ≥ 50 years. We also searched Google Scholar, references of the included articles, and relevant reviews. Two independent reviewers performed the article screening, data extraction, and bias assessment. GRADEpro was used to rate the strength of evidence, and RevMan software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Results Seventeen studies were included in the analysis, comprising eight studies of cognitively healthy older adults and nine studies of older adults with MCI. The meta-analysis showed that the combined intervention significantly improved most cognitive functions and depression (SMD = 0.99, 95% CI 0.54–1.43, p < 0.0001) in older adults compared to the control groups, but the intervention effects varied by cognition domains. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the maintenance between the combined and sham interventions (SMD = 1.34, 95% CI −0.58–3.27, p = 0.17). The subgroup analysis also showed that there was no statistical difference in the combined intervention to improve global cognition, memory, attention, and executive function between cognitive healthy older adults and older adults with MCI. Conclusions Combined intervention improves cognitive functions in older adults with and without MCI, especially in global cognition, memory, and executive function. However, there was no statistical difference in the efficacy of the combined intervention to improve cognition between cognitive healthy older adults and older adults with MCI. Moreover, the maintenance of the combined intervention remains unclear due to the limited follow-up data and high heterogeneity. In the future, more stringent study designs with more follow-ups are needed further to explore the effects of combined intervention in older adults. Systematic review registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/#recordDetails , identifier: CRD42021292490.
... A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study showed that regular exercise was associated with less cognitive decline after 1 year (Oguh et al., 2014). There is growing evidence that mind-body exercise can improve cognition, executive function, learning, memory, and verbal fluency (Zhang Y. et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2021). However, the methods for intervention and assessment were inconsistent across studies, so it is difficult to draw conclusions about the mechanisms of mind-body exercise on cognition. ...
... To date, little is understood about the neural mechanisms underlying the improvement of cognitive ability in PD patients after mind-body exercise. Previous studies suggested that mindbody exercise can enhance cognitive performance in PD patients (Zhang Y. et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2021). Among the various types of mind-body exercises, Wuqinxi has often been recommended as a complement to medicine to treat cognitive impairment . ...
Article
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Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disease that includes non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment. Long-term mind-body exercise has been shown to improve cognitive ability in PD patients, but the methods of assessment and intervention were inconsistent across studies. Wuqinxi is a mind-body exercise that is easy to learn, has few physical and cognitive demands, and is recommended for PD patients. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) has been associated with cognitive alterations in PD patients, but no studies have yet explored the effects of Wuqinxi on this association. The current protocol is designed to measure the effects of long-term Wuqinxi intervention on cognition in PD patients, and explore the underlying neural mechanisms through DFC. Methods: A long-term single-blind, randomized trial will be conducted. PD patients and age- and gender-matched HC will be recruited; PD patients will be randomly assigned to either Wuqinxi or balance groups, and HC will all receive health education. The Wuqinxi group will receive a 90-min session of Wuqinxi intervention three times a week for 24 weeks, while the balance group will receive balance exercise instruction on the same schedule. Primary outcomes will include assessment of cognitive domains and dynamic temporal characteristics of functional connectivity. Secondary outcomes will include severity of motor symptoms, mobility, balance, and emotional state. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, at the end of 24 weeks of intervention, and 12 weeks after interventions have ended. Discussion: This study will provide evidence to the effects of Wuqinxi exercise on cognitive improvements in PD patients from the perspective of DFC, and will contribute to the understanding of neural mechanisms underlying cognitive enhancement through Wuqinxi practice. Clinical Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn , identifier ChiCTR2000038517.
... Moreover, cognitive improvements and brain changes including increase in volume in areas of the brain (e.g., hippocampus) and connectivity of some brain networks can be observed after exercise interventions [4,5]. Though evidence from clinical trials of exercise is generally more inconsistent than observational studies [7,[9][10][11], the most inclusive and most recent meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials generally conclude that exercise training (including aerobic, resistance, or mind-body exercise) is associated with better cognitive outcomes, though there is not yet support for prevention of dementia from these trials [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. ...
... Participants had an average age of 22.0 years (standard deviation, sd = 0.90, range: 20-25) and 55% [17] were female. Average activity level as measured by the IPAQ was 2797 MET-min/wk (sd = 1898, range: 360-6558). ...
Article
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Background Evidence suggests a single bout of exercise can improve cognitive control. However, many studies only include assessments after exercise. It is unclear whether exercise changes as a result, or in anticipation, of exercise. Objective To examine changes in cognitive control due to moderate aerobic exercise, and anticipation of such exercise. Methods Thirty-one young healthy adults (mean age 22 years; 55% women) completed three conditions (randomized order): 1) exercise (participants anticipated and completed exercise); 2) anticipation (participants anticipated exercise but completed rest); and 3) rest (participants anticipated and completed rest). Cognitive control was assessed with a modified Flanker task at three timepoints: (1) early (20 min pre-intervention, pre-reveal in anticipation session); (2) pre-intervention (after reveal); and (3) post-intervention. An accuracy-weighted response time (RT LISAS ) was the primary outcome, analyzed with a linear mixed effects modeling approach. Results There was an interaction between condition and time (p = 0.003) and between session and time (p = 0.015). RT LISAS was better post-exercise than post-rest and post-deception, but was similar across conditions at other timepoints. RT LISAS improved across time in session 1 and session 2, but did not improve over time in session 3. There were also main effects of condition (p = 0.024), session (p = 0.005), time (p<0.001), and congruency (p<0.001). Conclusions Cognitive control improved after moderate aerobic exercise, but not in anticipation of exercise. Improvements on a Flanker task were also observed across sessions and time, indicative of a learning effect that should be considered in study design and analyses.
... These findings indicate that any type of mind-body intervention, such as Tai Chi, can reduce cognitive decline, especially in executive and memory functions of individuals with MCI and dementia (Gheysen et al., 2018;Nuzum et al., 2020). However, meta-analysis and systematic review of Tai Chi in MCI reported a different impact on cognitive results (Miller and Taylor-Piliae, 2014;Wayne et al., 2014;Wu et al., 2019). Wu et al. (2019) demonstrated that Tai Chi can improve global cognition and memory, but not executive function. ...
... However, meta-analysis and systematic review of Tai Chi in MCI reported a different impact on cognitive results (Miller and Taylor-Piliae, 2014;Wayne et al., 2014;Wu et al., 2019). Wu et al. (2019) demonstrated that Tai Chi can improve global cognition and memory, but not executive function. Other reviews of Tai Chi found that the executive function can be improved (Miller and Taylor-Piliae, 2014;Wayne et al., 2014). ...
Article
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This study determined the effectiveness of a 12-week cycle of Ruesi Dadton (RSD) among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), for improving cognitive and physical performance. Seventy-six participants were included and were divided equally into two groups. A group performed RSD exercise for 60 min, 3 times/wk for 12 weeks, and the control group did not perform RSD exercise. The primary endpoint was cognitive function, as assessed by the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), Mini-Mental State Examination, verbal fluency (VF) test, and trail making test parts A and B (TMT-A and TMT-B). The secondary endpoints were the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, handgrip, and gait speed results, which were used to evaluate the physical function. There were significant differences in the TMT-B and handgrip scores (P< 0.05) between the two groups. Both groups had improved MoCA scores (P< 0.05) and normal walking speeds (P< 0.01). Additionally, the RSD group showed improved VF test (P< 0.01), TMT-B (P< 0.01), and TUG test (P< 0.05); a negative correlation was found between MoCA and TUG test (P< 0.05). However, high walking speed and handgrip (P< 0.05) worsened in the control group. RSD exercise resulted in relevant improvements in the cognitive and physical functions in MCI.
... Empirical research indicates that Tai Chi exercise reduces the speed of cognitive decline and maintains cognitive functions, especially executive functions of older adults (Ji et al., 2017;Wu et al., 2019). For example, a recent meta-analysis reported small to moderate, but clinically relevant improvements in executive functions after 10 weeks to 1 year of Tai Chi training on healthy adults (Wayne et al., 2014). ...
... For example, a recent meta-analysis reported small to moderate, but clinically relevant improvements in executive functions after 10 weeks to 1 year of Tai Chi training on healthy adults (Wayne et al., 2014). Similar results have been reported by other studies (Wu et al., 2019;Zheng et al., 2015). At this moment it should be mentioned that executive functions represent a multidimensional construct which is structured by at least three frequently discussed components: inhibition (deliberate overriding of dominant or prepotent responses), updating (constant monitoring and rapid addition/deletion of working memory contents), and shifting (switching flexibly between tasks or mental sets) (Miyake & Friedman, 2012). ...
Article
Executive function and fluid intelligence are two of the crucial frontal lobe functions susceptible to aging. Tai Chi as a mind-body exercise has been proposed for preventing cognitive aging. However, whether Tai Chi has similar effects on multiple components of executive functions in older adults remains underspecified. Moreover, it is not currently known whether Tai Chi exercise training improvements in lower-order executive functions are able to explain improvements in higher-order fluid intelligence. Study 1 included a cross-sectional design based on a large sample of healthy older adults (55–79 years old). Modeling results showed that experience of Tai Chi training exerted significantly positive effects on fluid intelligence, inhibition and updating after controlling for age and education. Both inhibition and updating mediated effects of Tai Chi on fluid intelligence. Study 2 carried out a 12-month Tai Chi training intervention on a novice group and an experienced group of older adults. Results indicated that only the novices exhibited significant improvements in inhibition and fluid intelligence. In addition, improvements in fluid intelligence were no longer significant after controlling for improvements in inhibition. These results shed lights on the mechanism by which mind-body training enhances intelligence.
... Of them, physical activity has been observed as an effective approach to improve cognitive function of aging populations with healthy individuals or those with cognitive impairment (Demurtas et al., 2020). For example, multiple meta-analytical reviews conducted by several research groups indicated that exercise improved cognitive function among middle-aged and older individuals (Kelly et al., 2014;Northey et al., 2018;Sanders et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2019). Physical activity refers to musculoskeletal behaviors with energy expenditure. ...
... It contains a wide range of modalities such as aerobic exercise, resistance training, endurance training, high-interval intensity training. Under the umbrella of exercise, the superior effects on cognitive function were observed following mind-body exercises (Tai Chi, and Yoga) (Herold et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2019;Yu et al., 2021). Furthermore, Tai Chi as a unique exercise modality has recently gained increased global popularity, especially among older individuals, which may be attributed to the slow and gentle movements, deep breathing techniques, and sensorimotor training. ...
Article
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Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the differential effects of Tai Chi vs. brisk walking on cognitive function among individuals aged 60 and greater. Patients and Methods For participant recruitment, a health talk was arranged at two communities in which two different exercise modalities (Tai Chi and brisk walking) were assigned to participants of each community free of charge. The intervention programs lasted 10 weeks, with three 60-min training sessions per week. General cognitive ability and specific cognitive outcomes were measured using the Chinese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Results A significant interaction on total scores of the MoCA was observed ( F = 11.15, p < 0.05). Post hoc analysis indicated significant improvements on general cognitive performance as measured in performance on the MoCA for both exercise groups at the end of 10 weeks. A significant interaction was only observed on the delayed recall sub-domain ( F = 12.93, p < 0.001). Results from post hoc analysis indicate that the Tai Chi group had a significantly better memory performance relative to brisk walking group ( p < 0.05). Specifically, significant improvement was observed in Tai Chi group ( p < 0.05), but not in the brisk walking group. Both exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements from baseline to Week 10, which emerged in visualspatial ability ( p < 0.05) and attention performance ( p < 0.001). Lastly, animal naming and orientation significantly benefited from brisk walking ( p < 0.05) and Tai Chi training ( p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusion Tai Chi and brisk walking as the most commonly used, culture-specific mind-body exercise method have been proven to be effective in improving general cognitive performance and specific cognitive domains. Furthermore, differential effects of two different exercise modalities on cognitive domains were observed, which has provided insightful information for customized exercise programs. Finally, aging individuals who are experiencing cognitive decline should either take Tai Chi classes regularly or engage in brisk walking, which could contribute to brain health.
... Recent investigations have shown that non-pharmacological interventions (e.g., changes in lifestyle like physical activity, cognitive stimulation, and/or reductions of vascular risk factors) are powerful protectors for brain atrophy and cognitive decline (Erickson et al., 2010;Sofi et al., 2011;Beydoun et al., 2014;Blondell et al., 2014;Carvalho et al., 2014;Beckett et al., 2015;Guure et al., 2017;Hill et al., 2017;Mewborn et al., 2017;Brasure et al., 2018;Butler et al., 2018;Gomes-Osman et al., 2018;Lee, 2018;Liang et al., 2018;Nguyen et al., 2019;Sanders et al., 2019;Cunningham et al., 2020). Especially simultaneous cognitivemotor training, often incorporated in exergames, seems to be effective to improve cognition in both HOA and older adults with mNCD (Ogawa et al., 2016;Howes et al., 2017;Levin et al., 2017;Stanmore et al., 2017;Tait et al., 2017;Joubert and Chainay, 2018;Northey et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2019;Biazus-Sehn et al., 2020;Chan et al., 2020;Chen et al., 2020;Mansor et al., 2020) while they are, at the same time, able to improve physical (i.e., gait, mobility, activities of daily living) and psychosocial (i.e., motivation, anxiety, well-being, and quality of life) aspects (Theill et al., 2013;Schoene et al., 2014;Levin et al., 2017;van Santen et al., 2018;Farhang et al., 2019;Yang et al., 2019;Swinnen et al., 2020;Zhao et al., 2020). Nevertheless, despite numerous investigations, it is currently difficult to draw reliable conclusions about the underlying mechanisms and effectiveness of exergames. ...
... Moreover, cognitive executive functioning (i.e., measured by the Trail-Making-Test (TMT)-B) was the most prominent significant predictor of variance in vagally-mediated HRV (i.e., RMSSD, HF; Eggenberger et al., 2020). This is consistent with the findings, that cognitively engaging exercises (i.e., simultaneous cognitive-motor training) appear to have the strongest effect on cognition in HOA (Diamond and Ling, 2016;Biazus-Sehn et al., 2020;Chen et al., 2020) and older adults at risk for cognitive impairment and Dementia (Wu et al., 2019;Biazus-Sehn et al., 2020). Moreover, HRV might also be useful to personalize training programs. ...
Article
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Background: Monitoring phasic responses of heart rate variability (HRV) in terms of HRV reactivity [i. e., the absolute change from resting state to on-task (i.e., absolute values of HRV measured during exercise)] might provide useful insights into the individual psychophysiological responses of healthy middle-aged to older adults (HOA) to cognitive and physical exercises. Objectives: To summarize the evidence of phasic HRV responses to cognitive and physical exercises, and to evaluate key moderating factors influencing these responses. Methods: A systematic review with meta-analyses was performed. Publications up to May 2020 of the databases Medline (EBSCO), Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Psycinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, and Pedro were considered. Controlled clinical trials and observational studies measuring phasic HRV responses to cognitive and/or physical exercises in HOA (≥50 years) were included. Results: The initial search identified 6,828 articles, of which 43 were included into the systematic review. Compared to resting state, vagally-mediated HRV indices were significantly reduced during all types of exercises [Hedge's g = −0.608, 95 % CI (−0.999 to −0.218), p = 0.002] indicating a significant parasympathetic withdrawal compared to rest. The key moderating variables of these responses identified included exercise intensity for physical exercises, and participant characteristics (i.e., level of cognitive functioning, physical fitness), task demands (i.e., task complexity and modality) and the individual responses to these cognitive challenges for cognitive exercises. In particular, higher task demands (task complexity and physical exercise intensity) were related to larger HRV reactivities. Better physical fitness and cognition were associated with lower HRV reactivities. Additionally, HRV reactivity appeared to be sensitive to training-induced cognitive and neural changes. Conclusion: HRV reactivity seems to be a promising biomarker for monitoring internal training load and evaluating neurobiological effects of training interventions. Further research is warranted to evaluate the potential of HRV reactivity as a monitoring parameter to guide cognitive-motor training interventions and/or as a biomarker for cognitive impairment. This may facilitate the early detection of cognitive impairment as well as allow individualized training adaptations that, in turn, support the healthy aging process by optimizing individual exercise dose and progression of cognitive-motor training.
... However, people with limited mobility, or chronic pain may not be able to participate due to physical limitations [5]. Adapted versions of these exercises, such as seated exercises instead of standing are becoming more common; and although there is a wide evidence base for mind body exercise [6,7], the effectiveness of adapted mind body physical activity program remains limited. ...
... The role of physical activity in the older population is widely documented as being crucial to maintaining positive health outcomes [17]. Furthermore, mind body exercises aim to address social and psychological factors that improve health outcomes [4,6,7], with these physical even more essential during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although this was a pilot study to measure the effectiveness of the remotely delivered program on physical function in older people, the study also allowed the authors to assess if remote delivery was a feasible way to deliver physical activity to older people. ...
Conference Paper
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A pilot trial of remotely delivered mind-body physical activity was carried out in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants performed twice weekly one-hour sessions of the program for eight weeks, with sessions delivered using Zoom. Physical function was evaluated using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), with the individual components of balance, gait speed and the Five-times Sit-To-Stand (5STS) also compared. A significant improvement was noted in 5STS performance for the experimental group (n=10) of 4.1 seconds (d = 2.0; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.2). There were no significant differences for balance, gait speed or total SPPB score. Future work is needed to determine whether remotely delivered physical activities could be a feasible alternative to face-to-face sessions for older people with limited mobility.
... Judo training can be considered a type of interval training as exercises are interspersed with rest periods during a single training unit 35 . Cognitive benefits have also been reported in response to yoga and tai chi exercise programs; these benefits were significantly larger than those observed for aerobic exercise interventions 6 . These physical exercise modalities are sometimes categorized as mind-body exercises and have been shown to impact different aspects of physical abilities (e.g. ...
... These physical exercise modalities are sometimes categorized as mind-body exercises and have been shown to impact different aspects of physical abilities (e.g. balance, flexibility, and agility) similarly to judo, and in comparison to typical aerobic exercise 6 . Very recently, Ludyga et al. observed that the judo training program elicited benefits for response inhibition in preadolescent children 36 . ...
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Programmed exercise interventions modulating both physical fitness and cognitive functions have become a promising tool to support healthy aging. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of a 12-week judo training (JEX) on cognitive processing and muscle function among the elderly. Forty participants were divided into two groups: the JEX group and the control group (CTL). Before and after 12-week of JEX, participants performed a battery of physiological and psychological tests. The peripheral level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was analyzed. A 12-week JEX intervention led to improved Stroop performance reflected by a shortening of the response time related to Stroop “naming” interference. In addition, the peripheral concentration of BDNF was significantly increased following the JEX compared with the CTL group. In response to JEX, balance and lower limb strength significantly increased. The current results suggest that JEX could have beneficial effects on cognitive functions, denoted by elevated peripheral BDNF, as well as on balance and strength abilities. A combination of positive effects with respect to movement and cognition makes JEX an ideal preventive lifestyle modification for the aging population.
... Orientation measurement (Euler angle: roll, pitch, and yaw) provided by the manufacturer is the integration of angular velocity and further modified, using an extended Kalman filter by combining the information from the accelerometer and the magnetometer (Petersen, 2020). The sensor was configured at a frequency of 100 Hz, which was consistent with many studies for pre-impact fall detection (Zhao et al., 2012;Wu et al., 2019). The sensor data were transmitted through Bluetooth Dongle, which was connected to Raspberry Pi 4 (4 GB) as the host PC. ...
... For older adults with mNCD or dementia, significant improvements in complex attention (Chan J.S.Y. et al., 2020), global cognition Wang et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2019;Biazus-Sehn et al., 2020;Chan J.S.Y. et al., 2020;Zhu et al., 2020;Gavelin et al., 2021), learning and memory (Biazus-Sehn et al., 2020;Chan J.S.Y. et al., 2020), and visuo-spatial skills (Chan J.S.Y. et al., 2020) have been meta-analytically synthesized, whereas there is conflicting evidence for executive functioning [i.e., improvement (Biazus-Sehn et al., 2020) vs. no effect (Chan J.S.Y. et al., 2020)] and language (Zhu et al., 2020), and no effects have been synthesized for working memory (Chan J.S.Y. et al., 2020). Additionally, improvements in physical outcomes (e.g., mobility, balance) (Gavelin et al., 2021) and psychosocial factors (i.e., neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, quality of life) (Gavelin et al., 2021) have been synthesized. ...
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Technological Advancements in Aging and Neurological Conditions to Improve Physical Activity, Cognitive Functions, and Postural Control.
... Although this was a cross-sectional study, it provides partial support to the notion that long-term tai chi practice could induce regional structural changes. In a recent meta-analysis of 32 randomized controlled trials, Wu et al. (2019) reported that mind-body exercise, especially emphasizing tai chi, helps improve global cognition, cognitive flexibility, working memory, verbal fluency, and learning in older adults. However, given the wide variety of these types of interventions, further studies are needed to identify the active ingredient and the dose-response relationship that makes mind-body exercise interventions an efficient way to maintain cognition in older adults (see also Verhaeghen, in this volume). ...
Chapter
Decades of research have reported that physical activity and exercise training can help improve and maintain cognitive health across the human lifespan. While the first wave of studies in this field was dominated by the positive effect of aerobic training programs, more recent evidence supports the notion that a variety of exercise interventions, from strength training to mind-body exercise, also have a positive impact on cognition, leading to the question of what are the explanatory mechanisms that relate exercise to cognition. This chapter reviews some seminal and recent interventional studies that have attempted to assess whether and how specific physical activities impact cognition. A large number of interventional studies used aerobic and strength programs to investigate the impact of exercise on cognition and showed protective effects on executive functioning, modulated by specific biomarkers. More recently, it was suggested that new training approaches targeting gross motor abilities or using popular soft gymnastics, also designated as mind-body exercises (yoga, dance, tai chi), can also lead to improvements in cognitive functions. Overall, results reviewed here support the notion that physical exercise can contribute to develop and preserve cognitive health across the entire lifespan.
... EEs are known to provide multisensory stimulation, which induces brain plasticity following exposure to different types of objects such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and running wheels, among others, in a spacious environment (Bhagya et al., 2017). Increasing evidence suggests that an EE can exert significant ameliorative effects on neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and learning and memory abilities Ferioli et al., 2019;Wu C. et al., 2019). However, it remains unclear whether an EE can counteract, at least partially, the harmful effects of embryonic inflammation on age-associated learning and memory impairments. ...
Article
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Accumulating evidence has indicated that embryonic inflammation could accelerate age-associated cognitive impairment, which can be attributed to dysregulation of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins, such as RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Staufen is a double-stranded RBP that plays a critical role in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and memory. However, relatively few studies have investigated how embryonic inflammation affects cognition and neurobiology during aging, or how the adolescent psychosocial environment affects inflammation-induced remote cognitive impairment. Consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate whether these adverse factors can induce changes in Staufen expression, and whether these changes are correlated with cognitive impairment. In our study, CD-1 mice were administered lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 50 μg/kg) or an equal amount of saline (control) intraperitoneally during days 15–17 of gestation. At 2 months of age, male offspring were randomly exposed to stress (S), an enriched environment (E), or not treated (CON) and then assigned to five groups: LPS, LPS+S, LPS+E, CON, and CON+S. Mice were evaluated at 3-month-old (young) and 15-month-old (middle-aged). Cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze test, while Staufen expression was examined at both the protein and mRNA level using immunohistochemistry/western blotting and RNAscope technology, respectively. The results showed that the middle-aged mice had worse cognitive performance and higher Staufen expression than young mice. Embryonic inflammation induced cognitive impairment and increased Staufen expression in the middle-aged mice, whereas adolescent stress/an enriched environment would accelerated/mitigated these effects. Meanwhile, Staufen expression was closely correlated with cognitive performance. Our findings suggested embryonic inflammation can accelerate age-associated learning and memory impairments, and these effects may be related to the Staufen expression.
... As greater interest continues to emerge regarding the overall independent health benefits of LPA, this inconsistent classification may lead to studies being incorrectly excluded or included in future analyses and reviews. Norton and colleagues (70) have emphasized a need for more consistent terminology regarding exercise intensity, and this is evident across studies which have inaccurately used the term "light-intensity" (71,72). ...
Article
Background The physical and cognitive benefits of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) for adults have been well documented. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the independent health benefits of light-intensity physical activity (LPA). This research has primarily focused on the relationship between LPA and morbidity and mortality risk, with few studies investigating cognitive associations. The purpose of this scoping review was to catalog existing evidence on the association between device-based or technologically measured LPA and cognition among adults, identify trends in the literature, and recommend future areas for research. Methods Six electronic databases were searched between January and June 2020. Forty published studies met the inclusion criteria, which included both healthy and clinical young and older adult populations. Among the 40 articles were 14 acute exercise studies, four randomized control trials (RCTs), 18 cross-sectional studies, and four longitudinal studies. Results 7/14 (50%) acute, 3/4 (75%) RCT, 10/18 (56%) cross-sectional, and 2/4 (50%) longitudinal studies reported a significant, positive relationship between LPA and one or more cognitive outcomes. These heterogeneous findings can largely be attributed to the diverse study designs and populations, as well as the numerous assessments used to test the cognitive domains. Conclusion These collective findings suggest LPA may be a potential lifestyle intervention to improve cognition across adulthood. However, the inconsistent approaches used among these studies suggest a more concerted, unified scientific approach is needed to further understand the LPA-cognition relationship.
... Numerous systematic reviews have been directed as a means of providing high-quality evidence of the role of Tai Chi Chuan in alleviating chronic conditions. Some recent reviews have investigated and supported the use of Tai Chi Chuan exercise for chronic conditions, such as cancer-related symptoms [16], cognition impairment [17], type 2 diabetes mellitus [18], stroke rehabilitation [19], coronary heart disease [20], heart failure [21], osteoporosis [22], hypertension [23], chronic musculoskeletal pain [24], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [25], osteoarthritis [26], and rheumatoid arthritis [27]. Notably, Tai Chi Chuan training could also be efficacious in reducing fall incidence and maintaining and enhancing lower limb proprioception and gait ability for the aged [28]. ...
Article
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Background: This review aims to investigate the efficacy of Tai Chi Chuan on subjective sleep quality among adults. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and the Wanfang Database from their inception to August 2019 and identified 25 eligible studies that were published in both English and Chinese. Results: 24 out of 25 studies were identified to be high-quality studies according to the PEDro scale. The pooled results confirmed that Tai Chi Chuan elicited moderate improvements in subjective sleep quality (SMD = -0.512, 95% CI [-0.767, -0.257], P < 0.001). Notably, Tai Chi Chuan yielded more significant effects on sleep quality among the healthy population (SMD = -0.684, 95% CI [-1.056, -0.311], P < 0.001) than the clinical population (SMD = -0.395, 95% CI [-0.742, -0.047], P=0.026) and more benefits among the Asian population (SMD = -0.977, 95% CI [-1.446, -0.508], P < 0.001) than the American population (SMD = -0.259, 95% CI [-0.624, 0.105], P=0.164). After controlling the methodological quality of studies, it has been noted that Asians could achieve the most significant sleep-promoting benefit when Tai Chi Chuan was practiced between 60 and 90 min per session. Conclusions: Available data implied that subjective sleep quality was improved via Tai Chi training, but more thorough studies must be executed to ascertain our findings and optimize Tai Chi practices accordingly toward various populations.
... A metaanalysis involving 2553 participants showed that Tai Chi can increase the strength, balance, attention and cognitive function of practitioners aged 60 or older 5 . Another meta-analysis assessed the effects of mind-body exercise on cognitive performance of adults age ranged from 50-85 and subgroup analysis showed Tai Chi is beneficial for improving global cognition 6 . However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. ...
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Background: Tai Chi has been proved as an effective strategy to improve cognitive function while the mechanism remains unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the brain functional connection of prefrontal cortex (PFC), motor cortex (MC) and occipital cortex (OC) in middle-aged Tai Chi practitioners and Tai Chi-naïve controls. Methods: 18 Hong chuan Tai Chi practitioners (age:55.78±2.64y) and 22 demographically matched healthy Tai Chi-naïve controls (age:54.69±3.10y) were recruited in this study. Global cognition was measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA), and the functional connection between PFC, MC and OC in five frequency intervals (I, 0.6-2Hz; II, 0.145-0.6Hz; III, 0.052-0.145Hz; IV, 0.021-0.052Hz; V, 0.0095-0.021Hz) was analyzed by wavelet phase coherence (WPCO). The changes in cerebral oxygenation (Δ[HbO2]) were measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Continuous recordings of NIRS signals were obtained from the left and right prefrontal cortex (PFC), motor cortex (MC) and occipital cortex (OC) in resting state. Results: Compared with age-matched Tai Chi-naïve controls, Hong chuan Tai Chi practitioners had better global cognition and showed higher functional connection levels between left and right PFC, MC, OC in intervals I, III, VI and V in resting state. Conclusion: This study showed that middle-aged Hong chuan Tai Chi practitioners had higher functional connection between PFC, MC and OC, as well as the coordination of left and right brain in resting state, which maybe the contributing factors to higher global cognition.
... These findings also coincide with documented larger effects of mindfulness-oriented body movement exercises (e.g., yoga, tai chi) on GCA, WM, and cognitive flexibility for older adults aged 50 years and above (Wu et al., 2019). Our findings are also partly consistent with emotion regulation theories which assert that women reap more benefits from mindfulness training than men as they experience larger reductions in self-focused negative repetitive thinking ( Note. ...
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Background: The past 30 years have witnessed growing scientific interest regarding the impact of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on cognitive functions. Several theories propose that habitually exercising mindfulness skills can improve cognitive abilities, but no comprehensive quantitative reviews of the effect of MBIs on global and unique cognitive domains exist to date. Method: This systematic review thus examined the effects of MBI on global cognitive ability (GCA) and 16 specific cognitive domains. MBI randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that administered cognitive tests pre- and post-treatment were included. Open-trials, non-randomized MBIs, and case-control studies were excluded. Keywords included “mindful*,” AND “executive attention (EA),” OR “working memory (WM).” Robust variance estimation and moderator analyses were conducted. Results: Ninety-five RCTs (n = 7,408) met eligibility criteria. MBI (vs. waitlist or no-treatment) had small-to-moderate significant effects on GCA, WM accuracy, inhibition accuracy and latency, EA, sustained attention accuracy, processing speed, and subjective attentional control (SAC) (g = 0.24 – 0.52). Likewise, MBI (vs. active control) had small-to-moderate positive effects on GCA, orienting, EA, WM accuracy, sustained attention (indexed by intra-individual coefficient of variation), and SAC (average g = 0.17 – 0.41). Age, gender, study quality, treatment duration, publication year, retention, statistical analysis, and country, moderated some treatment effects. Publication bias analyses showed that reliable treatment effects were restricted to EA, WM accuracy, inhibition accuracy, sustained attention, and SAC, depending on the control group. Conclusion: MBIs confer notable neuropsychological benefits and dose-response effects on some specific (vs. global) cognitive domains. Limitations, theoretical, and applied implications are discussed. (Note: This paper has not been peer reviewed. Please do not copy or cite without author's permission.)
... In recent years, increasing research evidence has shown that mind-body exercise could improve and promote physical health [8][9][10] as well as benefit mental health, including improving general cognition, executive function, learning, memory, and verbal fluency [11][12][13]. Moreover, it aids in relieving stress [14,15], anxiety, depression, and other impairment or suffering from organic diseases such as diabetes, fibromyalgia, knee osteoarthritis, or tinnitus to avoid interference of the results by these factors. ...
Article
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Mind–body exercise has been proposed to confer both physical and mental health benefits. However, there is no clear consensus on the neural mechanisms underlying the improvements in health. Herein, we conducted a systematic review to reveal which brain region or network is regulated by mind–body exercise. PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were systematically searched to identify cross-sectional and intervention studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to explore the effect of mind–body exercise on brain structure and function, from their inception to June 2020. The risk of bias for cross-sectional studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklist, whereas that of interventional studies was analyzed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Our analysis revealed that mind–body exercise modulated brain structure, brain neural activity, and functional connectivity, mainly in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus/medial temporal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, insula, and the cingulate cortex, as well as the cognitive control and default mode networks, which might underlie the beneficial effects of such exercises on health. However, due to the heterogeneity of included studies, more randomized controlled trials with rigorous designs, similar measured outcomes, and whole-brain analyses are warranted.
... Raffone et al., 2019). These null findings also lend credence to recent models that argue for specificity on the effects of MBIs on attentional control and EF i.e., MBIs likely impact orienting and executive attention but not alerting (Prakash, These findings also coincide with documented larger effects of mindfulness-oriented body movement exercises (e.g., yoga, tai chi) on GCA, WM, and cognitive flexibility for older adults aged 50 years and above (Wu et al., 2019). Our findings are also partly consistent with emotion regulation theories which assert that women reap more benefits from mindfulness training than men as they experience larger reductions in self-focused negative repetitive thinking ( Note. ...
Preprint
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Background: The past 30 years have witnessed growing scientific interest regarding theimpact of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on cognitive functions. Several theories propose that habitually exercising mindfulness skills can improve cognitive abilities, but no comprehensive quantitative reviews of the effect of MBIs on global and unique cognitive domains exist to date. Method: This systematic review thus examined the effects of MBI on global cognition and 16 specific accuracy and latency cognitive domains. MBI randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that administered performance-based and subjective cognitive tests pre- and post-treatment were included. Open-trials, non-randomized MBIs, and cross-sectional studies were excluded. Keywords included “mindful*,” AND “alerting” OR “executive attention,” “working memory (WM),” “inhibition,” OR “attentional control.” Robust variance estimation and moderator analyses were conducted. All analyses controlled for presence of reported treatment fidelity. Results: One-hundred RCTs (n = 7,342) met eligibility criteria. MBI had small-to-moderate significant effects on global cognition, executive attention, WM accuracy, inhibition accuracy, shifting accuracy, sustained attention, and subjective attentional control (average g = 0.228–0.675 compared to waitlist or no-treatment; average g = 0.192–0.370 versus active controls). Age, gender, study quality, treatment length, completer analysis, and MBI characteristics moderated a few treatment effects. Treatment effects were stronger for standard mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (vs. non-standard MBI) and instructor-led (vs. self-guided app) MBIs, as well as participants with heightened psychiatric or medical symptoms compared to healthy controls. Conclusion: MBIs confer notable neuropsychological benefits on some, but not all cognitive domains. Limitations, theoretical, and applied implications are discussed.
... The largest treatment study to-date found CBT improved mood and cognitive symptoms, but not pain, and only improved fatigue in combination with exercise [18]. Yogaan ancient mind-body practice that combines mindfulness meditation with regulated breathing and physical postures [19] is effective for some symptoms found in GWI, such as chronic pain [20,21], fibromyalgia [22], IBS [23], mood difficulties [24,25], and cognitive disturbance [26]. We recently published a randomised controlled trial (RCT) showing that 10-week group yogabut not CBTimproved pain severity and pain interference among Veterans with GWI (ClinicalTrials.gov ...
Article
Aims Accumulating evidence suggests Gulf War illness (GWI) is characterised by autonomic nervous system dysfunction (higher heart rate [HR], lower heart rate variability [HRV]). Yoga – an ancient mind-body practice combining mindfulness, breathwork, and physical postures – is proposed to improve autonomic dysfunction yet this remains untested in GWI. We aimed to determine (i) whether HR and HRV improve among Veterans with GWI receiving either yoga or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for pain; and (ii) whether baseline autonomic functioning predicts treatment-related pain outcomes across follow-up. Main methods We present secondary analyses of 24-hour ambulatory cardiac data (mean HR, square root of the mean squared differences between successive R-R intervals [RMSSD], high frequency power [HF-HFV], and low-to-high frequency ratio [LF/HF] extracted from a 5-min window during the first hour of sleep) from our randomised controlled trial of yoga versus CBT for pain among Veterans with GWI (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02378025; N = 75). Key findings Veterans who received CBT tended towards higher mean HR at end-of-treatment. Better autonomic function (lower mean HR, higher RMSSD/HF-HRV) at baseline predicted greater reductions in pain across follow-up, regardless of treatment group. Better baseline autonomic function (mid-range-to-high RMSSD/HF-HRV) also predicted greater pain reductions with yoga, while worse baseline autonomic function (higher mean HR, lower RMSSD/HF-HRV) predicted greater pain reductions with CBT. Significance To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that among Veterans with GWI, HR may increase with CBT yet remain stable with yoga. Furthermore, HR and HRV moderated pain outcome across follow-up for yoga and CBT.
... SRs may broadly encompass physically active and non-active intervention types but narrowly include a specific type of cognitive outcomes such as executive functions (Diamond & Ling, 2016;Takacs & Kassai, 2019). Conversely, selection criteria may be narrowed on a specific type of PA intervention but encompass a broad array of brain and cognitive outcomes (Herold et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2019), or broader physical and mental health outcomes including cognition (Falck et al., 2019;. Moreover, heterogeneity across PSs, estimated in meta-analyses (MAs) as variability of effect sizes, implies the presence of moderators that complexify the pattern of PA effects on cognition, delimiting their generalizability. ...
Article
In the surging field of chronic physical activity (PA) and cognition research, problems arise that prevent us from ‘seeing the forest for the trees’. The first aim was to identify them and propose solutions. Moreover, inconsistencies in conclusions of a rising amount of systematic reviews render necessary ‘an umbrella for a rain of evidence’. The second aim was to obtain a differentiated picture of moderators that may explain inconsistencies using the wide-angle lens of a systematic meta-review. We especially addressed the role of the PA context in causation mechanisms, complementing the meta-review with a realist approach that is best suited to identify context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations. Main review outcomes are: (1) inconsistent grading of methodological quality and low consideration of external validity; (2) role of multiple moderators at participant-, intervention-, study-level but relative neglect of context-level moderators; (3) explanatory potential of CMO configurations, in which specific conditions of the context may trigger different mechanisms that generate PA effects on cognition. The majority of the proposed mechanisms converge on the concept of enrichment. Conclusions highlight the need for future research, in which PA interventions and their contexts are designed to mobilize the different mechanisms underpinning their individual and joint effects on cognition.
... 13 Mind-body exercise is a type of therapy, such as Tai Chi and yoga, which includes concentration, breathing, and body movement. 14 These interventions can have a positive effect on cognitive performance among older adults without HIV. A recent meta-analysis of 32 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated mind-body interventions (of which, 8 RCTs included a yoga intervention), showing significant improvements in overall cognitive performance, working memory, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, and learning among older adults. ...
Article
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The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial is to assess the feasibility and impact of a triweekly 12-week yoga intervention among people living with HIV (PLWH). Additional objectives included evaluating cognition, physical function, medication adherence, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and mental health among yoga participants versus controls using blinded assessors. We recruited 22 medically stable PLWH aged ≥35 years. A priori feasibility criteria were ≥70% yoga session attendance and ≥70% of participants satisfied with the intervention using a postparticipation questionnaire. Two participants withdrew from the yoga group. Mean yoga class attendance was 82%, with 100% satisfaction. Intention-to-treat analyses (yoga n = 11, control n = 11) showed no within- or between-group differences in cognitive and physical function. The yoga group improved over time in HRQoL cognition (P = .047) with trends toward improvements in HRQoL health transition (P =.063) and depression (P = .055). This pilot study provides preliminary evidence of feasibility and benefits of yoga for PLWH.
... A meta-analysis showed that Tai Chi can increase the strength, balance, attention and cognitive function of practitioners aged 60 or older (Wayne et al. 2014). Another meta-analysis showed Tai Chi is bene cial for global cognition of adults age ranged from 50-85 (Wu et al. 2019). However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. ...
Preprint
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Tai Chi has been shown an effective strategy to improve cognitive function in older populations while the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This cross-sectional study was performed to examine the brain functional connectivity changes in middle-aged Hong Chuan Tai Chi practitioners. The changes in cerebral oxygenation were measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. NIRS signals were obtained from left and right prefrontal cortex, motor cortex and occipital cortex in 18 Hong chuan Tai Chi practitioners (age:55.78 ± 2.64y) and 22 demographically matched healthy Tai Chi-naïve controls (age:54.69 ± 3.10y). Global cognition was measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale, and spontaneous oscillations in cerebral oxygenation between three cortexes in five frequency intervals (I, 0.6-2Hz; II, 0.145-0.6Hz; III, 0.052-0.145Hz; IV, 0.021-0.052Hz; V, 0.0095-0.021Hz) was analyzed by wavelet phase coherence. Compared with age-matched Tai Chi-naïve controls, Hong Chuan Tai Chi practitioners had better global cognition, showed higher functional connectivity between left and right prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, occipital cortex in intervals I, III, VI and V. These findings showed that middle-aged Hong Chuan Tai Chi practitioners had higher functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex, motor cortex and occipital cortex, as well as the coordination of left and right brain, which maybe the contributing factors to higher global cognition.
... Although speculative, this hypothesis does present a target at the level of large-scale neural systems for further investigations of specific depressive symptoms. In addition, the suggested relationships also point to potential clinical uses for behavioural interventions, such as mindfulness training and exercise, that modulate the temporal properties of intrinsic brain activity (Gärtner et al., 2017;Irrmischer, Houtman, et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2019). ...
Article
The brain’s intrinsic activity plays a fundamental role in its function. In normal conditions this activity is responsive to behavioural context, changing as an individual switches between directed tasks and task‐free conditions. A key feature of such changes is the movement of the brain between corresponding critical and sub‐critical states, with these dynamics supporting efficient cognitive processing. Breakdowns in processing efficiency can occur, however, in brain disorders such as depression. It was therefore hypothesised that depressive symptoms would be related to reduced intrinsic activity responsiveness to changes in behavioural state. This was tested in a mixed group of major depressive disorder patients (n = 26) and healthy participants (n = 37) by measuring intrinsic EEG activity temporal structure, quantified with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), in eyes‐closed and eyes‐open task‐free states and contrasting between the conditions. The degree to which DFA values changed between the states was found to be negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. DFA values did not differ between states at all in those with higher symptom levels, meaning that the brain remained in a less flexible sub‐critical condition. This sub‐critical condition in the eyes‐closed state was further found to correlate with levels of maladaptive rumination. This may reflect a general cognitive inflexibility resulting from a lack in neural activity reactivity that may predispose people to overly engage in self‐directed attention. These results provide an initial link between intrinsic activity reactivity and psychological features found in psychiatric disorders.
... This method provided a sense of security and a safe environment. In a recent meta-analysis [33], a moderate dose (60-120 min per week) was found to be the optimal mind-body exercise, including yoga and tai chi. ...
Article
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Background: and Purpose: Social isolation and caregiver burden call for an innovative way to deliver a chair yoga (CY) intervention to older adults with dementia who cannot travel to a community center. During a remotely supervised CY session, the yoga instructor can monitor each participant's pose and correct poses to optimize efficacy of CY and reduce chances of injury. This study assessed the feasibility of a remotely supervised online CY intervention for older adults with dementia and explored the relationship between CY and clinical outcomes: pain interference, mobility, risk of falling, sleep disturbance, autonomic reactivity, and loneliness. Methods: Using a one-group pretest/posttest design, a home-based CY intervention was delivered remotely to 10 older adults with dementia twice weekly in 60-minute sessions for 8 weeks. Psychosocial and physiological (i.e., cardiac) data were collected remotely at baseline, mid-intervention, and post-intervention. Results: The results indicated that remotely supervised online CY is a feasible approach for managing physical and psychological symptoms in socially isolated older adults with dementia, based on retention (70%) and adherence (87.5%), with no injury or other adverse events. While there were no significant findings for pain interference, mobility, sleep, or social loneliness longitudinally, emotional loneliness showed a significant increase, F(1.838, 11.029) = 6.293, p = .016, η2 = 0.512, from baseline to post-intervention. Although participants were socially connected to other participants via a videoconferencing platform, emotional loneliness increased during the pandemic period. Conclusion: A home-based remotely supervised online CY is a feasible approach for socially isolated older adults with dementia who are unable to travel to a facility.
... Dawe and Moore-Orr (1995), and Stones and Dawe (1993) reported that 15 min of light-intensity physical exercise (e.g., walking, whole body slow rhythmic movement while sitting) enhanced word fluency performance in older adults. In addition to aerobic exercise, recent studies have revealed the beneficial effect of yoga and virtual-reality training on executive functions (Wu et al., 2019;Burin et al., 2020;Burin and Kawashima, 2021). In contrast, Kamijo et al. (2009) reported that acute light-intensity cycling exercise did not improve executive functions assessed using the Flanker task. ...
Article
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There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that one bout of moderate-intensity exercise enhances executive functions in older adults. However, in terms of safety, feasibility, and continuity, older individuals prefer light, easy, and fun exercises to moderate and stressful exercises for improving executive functions. Therefore, light-intensity aerobic dance exercise (LADE) could be suitable if it produces potential benefits related to executive functions. As for continuous vs. intermittent exercise, intermittent exercise has received a lot of attention, as it results in greater effects on mood and executive functions than continuous exercise; however, its effects in older adults remain uncertain. Thus, in this study, we aimed to examine the acute effects of intermittent LADE (I-LADE) in comparison with those of continuous LADE (C-LADE) on mood and executive functions. Fifteen healthy older adults participated in 10-min I-LADE and C-LADE conditions on separate days. Perceived enjoyment following exercise was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES). The pleasantness of the mood during exercise and pleasure and arousal levels after exercise were assessed using the Feeling Scale and Two-Dimensional Mood Scale, respectively. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop task before and after exercise. As a result, pleasantness of the mood during exercise and exercise enjoyment levels were greater in I-LADE than in C-LADE. Arousal and pleasure levels and Stroop task performance increased after both LADEs and did not differ between the two exercise conditions. These findings suggest that although enhancement of mood and executive functions after exercise did not differ between C-LADE and I-LADE, I-LADE could be more enjoyable and fun than C-LADE. This study will help in the development of exercise conditions that can enable the elderly to enhance their executive functions in a fun way.
... Although no effective cure for AD is currently available, its long preclinical phase (cognitive impairment) provides an opportunity for intervention. Cognition development is affected by many factors, such as aging [7], level of education [8], smoking [7], mind-body exercises [9], participation in social events with friends [10], and level of elements in the body [11]. ...
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The objective of the study was to explore the relationship between the plasma levels of 22 metals and cognition status in older adults aged 60 years and above. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2018 and 2019. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect the concentrations of metals, and a mini-mental state examination (MMSE) questionnaire was used to estimate the cognition status of the elderly. Based on the years of education and MMSE scores, the participants were separated into the normal and impaired cognition groups. Lasso regression, logistic regression, and restricted cubic spline models were used to explore the relationship between the metals and cognitive status. A total of 1667 subjects were included in the study, and 333 (19.97%) of the participants had impaired cognition. Then, 12 metals, including Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, and Sb were selected by lasso regression. Before the multivariate adjustment, Al and Cu were associated with the risk of increasing cognitive impairment (OR = 1.756, 95% CI: 1.166–2.646, P = 0.007; OR = 1.519, 95% CI: 1.050–2.197, P = 0.026, respectively). By contrast, Rb was associated with a decrease in the risk of cognitive impairment (OR = 0.626, 95% CI: 0.427–0.918, P = 0.017), but Cd was significantly associated with an increase in this risk (OR = 1.456, 95% CI: 1.003–2.114, P = 0.048). After multivariate adjustment, only Al (OR = 1.533, 95% CI: 1.000–2.350, P = 0.050) maintained a borderline difference with the risk of cognitive impairment. A significant positive correlation was found between the risk of cognitive impairment and Al, Cu, and Cd, contrary to the negative correlation found with Rb.
... Global cognition, measured by the MMSE and MoCA, seems to be the domain that most benefited from the dance intervention 21,25,[27][28][29] , along with verbal memory 21,22,24,29,30 . This is in agreement with the findings of Wu et al. 35 , in which it is stated that the global cognition of individuals with MCI seems to be more susceptible to dance intervention than that of healthy older people. Santos et al. 36 also denoted performance in the instruments that assess memory 21,22,24,29,30 . ...
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The growing interest for nonpharmacological treatment alternatives to older people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia has increased exponentially for the past few years; in this context, dance therapy is an effective therapeutic tool in improving the cognition of older people. The aim of this study was to verify whether dance therapy is a viable tool in promoting benefits with regard to the cognition and mood of older people with cognitive impairment. A database search covering the past 10 years was carried out. Result: The search found 193 papers; after title, abstract, and duplicity analysis, 14 of those were selected, of which 10 were fully revised. The studies showed positive results regarding the improvement of cognitive function after dance stimulations, as well as beneficial effects on the mood of older people with cognitive impairment. Keywords: Aged; Cognition; Dance Therapy; Cognitive Dysfunction; Dementia
... Nous pouvons citer les entraînements « corps-esprit » (ou body mind exercise), comme le tai-chi, le yoga, ou certains arts martiaux (183,200,201). Ces entraînements corps-esprits consistent en une association entre des exercices physiques et une sollicitation cognitive, avec une attention particulière apportée à la respiration, et présentent des effets bénéfiques sur les fonctions cognitives (202,203) et motrices (202) chez les séniors. Mais l'on retrouve également la danse (199)pouvant être considérée comme une forme d'entraînement en DT (204)et certains jeux nécessitant des mouvements de la part des participants (196,198) Nous allons particulièrement nous intéresser aux jeux dans la partie à venir, car ils pourraient répondre à la problématique de l'adhérence aux programmes d'entraînement que l'on rencontre chez les sujets âgés, avec un attrait et un plaisir importants (207)(208)(209), ainsi qu'une complétion et une compliance élevées (207,(209)(210)(211)(212). 51 Licence CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 ...
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Le vieillissement entraîne un déclin des capacités cognitives, motrices, et à réaliser deux tâches simultanément (doubles tâches). Ces altérations peuvent augmenter les risques de chutes, la perte d’autonomie, voire la dégradation de la qualité de vie. Dans ce contexte, nous savons que les entraînements en doubles tâches sont efficaces pour maintenir ces fonctions. Le passage par le jeu dans les programmes d’entraînement (exergames) permet de motiver les participants et de maintenir leur engagement. L’objectif de notre travail était de concevoir, développer et évaluer l’efficacité d’un exergame personnalisé reposant sur le concept de l’interférence cognitivo-motrice auprès de séniors. Après avoir mesuré l’intensité de la sollicitation physique de cet exergame, nous avons évalué son efficacité à court et moyen terme pour l’amélioration des capacités cognitives, motrices et de doubles tâches chez des personnes âgées. Nous avons également mesuré l’impact de cet entraînement sur le niveau d’activité physique, la motivation, la peur de tomber et la qualité de vie des participants. Enfin, nous avons étudié le niveau de sécurité et d’adhérence de ce jeu. Nous avons ainsi montré que notre exergame était fonctionnel, utilisable comme support d’entraînement, sûr et apprécié par tous ses utilisateurs (participants comme animateurs). Nous avons également montré que cet exergame d’intensité modérée entrainait une amélioration des fonctions cognitives et un maintien des fonctions motrices des séniors. Ce projet répond aux enjeux actuels de meilleure compréhension de l’efficacité des exergames personnalisés et ouvre de nouvelles perspectives sur cette thématique.
... But it can also be dangerous, causing headaches, diarrhea, insomnia, fatigue, tremors and nausea. Among nonpharmaceutical interventions, both exercise and music are one of the effective methods to improve cognition (Al-Shargie et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2019). Different types of music have different effects on cognition and perception. ...
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Background Exercise is one of the effective ways to improve cognition. Different forms of exercises, such as aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and coordination exercise, have different effects on the improvement of cognitive impairment. In recent years, exergames based on Non-Immersive Virtual Reality (NIVR-Exergames) have been widely used in entertainment and have gradually been applied to clinical rehabilitation. However, the mechanism of NIVR-Exergames on improving motor cognition has not been clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find whether NIVR-Exergames result in a better neural response mechanism to improve the area of the cerebral cortex related to motor cognition under functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) dynamic monitoring in comparison with resistance exercise (resistance band stretching). Methods A cross-over study design was adopted in this study, and 15 healthy young subjects (18–24 years old) were randomly divided into group A ( n = 8) and group B ( n = 7) according to a computerized digital table method. Task 1 was an NIVR-Exergame task, and Task 2 was resistance band stretching. Group A first performed Task 1, rested for 30 min (i.e., a washout period), and then performed Task 2. Group B had the reverse order. The fNIRS test was synchronized in real time during exercise tasks, and heart rate measurements, blood pressure measurements, and 2-back task synchronization fNIRS tests were performed at baseline, Post-task 1, and Post-task 2. The primary outcomes were beta values from the general linear model (GLM) in different regions of interest (ROIs), and the secondary outcomes were heart rate, blood pressure, reaction time of 2-back, and accuracy rate of 2-back. Results The activation differences of Task 1 and Task 2 in the right premotor cortex (PMC) ( P = 0.025) and the left PMC ( P = 0.011) were statistically significant. There were statistically significant differences in the activation of the right supplementary motor area (SMA) ( P = 0.007), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) ( P = 0.031), left and right PMC ( P = 0.005; P = 0.002) between baseline and Post-task 1. The differences in systolic pressure (SBP) between the two groups at three time points among women were statistically significant ( P 1 = 0.009, P 2 < 0.001, P 3 = 0.044). Conclusion In this study, we found that NIVR-Exergames combined with motor and challenging cognitive tasks can promote the activation of SMA, PMC and DLPFC in healthy young people compared with resistance exercise alone, providing compelling preliminary evidence of the power for the rehabilitation of motor and cognitive function in patients with central nervous system diseases.
... We did not find any other metaanalysis that discussed the effect of different frequencies of mind-body excise on improving cognitive function in patients with PD. However, our result was consistent with a previous review showing that a moderate dose (60-120 min per week) might be the optimal mind-body exercise dose for improving cognitive function in older adults (Wu et al., 2019). A high-dose (>200 min per week) intervention did not exert an obvious effect on the global cognitive function of patients with PD, which might cause physical fatigue and prevent them from performing well. ...
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Objective: This study aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of mind–body exercise on global cognitive function, depression, sleep disorders, fatigue level, and quality of life (QOL) in a Parkinson’s disease (PD) population. Methods: Total six English and Chinese databases were searched for articles published up to May 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating mind–body excises on non-motor symptoms of PD were included. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality, and we defined high-quality studies as having a low risk of bias in four or more domains. Global cognitive function was considered the primary outcome and was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The secondary outcomes included QOL, fatigue, depression, and sleep quality, which were measured using the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), 16-item Parkinson’s Disease Fatigue Scale (PFS-16), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and revised Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS-2), respectively. Subgroup analyses were conducted for global cognitive function and QOL to assess the optimal treatment measure across the various mind–body exercises. Results: Fourteen RCTs with 404 patients were finally included in the meta-analysis. Eight (57.14%) studies were of high quality. The pooled results showed that mind–body exercises generally had a significant advantage over the control intervention in improving global cognitive function (MD = 1.68; P = 0.0008). The dose subgroup analysis revealed that the low dose (60–120 min per week) and moderate dose (120–200 min per week) significantly increased MoCA scores compared with the control group (MD = 2.11, P = 0.01; MD = 1.27, P = 0.02, respectively). The duration subgroup analysis indicated a significant difference in the effect of the duration (6–10 and >15 weeks) on increasing MoCA scores compared with the control group (MD = 3.74, P < 0.00001; MD = 1.45, P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Mind–body exercise may improve global cognitive function, sleep quality, and QOL in the PD population. In addition, low to moderate doses and appropriate durations significantly improved global cognitive function. Clinical Trial Registration: [ www.ClinicalTrials.gov ], identifier [CRD42021275522].
... Because of the great number of styles and lacking standards for research, the body of scientific literature on Yoga, while being vast, remains inconclusive. Nevertheless, it is the only activity, for which the body-mind aspect has been explicit subject of the research, and as problematic as the overall level of evidence still might be, there is also no doubt that practicing Yoga (as well Tai Chi, etc.) can have numerous positive effects on cognition, also in older adults (Wu et al., 2019). The growing interest in Yoga and its health effects, however, is currently leading to an increasing number of studies with greater quality. ...
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Evidence-based recommendations for lifestyles to promote healthy cognitive aging (exercise, education, non-smoking, balanced diet, etc.) root in reductionistic studies of mostly physical measurable factors with large effect sizes. In contrast, most people consider factors like autonomy, purpose, social participation and engagement, etc. as central to a high quality of life in old age. Evidence for a direct causal impact of these factors on healthy cognitive aging is still limited, albeit not absent. Ultimately, however, individual lifestyle is a complex composite of variables relating to both body and mind as well as to receiving input and generating output. The physical interventions are tied to the more subjective and mind-related aspects of lifestyle and wellbeing in the idea of the “embodied mind,” which states that the mind is shaped by and requires the body. The causality is reciprocal and the process is dynamic, critically requiring movement: the “embodied mind” is a “embodied mind in motion.” Hiking, playing musical instruments, dancing and yoga are examples of body–mind activities that assign depth, purpose, meaning, social embedding, etc. to long-term beneficial physical “activities” and increase quality of life not only as delayed gratification. The present motivational power of embodied activities allows benefiting from the side-effects of late-life resilience. The concept offers an access point for unraveling the mechanistic complexity of lifestyle-based prevention, including their neurobiological foundations.
... We observed an improvement in the language sub-score of the MoCA after NW training, but not dance training. In a previous meta-analysis, dance was found to be more effective for improving language fluency than Tai Chi or yoga [102]. Therefore, a high exercise load may be important for improving the effect of physical activity on language. ...
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Aerobic exercise improves executive function—which tends to decline with age—and dual-task training with aerobic exercise improves the global cognitive function. However, home-based older adults could not follow these programs due to social isolation during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Therefore, we conducted a single-blind randomized controlled trial with 88 healthy older adults without dementia or sarcopenia who were randomly assigned into the Nordic walking (aerobic exercise), dance (dual-task training with aerobic exercise), or control group. The participants in both exercise intervention groups trained for 30 min, three times per week, for 4 weeks. All groups consumed amino acid-containing foods three times per week. We found that both exercise intervention groups showed improvements in executive function, while the dance group showed additional improvement in global cognitive function. The dance group showed a higher maximum gait speed, greater improvement in imitation ability, and improved executive function and cognitive function than the Nordic walking group. The intervention programs did not significantly affect the muscle mass or muscle output than the control group; however, both programs improved the participant neurological functions such as the heel lift, with dance training being the most effective intervention. In conclusion, dance training effectively improves cognitive function.
... Previous studies have reported a valid effect of exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with and without cognitive impairment [38][39][40] with a general effect of exercise training [41][42][43]. For instance, all levels of physical activity were reported to have a significant and consistent protective effects against the occurrence of cognitive decline [44]. ...
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Background: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) continues to increase due to population aging. Exercise has been a supporting health strategy that may elicit beneficial effects on cognitive function and prevent dementia. Objective: This study aimed to examine the effects of aerobic, resistance, and multimodal exercise training on cognition in adults aged > 60 years with MCI. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase databases and ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov) up to November 2021, with no language restrictions. We included all published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of exercise programs on cognitive function with any other active intervention or no intervention in participants with MCI aged > 60 years. Results: Twelve RCTs were included in this review. Meta-analysis results revealed significant improvements in resistance training on measures of executive function (p < 0.05) and attention (p < 0.05); no significant differences were observed between aerobic exercise and controls on any of the cognitive comparisons. Conclusion: Exercise training had a small beneficial effect on executive function and attention in older adults with MCI. Larger studies are required to examine the effects of exercise and the possible moderators.
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Objectives To comprehensively determine the effect of dance activities on the cognitive functions and its sub-domains of older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods We obtained data from PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, China national knowledge infrastructure, Wanfang data, and VIP databases from 2017/01/01 to 2022/03/01. We included trials of older adults with MCI that underwent dance activity intervention and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two researchers independently assessed the quality of the study using the Cochrane risk of the bias assessment tool. Meta-analysis was performed when data were available, with further subgroup analysis, using Review Manager 5.4, and sensitivity analysis was performed using Stata software 15.1. Results Search terms yielded 183 articles, of which 12 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. This included 7 high-quality studies and 5 medium-quality studies. A total of 820 older adults were analyzed. Results showed that dance activity had beneficial effects for global cognition [SMD MMSE = 0.65, 95% CI MMSE (0.20, 1.09), p MMSE = 0.004; SMD MoCA = 0.87, 95% CI MoCA (0.44, 1.29), p MoCA < 0.0001], memory [SMD = 0.61, 95% CI (0.35, 0.88), p < 0.00001], visuospatial function [SMD = −0.39, 95% CI (−0.60, −0.19), p = 0.0002], cognitive flexibility [SMD = −0.31, 95% CI (−0.52, −0.11), p = 0.003], attention [SMD = 0.34, 95% CI (0.07, 0.61), p = 0.01], and balance [SMD = 1.25, 95% CI (0.06, 2.44), p = 0.04]. Further subgroup analysis showed that open-skill dance activity (OSDA) was more effective in promoting global cognition in older adults with MCI than closed-skill dance activity (CSDA) because of the different stimulation provided by the two types of dance activities in the brain regions of the older adults ( p = 0.0002). It could be speculated that dance activity improved cognitive function mainly by affecting the microstructure and function of the cingulate tract, hippocampus, cardiovascular function, and other brain areas of older adults with MCI. Conclusion Dance activities can significantly improve global cognition, memory, visuospatial function, cognitive flexibility, attention, and balance in older adults with MCI. However, more trials with rigorous study designs are necessary to provide more concrete evidence in the future.
Article
This overview study examined and synthesized the effect of Tai Chi (TC) on the physical conditions, psychological conditions, cognitive abilities, and quality of life (QoL) of older adults. This study was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 statement. Using Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, English-language systematic reviews (SRs) published within the latest decade (2010-2020) were included. SRs with meta-analysis were selected if TC was the examined intervention and older adults was the targeted population. A total of 16 SRs covering 89 original studies were included. A number of the pooled results of the included SRs were inconclusive. Taking into consideration of the new meta-analyses of this study, TC significantly improved most outcomes, including the mobility, pain level, physical function, psychological distress, depressive symptoms, anxiety, global cognitive function, mental speed and attention, learning ability, verbal fluency, executive function, and QoL of older adults. TC can be an effective intervention for older adults for improving physical and psychological conditions, cognitive abilities, and QoL. Additional high-quality studies with larger samples investigating the effectiveness of TC in older adults are warranted.
Article
An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the existing evidence of Tai Chi as a mind-body exercise for chronic illness management. MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases were searched from inception until 31st March 2019 for meta-analyses of at least two RCTs that investigated health outcomes associated with Tai Chi intervention. Evidence of significant outcomes (P-value <0.05) was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This review identified 45 meta-analyses of RCTs and calculated 142 summary estimates among adults living with 16 types of chronic illnesses. Statistically significant results (P-value <0.05) were identified for 81 of the 142 outcomes (57.0%), of which 45 estimates presenting 30 unique outcomes across 14 chronic illnesses were supported by high (n=1) or moderate (n=44) evidence. Moderate evidence suggests that Tai Chi intervention improved physical functions and disease-specific outcomes compared with non-active controls and cardiorespiratory fitness compared with active controls among adults with diverse chronic illnesses. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were observed in some meta-analyses.
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Importance: Falls increase morbidity and mortality in adults 65 years and older. The role of dance-based mind-motor activities in preventing falls among healthy older adults is not well established. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of dance-based mind-motor activities in preventing falls. Data sources: Systematic search included the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Abstracts in Social Gerontology, AgeLine, AMED, and Scopus databases from database inception to February 18, 2018, using the Medical Subject Headings aged 65 and older, accidental falls, and dancing. Study selection: This systematic review and meta-analysis included 29 randomized clinical trials that evaluated a dance-based mind-motor activity in healthy older adults with regard to fall risk, fall rate, or well-established measures of physical function in the domains of balance, mobility, and strength. The included studies targeted participants without comorbidities associated with higher fall risk. Dance-based mind-motor activities were defined as coordinated upright mind-motor movements that emphasize dynamic balance, structured through music or an inner rhythm (eg, breathing) and distinctive instructions or choreography, and that involve social interaction. Data extraction and synthesis: Standardized independent screening, data extraction, and bias assessment were performed. Data were pooled using random-effects models. The study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Main outcomes and measures: Primary outcomes were risk of falling and rate of falls. For the secondary end points of physical function (balance, mobility, and strength), standardized mean differences (SMDs) were estimated and pooled (Hedges g). Results: In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 29 randomized clinical trials, dance-based mind-motor activities were significantly associated with reduced (37%) risk of falling (risk ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.49-0.80; 8 trials, 1579 participants) and a significantly reduced (31%) rate of falls (incidence rate ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89; 7 trials, 2012 participants). In addition, dance-based mind-motor activities were significantly associated with improved physical function in the domains of balance (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.33-0.90; 15 trials, 1476 participants), mobility (SMD, -0.56; 95% CI, -0.81 to -0.31; 13 trials, 1379 participants), and lower body strength (SMD, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.23-0.91; 13 trials, 1613 participants) but not upper body strength (SMD, 0.18; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.38; 4 trials, 414 participants). Conclusion and relevance: Among healthy older adults, dance-based mind-motor activities were associated with decreased risk of falling and rate of falls and improved balance, mobility, and lower body strength. This type of activity may be useful in preventing falls in this population.
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The Fifth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCCDTD-5) was a year-long process to synthesize the best available evidence on several topics. Our group undertook evaluation of risk reduction, in eight domains: nutrition; physical activity; hearing; sleep; cognitive training and stimulation; social engagement and education; frailty; and medications. Here we describe the rationale for the undertaking and summarize the background evidence-this is also tabulated in the Appendix. We further comment specifically on the relationship between age and dementia, and offer some suggestions for how reducing the risk of dementia in the seventh decade and beyond might be considered if we are to improve prospects for prevention in the near term. We draw to attention that a well-specified model of success in dementia prevention need not equate to the elimination of cognitive impairment in late life.
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Introduction Physical activity is accomplished by the coordination of various organ systems of the human body, and physical exercise can positively impact the activities of many of these systems. Because the impact of high-intensity sports on human organs is different according to the environmental temperature and exercise intensity, we must make more detailed observations and discussions. Objective To analyze the changes in the body shape, function, and organ function of middle school students before and after high-intensity physical exercise through the study of human movement. Methods Through the experimental research on the characteristics of metabolic gas exchanges in high-intensity incremental load exercise of college students. Results There were statistically significant differences in the incidence of physiological reactions shown by the students who underwent high-intensity incremental load exercise, such as abdominal pain, dyspnea, tachycardia, nausea, dizziness, and muscle aches (P<0.05). Hypothermia was accompanied by a decrease in heart rate during exercise. Conclusion Carrying out overload training can effectively mediate physiological functions. It is an important, in improving sports performance, to carry out warm-up activities in a low-temperature environment to increase body temperature. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results. Keywords: Sports; Body temperature; Energy metabolism; Athletes
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Introduction According to clinical observations, traditional Chinese exercise (TCE) has a potential impact on patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, these findings still lack comprehensive assessment, therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the overall efficacy of TCE for CHF. Methods We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI and SinoMed databases from their inception to March 30, 2020. We included only published English and Chinese full-text articles on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving TCE compared with conventional therapy (usual care, conventional treatment or medical treatment) for CHF. Two reviewers independently conducted risk assessments for bias, and the data were analysed using the Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan v.5.3. Results The study included 22 trials conducted in hospitals with 1646 participants, and only one study was assessed as having a low risk of poor methodological quality. The comprehensive results indicated that compared to the conventional therapy, TCE effectively improved peak VO2 (MD = 0.85 ml/kg/min; 95% CI =0.32-1.38 ml/kg/min; P =0.002), reduced NT-proBNP (MD =-14.08 pg/ml; 95% CI =-17.88 to -10.28 pg/ml; P <0.00001), enhanced walking distance (MD = 41.33 m; 95% CI =33.96-48.71 m; P <0.00001), and improved quality of life (MD =−5.41 points; 95% CI = -8.13 to -2.7 points, P <0.0001) and LVEF (MD = 4.63%; 95% CI =2.34-6.91%; P <0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in BNP (MD =1.35 pg/ml; 95% CI =-71.17 to 73.87 pg/ml; P =0.97). Conclusion TCE may be beneficial for patients with CHF to improve their prognosis, and it appears to be relatively safe. The intensity and follow-up time of a TCE intervention appear to influence its effect. However, due to methodological weaknesses in the included trials, more RCTs of high quality with larger samples are needed to verify the role of TCE in CHF rehabilitation.
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Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos do treinamento cognitivo associado ao exercício físico no desempenho cognitivo de idosos com Doença de Alzheimer (Dos Santos Picanco et al.). Metodologia: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática com metanálise de ensaios clínicos controlados e cross-over. A busca na literatura foi realizada nas bases de dados Pubmed / MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, PEDro, Scopus, CINAHL e Web of Science, utilizando os descritores MeSH / DeCS. O risco de viés foi avaliado de acordo com as recomendações do Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions e a metanálise foi realizada com o software RevMan 5.3. Resultados: Dos 1126 artigos obtidos na busca, nove foram escolhidos para a síntese qualitativa e dois para a metanálise. Os dados da metanálise mostraram diferenças significativas no tamanho do efeito para as funções executivas e atenção avaliadas pelo Teste do Desenho do Relógio (Z = 3,05; p = 0,002) e funções cognitivas frontais avaliadas pela Bateria de Avaliação Frontal (Z = 3,56; p = 0,0004). Na análise qualitativa, sete estudos demonstraram efeitos positivos do treinamento cognitivo associado ao exercício físico na manutenção e melhora das funções cognitivas de idosos com DA. Conclusão: Apesar das limitações encontradas nos estudos disponíveis sobre o tema, pode-se sugerir que o treinamento cognitivo associado ao exercício físico apresenta benefícios no desempenho cognitivo de idosos com DA. No entanto, a escassez de estudos desenvolvidos com melhor rigor metodológico limita generalizações desses resultados.
Article
Objectives Geriatric depression is difficult to treat and frequently accompanied by treatment resistance, suicidal ideations and polypharmacy. New adjunctive mind-body treatment strategies can improve clinical outcomes in geriatric depression and reduce risk for side-effects of pharmacological treatments. Methods We conducted a 3-month randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and tolerability of combining Tai Chi Chih (TCC) or Health Education and Wellness training (HEW) with the stable standard antidepressant treatment on mood and cognitive functioning in depressed older adults (NCT02460666). Primary outcome was change in depression as assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) post-treatment. Remission was defined as HAM-D ≤ 6; naturalistic follow-up continued for six months. We also assessed psychological resilience, health-related quality of life and cognition. Results Of the 178 randomized participants, 125 completed the 3-month assessment and 117 completed the 6-month assessment. Dropout and tolerability did not differ between groups. Remission rate within TCC was 35.5% and 33.3%, compared to 27.0% and 45.8% in HEW, at 3 and 6 months respectively (χ²(1)=1.0, p=0.3; χ²(1)=1.9, p=0.2). Both groups improved significantly on the HAM-D at 3 and 6 months. TCC demonstrated a greater improvement in general health compared to HEW. Conclusions Both TCC and HEW combined with a standard antidepressant treatment improved symptoms of depression in older adults. While TCC was superior to HEW in improving general health, we did not find group differences in improvement in mood and cognition.
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The integrative model of effortful control presented in a previous article aimed to specify the neurophysiological bases of mental effort. This model assumes that effort reflects three different inter-related aspects of the same adaptive function. First, a mechanism anchored in the salience network that makes decisions about the effort that should be engaged in the current task in view of costs and benefits associated with the achievement of the task goal. Second, a top-down control signal generated by the mechanism of effort that modulates neuronal activity in brain regions involved in the current task to filter pertinent information. Third, a feeling that emerges in awareness during effortful tasks and reflects the costs associated with goal-directed behavior. The aim of the present article is to complete this model by proposing that the capacity to exert effortful control can be improved through training programs. Two main questions relative to this possible strengthening of willpower are addressed in this paper. The first question concerns the existence of empirical evidence that supports gains in effortful control capacity through training. We conducted a review of 63 meta-analyses that shows training programs are effective in improving performance in effortful tasks tapping executive functions and/or self-control with a small to large effect size. Moreover, physical and mindfulness exercises could be two promising training methods that would deserve to be included in training programs aiming to strengthen willpower. The second question concerns the neural mechanisms that could explain these gains in effortful control capacity. Two plausible brain mechanisms are proposed: (1) a decrease in effort costs combined with a greater efficiency of brain regions involved in the task and (2) an increase in the value of effort through operant conditioning in the context of high effort and high reward. The first mechanism supports the hypothesis of a strengthening of the capacity to exert effortful control whereas the second mechanism supports the hypothesis of an increase in the motivation to exert this control. In the last part of the article, we made several recommendations to improve the effectiveness of interventional studies aiming to train this adaptive function. “Keep the faculty of effort alive in you by a little gratuitous exercise every day.” James (1918, p. 127) “Keep the faculty of effort alive in you by a little gratuitous exercise every day.” James (1918, p. 127)
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Introduction: Home-based physical activity has several advantages, considering the barriers that adults encounter to site-based studies (i.e., travel, time, weather). Mind-body interventions (MBIs) have the potential to not only improve cognitive and emotional regulation, but also affect functional fitness via gentle muscular movements and exercises. The purpose of this scoping review was to review the evidence for MBIs that incorporate a home-based component to improve functional fitness outcomes (FFO). Given the variety of populations studied, varied structure and style of the interventions, and various FFOs tested, a scoping review was identified as the most appropriate approach. Methods: For this scoping review, we searched the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, SportDiscus, PsycInfo and Cochrane Library using keywords related to MBIs with a home-based component, FFOs, and adults from inception to May 2021. Results: We found 1,569 results and 14 studies met our inclusion criteria - 5 on Tai-chi, 5 on Yoga, 3 on Dance and 1 on Tai-chi and Yoga. Within the studies, 10 measured balance, 9 mobility, 4 fall risk, 4 strength and 2 flexibility. Study participants included healthy and clinical samples. The interventions ranged 6-17 weeks with home exercise ranging 1-5 days/week. Home instruction was delivered via video (10), handouts (4), and live instruction (3). On-site MBIs were supplemented by home-based exercise instruction in 12 studies. Twelve of the 14 studies observed significant improvements in FFOs. Conclusion: Only 4 of the 14 studies included a fully-home based MBI. Although each one of them showed significant effects on their respective FFOs, more studies are needed to compare their efficacy against on-site MBIs. Future research on fully home-based MBIs is needed as they could offer many advantages over in-person interventions in terms of fewer barriers, accessibility, cost-effectiveness and could be more sustainable over time.
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Background : Exercise is a promising non-pharmacological therapy for cognitive dysfunction, but it is unclear which type of exercise is most effective. The objective was to compare and rank the effectiveness of different exercise interventions on cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia and to examine the effects of exercise on the symptoms relevant to cognitive impairment. Methods : We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SPORTDiscus, and PsycInfo up to September 2019 and included randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of exercise interventions in patients with MCI or dementia. Primary outcomes included global cognition, executive cognition, and memory cognition. Secondary outcomes included activities of daily living, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and quality of life. Pairwise analyses and network meta-analyses were performed using a random effects model. Results : A total of 73 articles from 71 trials with 5606 participants were included. All types of exercise were effective in increasing or maintaining global cognition, and resistance exercise had the highest probability of being the most effective intervention in slowing the decrease in global cognition (standard mean difference (SMD) = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.56−1.54), executive function (SMD = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.21−1.49), and memory function (SMD = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.01−0.63) among patients with cognitive dysfunction. Subgroup analyses for patients with MCI revealed different effects, and multi-component exercise was most likely to be the optimal exercise therapy for preventing the decline of global cognition (SMD = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.44−1.54) and executive function (SMD = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.06−1.38). However, only resistance exercise showed significant effects on memory function for patients with MCI (SMD = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.01−0.69). Exercise interventions also showed various effects on the secondary outcomes. Conclusion : Resistance exercise had the highest probability of being the optimal exercise type for slowing cognitive decline in patients with cognitive dysfunction, especially in patients with dementia. Multi-component exercise tended to be most effective in protecting global cognition and executive function in patients with MCI.
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Chinese mind-body exercises (CMBEs) are positively associated with executive function (EF), but their effects on EF, from synthesized evidence using systematic and meta-analytic reviews, have not been conducted. Therefore, the present systematic review with meta-analysis attempted to determine whether CMBEs affect EF and its sub-domains, as well as how exercise, sample, and study characteristics moderate the causal relationship between CMBEs and EF in middle-aged and older adults. Seven electronic databases were searched for relevant studies published from the inception of each database through June 2020 (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Weipu). Randomized controlled trials with at least one outcome measure of CMBEs on EF in adults of mean age ≥ 50 years with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and with or without chronic diseases were included. A total of 29 studies ( N = 2,934) ultimately were included in this study. The results indicated that CMBEs improved overall EF (Standardized Mean Differences = 0.28, 95% CI 0.12, 0.44), as well as its sub-domains of working memory and shifting. The beneficial effects of CMBEs on EF occurred regardless of type (Tai Chi, Qigong), frequency of group classes (≤2 time, 3-4 time, ≥5 times), session time (≤45 min, 46-60 min), total training time (≥150 to ≤300 min, >300 min), and length of the CMBEs (4-12 week, 13-26 week, and >26 week), in addition to that more frequent participation in both group classes and home practice sessions (≥5 times per week) resulted in more beneficial effects. The positive effects of CMBEs on EF were also demonstrated, regardless of participants mean age (50-65 years old, >65 years old), sex (only female, both), and cognitive statuses (normal, MCI, not mentioned), health status (with chronic disease, without chronic disease), as well as training mode (group class, group class plus home practice) and study language (English, Chinese). This review thus suggests that CMBEs can be used as an effective method with small to moderate and positive effects in enhancing EF, and that more frequent group classes and home practice sessions may increase these effects. However, certain limitations, including strictly design studies, limited ES (effect size) samples for specific variables, and possible biased publications, required paying particular attention to, for further exploring the effects of CMBEs on EF.
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Background & Aims The aim of this study was to assess threshold effects and interactive effects of total zinc and selenium intake on cognitive function in older adults. Methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014. Zinc and selenium intake were obtained through two 24-hour dietary recalls. Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Smooth curve fitting, two-piecewise multivariable linear regression models, binary logistic regression model, multiplicative interactions model, and additive interactions model were used to evaluate the association between zinc, selenium intake and their interactive effect on cognitive function. Results A total of 2450 participants aged 60 years or older were included. Zinc and selenium intake was non-linearly associated with cognitive function. The inflection point for zinc intake was 8.94 mg/d in males and 7.58 mg/d in females. When zinc intake was below inflection point, zinc intake was positively associated with the DSST test in males (β=1.02, 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.60) and females (β=0.94, 95% CI, 0.26 to 1.62). When zinc intake above inflection point, there is no association between zinc intake and the DSST test in both sexs. The inflection point for selenium intake was 186.33 μg/d in males and 68.40 μg/d in females. Among males, the β (95% CIs) was 0.03 (0.01,0.06) to the left side of the inflection point and -0.06 (-0.10, -0.02) to the right of the inflection point. Among females, the β (95% CIs) was 0.13 (0.04,0.22) to the left side of the inflection point and 0.01 (-0.01,0.04) to the right of the inflection point. Besides, zinc and selenium have significant interaction on DSST test only in females (P=0.028, RERI=0.418). Conclusions The present study demonstrated that zinc and selenium intake was non-linearly associated with cognitive function in different sex. There was an interactive effect between zinc and selenium intake on improving cognitive function, especially in females.
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Aims To assess the effect of exercise interventions on subdomains of executive function (EF) in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods Nine electronic databases were comprehensively searched from their inception to February 2021. Randomized controlled trials examining the effect of exercise training on EF in MCI were included. Results Twenty-four eligible articles involving 2278 participants were identified. The results showed that exercise interventions had a positive benefit on working memory, switching and inhibition in MCI. Subgroup analysis based on exercise prescriptions revealed that both aerobatic exercise and mind-body exercise had similar positive effect size on working memory. However, only mind-body exercise had significant effect on switching. Exercise training with moderate frequency (3~4 times/week) had larger effect size than low frequency (1~2 times/week) and only moderate frequency had positive benefit on switching. Both short (4~12 weeks), medium (13~24 weeks) and long (more than 24 weeks) exercise duration significantly ameliorates working memory and switching however with short duration having slightly larger effect sizes than medium and long. Conclusion Exercise significantly improve three subdomains of EF in MCI, especially mind-body exercise. Exercise training stick to at least 4 weeks with 3~4 times a week tend to have larger effect size.
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Background Chronic pain is associated with poorer cognition and mobility, and fall risk in older adults. AimsTo investigate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial of mind-body exercise (Tai Chi) versus a light physical exercise in older adults with multisite pain. Methods Adults aged ≥ 65 years with multisite pain who reported falling in the past year or current use of an assistive device were recruited from Boston area communities. Participants were randomized to either a Tai Chi or a light physical exercise program, offered twice weekly for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes included pain characteristics, cognition, physical function, gait mobility, fear of falling, and fall rate. ResultsOf 176 adults screened, 85 were eligible, and 54 consented and were enrolled (average age 75 ± 8 years; 96.30% white; 75.93% female). The dropout rate was 18% for Tai Chi and 12% for light physical exercise. For those completing the study, exercise class attendance rate was 76% for Tai Chi and 82% for light physical exercise. There were no significant group differences in most secondary outcomes. Tai Chi significantly lowered pain severity (4.58 ± 1.73–3.73 ± 1.79, p < 0.01) and pain interference (4.20 ± 2.53 to 3.16 ± 2.28, p < 0.05), reduced fear of falling (90.82 ± 9.59 to 96.84 ± 10.67, p < 0.05), and improved several single-task and dual-task gait variables, while light physical exercise did not change these measures. Discussion and conclusionsThis study demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a larger randomized controlled trial in older adults with multisite pain. Study findings and challenges encountered will inform future research.
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Neuroimaging studies suggest that when the brain ages, more areas are involved to perform a task in order to obtain the same results. This, together with the increase in crystalized intelligence and wisdom, is usually considered as a compensatory strategy. Research has demonstrated that physical activity might also act as a strategy and be one of the main factors that can slow down age-related perceptual and cognitive decline. Research also suggests that different types of physical exercise and sport lead to different changes in perceptual and cognitive skills as well as in several areas of the brain, especially those involving multiple domains, such as exergaming, dance or some sports. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies with older adults investigating the brain and cognitive benefits of different forms of physical exercise. Visuospatial attention, which plays a critical role in our daily lives, especially for older adults, is a central part of this analysis.
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Purpose of review: A growing body of research supports the use of mind-body therapies (MBTs) as minimally invasive and effective approaches for the management of late-life mood and cognitive disorders. Recent findings: Recent randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses indicate that MBTs are effective for enhancing well-being, mood, sleep, and cognition in older adults. Evidence suggests that mindful movement (e.g., yoga, tai chi, walking meditation) may even outperform conventional physical exercise with regard to effects on quality of life, mood, and cognitive functioning. Practitioners may recommend MBTs as holistic, effective approaches for the management of common late-life mood and cognitive disorders. Continued research on MBTs will inform the development of even more effective/targeted interventions and contribute to greater acceptance and integration of these therapies into geriatric medicine and psychiatry.
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Objective: To update the 2001 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: The guideline panel systematically reviewed MCI prevalence, prognosis, and treatment articles according to AAN evidence classification criteria, and based recommendations on evidence and modified Delphi consensus. Results: MCI prevalence was 6.7% for ages 60-64, 8.4% for 65-69, 10.1% for 70-74, 14.8% for 75-79, and 25.2% for 80-84. Cumulative dementia incidence was 14.9% in individuals with MCI older than age 65 years followed for 2 years. No high-quality evidence exists to support pharmacologic treatments for MCI. In patients with MCI, exercise training (6 months) is likely to improve cognitive measures and cognitive training may improve cognitive measures. Major recommendations: Clinicians should assess for MCI with validated tools in appropriate scenarios (Level B). Clinicians should evaluate patients with MCI for modifiable risk factors, assess for functional impairment, and assess for and treat behavioral/neuropsychiatric symptoms (Level B). Clinicians should monitor cognitive status of patients with MCI over time (Level B). Cognitively impairing medications should be discontinued where possible and behavioral symptoms treated (Level B). Clinicians may choose not to offer cholinesterase inhibitors (Level B); if offering, they must first discuss lack of evidence (Level A). Clinicians should recommend regular exercise (Level B). Clinicians may recommend cognitive training (Level C). Clinicians should discuss diagnosis, prognosis, long-term planning, and the lack of effective medicine options (Level B), and may discuss biomarker research with patients with MCI and families (Level C).
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The aim of this study is to investigate and compare how 12-weeks of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercise can modulate brain structure and memory function in older adults. Magnetic resonance imaging and memory function measurements (Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese revised, WMS-CR) were applied at both the beginning and end of the study. Results showed that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin could significantly increase grey matter volume (GMV) in the insula, medial temporal lobe, and putamen after 12-weeks of exercise. No significant differences were observed in GMV between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups. We also found that compared to healthy controls, Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin significantly improved visual reproduction subscores on the WMS-CR. Baduanjin also improved mental control, recognition, touch, and comprehension memory subscores of the WMS-CR compared to the control group. Memory quotient and visual reproduction subscores were both associated with GMV increases in the putamen and hippocampus. Our results demonstrate the potential of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercise for the prevention of memory deficits in older adults.
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Background: Many studies have highlighted the positive effects of dance in people with neurodegenerative diseases. Objectives: To explore the effects of International Ballroom Dancing on cognitive function in elders with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods: One-hundred twenty-nine elderly patients with aMCI diagnosis (mean age 66.8 ± 10.1 years) were randomly assigned into 2 groups: intervention group (IG, n = 66) and control group (CG, n = 63). The IG exercised systematically for 10 months, and both groups were submitted to extensive neuropsychological assessment prior and after the 10-month period. Results: According to the independent sample t test at the follow-up, significant differences between groups were found in benefit of the IG while the CG showed worse performance in the majority of neuropsychological tests. According to the Student t test, better performance is detected in IG in contrast with CG, which had worse performance almost in all scales. Conclusion: Dance may be an important nonpharmacological approach that can benefit cognitive functions.
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Background Understanding how physical activity (PA) influences cognitive function in populations with cognitive impairments, such as dementia, is an increasingly studied topic yielding numerous published systematic reviews. In contrast, however, there appears to be less interest in examining associations between PA and cognition in cognitively healthy individuals. Therefore, the objective of this review was to evaluate and synthesize randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies that investigated the effects of both chronic and acute PA on working memory performance (WMP) in physically and cognitively healthy individuals. Methods Following the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review of studies published between August 2009 and December 2016 was performed on RCTs investigating the effects of chronic and acute PA on WMP with healthy participants as the sample populations. Searches were conducted in Annual Reviews, ProQuest, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Main inclusion criteria stipulated (1) healthy sample populations, (2) PA interventions, (3) WMP as an outcome, and (4) RCT designs. Descriptive statistics included cohort and intervention characteristics and a risk of bias assessment. Analytical statistics included meta-analyses and moderation analyses. Results From 7345 non-duplicates, 15 studies (eight chronic PA and seven acute PA studies) met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Overall, there was noticeable variance between both cohort and intervention characteristics. Sample populations ranged from primary school children to retirement community members with PA ranging from cycling to yoga. The majority of studies were characterized by “low” or “unclear” risk of selection, performance, detection, attrition, reporting, or other biases. Meta-analysis of chronic PA revealed a significant, small effect size while analysis of acute PA revealed a non-significant, trivial result. Age and intensity were significant moderators while allocation concealment, blinding, and intervention length were not. Conclusions Chronic PA can significantly improve WMP while acute PA cannot. The limiting factors for acute PA studies point to the diversity of working memory instruments utilized, unequal sample sizes between studies, and the sample age groups. Large-scale, high-quality RCTs are needed in order to provide generalizable and more powerful analysis between PA and WMP in a systematic approach. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13643-017-0514-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Background Global population aging will result in increasing rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, effective, low-cost, and low side-effect interventions for the treatment and prevention of cognitive decline are urgently needed. Our study is the first to investigate the effects of Kundalini yoga (KY) training on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods Older participants (≥55 years of age) with MCI were randomized to either a 12-week KY intervention or memory enhancement training (MET; gold-standard, active control). Cognitive (i.e. memory and executive functioning) and mood (i.e. depression, apathy, and resilience) assessments were administered at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks. Results At baseline, 81 participants had no significant baseline group differences in clinical or demographic characteristics. At 12 weeks and 24 weeks, both KY and MET groups showed significant improvement in memory; however, only KY showed significant improvement in executive functioning. Only the KY group showed significant improvement in depressive symptoms and resilience at week 12. Conclusion KY group showed short- and long-term improvements in executive functioning as compared to MET, and broader effects on depressed mood and resilience. This observation should be confirmed in future clinical trials of yoga intervention for treatment and prevention of cognitive decline (NCT01983930).
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Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Senior participants (age ≥55 years) with MCI were randomized to the MET or yogic meditation interventions. For both interventions, participants completed either MET training or Kundalini Yoga (KY) for 60-min sessions over 12 weeks, with 12-min daily homework assignments. Gray matter volume and metabolite concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and bilateral hippocampus were measured by structural MRI and 1H-MRS at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Metabolites measured included glutamate-glutamine (Glx), choline-containing compounds (Cho, including glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and N-acetyl aspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate (NAA-NAAG). In total, 11 participants completed MET and 14 completed yogic meditation for this study. Structural MRI analysis showed an interaction between time and group in dACC, indicating a trend towards increased gray matter volume after the MET intervention. 1H-MRS analysis showed an interaction between time and group in choline-containing compounds in bilateral hippocampus, induced by significant decreases after the MET intervention. Though preliminary, our results suggest that memory training induces structural and neurochemical plasticity in seniors with MCI. Further research is needed to determine whether mind-body interventions like yoga yield similar neuroplastic changes.
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Objectives Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind–body practices. Methods In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e.g., yoga) that combine movement, including chanting, with breath practices and meditation. Recent FindingsRecent meta-analyses and individual studies demonstrated common brain effects for attention-based meditative practices and active-based meditations in areas involved in reward processing and learning, attention and memory, awareness and sensory integration, and self-referential processing and emotional control, while deactivation was seen in the amygdala, an area implicated in emotion processing. Unique effects for mindfulness practices were found in brain regions involved in body awareness, attention, and the integration of emotion and sensory processing. Effects specific to active-based meditations appeared in brain areas involved in self-control, social cognition, language, speech, tactile stimulation, sensorimotor integration, and motor function. SummaryThis review suggests that mind–body practices can target different brain systems that are involved in the regulation of attention, emotional control, mood, and executive cognition that can be used to treat or prevent mood and cognitive disorders of aging, such as depression and caregiver stress, or serve as “brain fitness” exercise. Benefits may include improving brain functional connectivity in brain systems that generally degenerate with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other aging-related diseases.
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This research investigates the efficacy of dance intervention of moderate length (10-weeks, 45min/week) on a sample of old-old living in a residential care setting. The study focused on the effect of the intervention on aspects of cognitive functioning (short-term memory, executive functioning). Also, changes in general self-efficacy and life satisfaction were investigated. Twenty-four older adults (mean age M=80.8), with no cognitive impairments, participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to two programs: the experimental group attended the dance intervention, while the active control group was involved in an alternative (non-dance) program. A pretest, posttest and follow-up measurement was conducted. A 2x3 mixed design ANOVA revealed benefit in short-term memory and executive functioning for the trained group, but not for the active control, and this benefit was maintained at the five months follow-up. These results suggest that training procedures, based on dance, could improve cognitive functioning in old-old.
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Background: No study has explored the effect of yoga on cognitive decline and resting-state functional connectivity. Objectives: This study explored the relationship between performance on memory tests and resting-state functional connectivity before and after a yoga intervention versus active control for subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Participants ( ≥ 55 y) with MCI were randomized to receive a yoga intervention or active “gold-standard” control (i.e., memory enhancement training (MET)) for 12 weeks. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to map correlations between brain networks and memory performance changes over time. Default mode networks (DMN), language and superior parietal networks were chosen as networks of interest to analyze the association with changes in verbal and visuospatial memory performance. Results: Fourteen yoga and 11 MET participants completed the study. The yoga group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in depression and visuospatial memory. We observed improved verbal memory performance correlated with increased connectivity between the DMN and frontal medial cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, right middle frontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left lateral occipital cortex. Improved verbal memory performance positively correlated with increased connectivity between the language processing network and the left inferior frontal gyrus. Improved visuospatial memory performance correlated inversely with connectivity between the superior parietal network and the medial parietal cortex. Conclusion:Yoga may be as effective as MET in improving functional connectivity in relation to verbal memory performance. These findings should be confirmed in larger prospective studies.
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Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE). The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 min per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9 ± 6.9 years). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.25–0.36), while DANCE showed a larger reduction at the end of the 30-s walking task compared to BALANCE in the left PFC [F(1, 31) = 3.54, p = 0.035, r = 0.32]. These exercise training induced modulations in PFC oxygenation correlated with improved executive functions (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.31–0.50). The observed reductions in PFC activity may release cognitive resources to focus attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults.
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Background: Physical inactivity is commonly observed among individuals aged ≥ 60 y. Identified barriers to sedentary older adults beginning activity include low self-efficacy, pre-existing medical conditions, physical limitations, time constraints, and culture. Dancing has the potential to be an attractive physical activity that can be adjusted to fit a target population's age, physical limitations, and culture. Objectives: This review examined the benefits to physical health of dance interventions among older adults. Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic search using the PubMed database was conducted. Eighteen studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analyzed for type of intervention, the study's design, participants' demographics, and outcomes, including attrition. Results: The 18 articles reported on studies conducted in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. Of the styles of dancing, 6 studies used ballroom, 5 used contemporary, 4 used cultural, 1 used pop, and 2 used jazz. Two studies targeted older adults with pre-existing medical conditions. The average age of participants ranged from 52-87 y. Researchers used a variety of measures to assess effectiveness: (1) 3 of 5 (60%) that used measures to assess flexibility showed significant positive results; (2) 23 of 28 (82%) that used measures of muscular strength and endurance showed significant positive changes; (3) 8 of 9 (89%) that used measures of balance showed significant positive changes; (4) 8 of 10 (80%) that used measures of cognitive ability showed significant positive changes; and (5) the one that measured cardiovascular endurance showed significant positive changes. Only 6 studies reported participation, and they found low attrition. Conclusions: The findings suggest that dance, regardless of its style, can significantly improve muscular strength and endurance, balance, and other aspects of functional fitness in older adults. Future researchers may want to analyze the effects of dance on mental health and explore ways to make this intervention attractive to both genders. Standardizing outcome measures for dance would facilitate meta-analysis.
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Background: Cognitive impairment is a health problem that concerns almost every second elderly person. Physical and cognitive training have differential positive effects on cognition, but have been rarely applied in combination. This study evaluates synergistic effects of mul- ticomponent physical exercise complemented with novel simultaneous cognitive training on cognition in older adults. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical components would add training specific cognitive benefits compared to exclusively physical training. Methods: Seniors, older than 70 years, without cognitive impairment, were randomly assigned to either: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultane- ous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were calculated. Results: Eighty-nine participants were randomized to the three groups initially, 71 completed the training, while 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. Advantages of the simultaneous cognitive–physical programs were found in two dimensions of executive function. “Shifting attention” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE/MEMORY versus PHYS (F[2, 68] =1.95, trend P=0.075, r=0.17); and “working memory” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE versus MEMORY (F[1, 136] =2.71, trend P=0.051, R2=0.006). Performance improvements in executive functions, long-term visual memory (episodic memory), and processing speed were maintained at follow-up in all groups. Conclusion: Particular executive functions benefit from simultaneous cognitive–physical training compared to exclusively physical multicomponent training. Cognitive–physical training programs may counteract widespread cognitive impairments in the elderly. Keywords: elderly, executive function, transfer, cognitive impairment, dance, video game
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A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11–0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging.
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[Purpose] To investigate the effect of Tai Chi on cognitive and physical function in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized trial design was used. A total 150 subjects were enrolled and were divided into Tai Chi and control groups. Subjects in the Tai Chi group participated Tai Chi for 6 months, and subjects in the control group participated in other non-athletic activities. [Results] There were no differences between the groups in the one leg standing time with eyes open, left grip strength, or the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores after 3 and 6 months were higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. The right grip strength after 3 months increased more in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. Both the 5-m high walking speed and 10-m normal walking speed were significantly lower after 3 and 6 months of Tai Chi practice. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular Tai Chi practice may improve cognitive and physical function in the elderly.
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In 2008, the Cochrane Collaboration introduced a tool for assessing the risk of bias in clinical trials included in Cochrane reviews. The risk of bias (RoB) tool is based on narrative descriptions of evidence-based methodological features known to increase the risk of bias in trials. To assess the usability of this tool, we conducted an evaluation by means of focus groups, online surveys and a face-to-face meeting. We obtained feedback from a range of stakeholders within The Cochrane Collaboration regarding their experiences with, and perceptions of, the RoB tool and associated guidance materials. We then assessed this feedback in a face-to-face meeting of experts and stakeholders and made recommendations for improvements and further developments of the RoB tool. The survey attracted 380 responses. Respondents reported taking an average of between 10 and 60 minutes per study to complete their RoB assessments, which 83% deemed acceptable. Most respondents (87% of authors and 95% of editorial staff) thought RoB assessments were an improvement over past approaches to trial quality assessment. Most authors liked the standardized approach (81%) and the ability to provide quotes to support judgements (74%). A third of participants disliked the increased workload and found the wording describing RoB judgements confusing. The RoB domains reported to be the most difficult to assess were incomplete outcome data and selective reporting of outcomes. Authors expressed the need for more guidance on how to incorporate RoB assessments into meta-analyses and review conclusions. Based on this evaluation, recommendations were made for improvements to the RoB tool and the associated guidance. The implementation of these recommendations is currently underway. Overall, respondents identified positive experiences and perceptions of the RoB tool. Revisions of the tool and associated guidance made in response to this evaluation, and improved provision of training, may improve implementation.
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Backgrounds Cognitive impairment is prevalent among older adults and results in degraded quality of life for older adults. As the population ages, this may cause a huge burden to society. Research has demonstrated that physical exercise is beneficial to cognitive function. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to critically assess the effect of Tai Chi exercise on global cognitive, executive, and memory functions in older adults. Methods After a thorough electronic search and selection, eight studies were included in this meta-analysis with two cross-sectional and six intervention studies. Nine variables included in this meta-analysis were: mini mental status examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), trailmaking test part A (TMA), trailmaking test part B (TMB), digit span test forward (DSF), digit span test backward (DSB), visual span test backward (VSB), verbal fluency test (VFT), and word delay recall test (WDR). The effect sizes and forest plots of these nine variables were generated. Results Four (MMSE, DSB, VSB, and VFT) out of nine variables were significantly improved after Tai Chi exercise with the effect sizes ranged from 0.20 to 0.46 (small to medium). MMSE represented global cognitive function, and DSB, VSB, and VFT represented memory function. Conclusion Tai Chi as a mind-body exercise has the positive effects on global cognitive, and memory functions, and more consistent positive effects were found on memory function, especially verbal working memory.