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Delimitation of Funga as a valid term for the diversity of fungal communities: The Fauna, Flora & Funga proposal (FF & F)

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As public policies and conservation requirements for biodiversity evolve there is a need for a term for the kingdom Fungi equivalent to Fauna and Flora. This need is considered to be urgent in order to simplify projects oriented toward implemention of educational and conservation goals. In an informal meeting held during the IX Congreso Latinoamericano de Micología by the authors, the idea of clarifying this matter initiated an extensive search of pertinent terminologies. As a result of these discussions and reviews, we propose that the word Funga be employed as an accurate and encompassing term for these purposes. This supports the proposal of the three Fs, Fauna, Flora and Funga, to highlight parallel terminology referring to treatments of these macrorganism of particular geographical areas. Alternative terms and proposals are acknowledged and discussed.
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MYCOLENS
VOLUME 9 · NO. 2 (71)
Delimitation of Funga as a valid term for the
diversity of fungal communities: the Fauna,
Flora & Funga proposal (FF&F)
Francisco Kuhar1, Giuliana Furci2, Elisandro Ricardo Drechsler-Santos3, and Donald H. Pster4
1Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-UNC), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, CC 495, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina; corresponding author
e-mail: uhar@gmail.com
2Fundación Fungi, José Zapiola 8240 E, La Reina, Santiago 7860292, Chile
3Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia de Fungos, Algas e Plantas (PPGFAP), Departamento de Botânica Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC),
Florianópolis, Santa Catarina 88040-900, Brasil
4Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Abstract: As public policies and conservation requirements for biodiversity evolve there is a need for a term for the kingdom Fungi equivalent to Fauna and Flora. is
need is considered to be urgent in order to simplify projects oriented toward implemention of educational and conservation goals. In an informal meeting held during
the IX Congreso Latinoamericano de Micología by the authors, the idea of clarifying this matter initiated an extensive search of pertinent terminologies. As a result of
these discussions and reviews, we propose that the word Funga be employed as an accurate and encompassing term for these purposes. is supports the proposal of the
three Fs, Fauna, Flora and Funga, to highlight parallel terminolog y referring to treatments of these macrorganism of particular geographical areas. Alternative terms and
proposals are acknowledged and discussed.
Key words: conservation, mycobiota, mycota
INTRODUCTION
e desirability of having a collective
term to use for all the fungi present in
a region, equivalent to fauna and ora,
has increasingly come to be recognized
amongst mycologists active in conservation
movements. Various suggestions as to an
appropriate term to be used have been made,
summarized by Hawksworth (2000), but
there has been no overall consensus amongst
the mycological community as to which
should be commended for general use. We
recognized this problem during the IX
Congreso Latinoamericano de Micología
in Lima, Peru, in 2017, and undertook to
analyze the options. We concluded that
Funga was the most appropriate term, and
present our arguments for the adoption of
that term here.
ETYMOLOGY
We propose that the word Funga be used
for descriptive, systematic treatments of the
fungi of a particular area. is usage parallels
that of Fauna and Flora. Fauna and Flora
have been in standard use since the time of
Linnaeus, whose Flora Lapponica (Linnaeus
1737) was, in the words of Candolle (1813),
the “opera prima of the genre Flora. Since
classical times, the words Fauna and Flora
have appeared referring to mythological
and/or literary beings. Of Latin origin,
Flora can be found in ancient texts, such as
Macrobius, Lactantius and others, referred
to as a fertility goddess of owers, plants,
spring and youth (Seyert 1895). e
most probable origin of this cult dates to
the Sabine cultures which inhabitated the
Latium long before the foundation of Rome
(Hornblower et al. 2012). Ovid’s mention
of Flora in Fasti (V.193-212) gives evidence
that Flora is a variant of the Greek deity
Χωρί (Chloris), already mentioned in
Homer’s work and others (Crusius 1857).
is is related to the modern greek χλωρό
(Chloros), refering to the colour “green. e
word Fauna also is of classic mythological
origin refering to a Latin goddess, the wife,
daughter or sister (depending on the source)
of Faunus. is is a Latin equivalent of the
ancient Greek Πάν (Pan) (Murley 1922).
Although alternative origins of this term
were suggested by Varro (1996) and Servius
(1881), their etymologies were probably
coined in a metaphorical sense. e word
Funga has appeared in recent times and is
without classical antecedents. It is not found
in the 10th edition of Ainsworth & Bisby’s
Dictionary of the Fungi (Kirk et al. 2008)
although it had already been applied by
Dörfelt & Jetschke (2001). It is an articial
linguistic construction, clearly analogous
to Fauna and Flora, and based on the Latin
word fungus, which in turn derives from the
Greek σφοο (sphongos) for ‘sponge’.
e only Greek-Latin deity exclusively
related to a fungal entity was the god
Robigus (or his female variant Robigo,
depending on the source). Etymologically
related to the rusts, “Robigus was also
regarded as among those gods whom it is
a duty to placate so that they deect the
malign inuences away from us or the
harvests” in the words of Aulus Gellius
(Woodard 2010). ese rituals took place
during the Robigalia which involved games
and sacrices (Beard et al. 1998). However,
the relationship of Robigus to the fungal
kingdom is anachronistic, since fungi,
including the rusts, where not recognised
as a group until modern times. e absence
of a mythological reference to fungi may be
due to the classication of mushrooms as
plants, a view held well into the 20th centur y.
To our knowledge, the rst image of
a Greek-Latin deity evidently related to
mushrooms is found on the title page of
Schaeer’s work on the mushrooms of
Bavaria and the Palatinate (Schaeer 1774;
Fig. 1). is image is an obvious reference
to the goddess Diana (Latin equivalent
of Artemis) inspired by its Ephesian
representation, whose temple was counted
among the seven wonders of the ancient
world. e cult of the Ephesian Artemis
was related to herbs, fertility, and breeding,
IMA FUNGUS
MYCOLENS
(72)
this is in clear contrast to the other classical
concepts of this goddess, which depict her
as a hunter (Fleischer 1973). e cult the
the Ephesian Artemis was widespread and
even the New Testament remarks on the
embrace of this belief among the people
even in the rst century (Acts 19 v. 35).
Schaeer’s “Diana-Funga” (in our words)
can be interpreted as a pre-romantic re-
creation that attempts to include the study
of mushrooms in the framework of a classic
tradition, furthermore the animals present in
the tapering pillar of the Ephesian statue were
replaced by chanterelles (ubiquitous and very
appreciated in Bavaria and the Palatinate)
and some agarics or boletes. Also included in
this depiction are gures of cherubs collecting
mushrooms around the goddess.
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL
REFERENCES
Originally coined by Gravesen (2000),
the term Funga was applied to delimit
and dene the fungal taxa occurring in
a certain region (Knudsen & Vesterholt
2008, Eyjólfsdóttir 2009, Knudsen 2012,
Kunttu et al. 2012) or associated with food
(Decker & Nielsen 2005, Filtenborg et
al. 1996) or building materials (Gravesen
2000). is infrequent but appropriate
use of the term provides a solid base on
which to build on the concept of such
works and, thus, allowing an unequivocal
transmission of scientic knowledge. We
think that the use of the word Funga,
referring to the taxonomic composition
of a fungal community, would be in
harmony with the tradition promoted by
Linnaeus’ Flora. Although rst discussed
by Hawksworth (2000) in a neutral way,
commending “mycobiota” if a term was
required at all, in the light of the movement
to transition to an independent fungal
terminology, as “myco-” was perhaps not
as immediately recognized as equivalent
to fungi by naturalists in general, he later
considered Funga had much to commend it
(Hawksworth 2010).
Similar concepts to Funga are delimited
also by the composite articial, Greek-
rooted terms Mycoora, Mycobiota
or Mycota. Mycoora is a Greek-Latin
composition that was introduced with the
recognition that fungi were not plants.
Since fungi are now recognized as separate
from the plant kingdom it is illogical to
apply the term ora to treatments including
fungi. Use of the term Mycoora is a source
of confusion for teaching purposes due to
the non-correspondence of the roots of the
word. Funga provides a purely myco-based
term and follows the pattern of recent years
to eliminate plant-based terminology and
is in accord with the recommendation that
fungarium be use rather than herbarium
(Hawksworth 2010).
More recently, signicant changes
were made during the XVIII International
Botanical Congress held in Melbourne,
Australia, in 2011. One of the most
important changes was to rename the Code:
International Code of Nomenclature for
algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; Turland et al.
2018). is formally recognized organisms
treated as fungi as distinct from and at the
same level as plants.
e word Mycota has been widely
used in technical literature to refer to
what we are calling Funga. However, it is
considered by many authors (e.g. Allaby
2012) to be a taxonomic synonym of
Fungi, the name of the kingdom, and thus
its use as an alternative is misleading and
not completely accurate. e term Fungi
is not a good alternative for Funga, just as
Viridiplantae is not an alternative for Flora,
nor Animalia for Fauna. Further, “-mycota
is a sux used to indicate the rank of
phylum of all organisms treated as fungi
under the ICN (Turland et al. 2018), as in
Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, so its use at
the rank of kingdom could be misleading
as to the intended rank; this was the
principle reason this was not favoured by
Hawksworth (2000). Indeed, as a sux,
-mycota remains the termination to be used
for phyla applied to all organism treated
as fungi for the purposes of nomenclature,
and so can be applied to non-fungal
eukaryotic organisms such as Oomycota
(Arx 1967), Myxomycota (Alexopoulos et
al. 1996), and has even in the past been
used for some prokaryotes not regulated
under the ICN, such as Actinomycota
(Copeland 1956). e usage of this
sux therefore makes this option more
ambiguous and potentially misleading than
the terminology derived from the Latin
fungus that has not been used to indicate a
particular taxonomic rank.
Finally, the term Mycobiota has also
been applied to the fungal components of a
community and can be considered a synonym
of Funga. Although entirely correct, we
think that the educational and governmental
sectors would better accept a latinized
term in accordance with Fauna and Flora.
e neo-Greek composition Mycobiota
also would present orthographic variations
(e.g. Micobiota in Spanish) which would
sound strange to the public from dierent
linguistic origins, as it happens with biology
– biología. As a response to an inquiry made
to the Real Academia Española, the word
‘hongos’ (Spanish for fungi) was suggested
to complete the trilogy of the three mostly
macroscopic Kingdoms of life (Cesar Marín,
pers. comm.). Unlike Fauna and Flora, the use
of this term would be restricted to Spanish-
speaking readers, and translations would be
needed for every other language. is would
Fig. 1. A. Diana “Funga” as depicted on the cover of Schaeer (1774). B. Reproduction by the Brazilian artist
Claudio Toscan jr.
MYCOLENS
VOLUME 9 · NO. 2 (73)
be out of line with the aim of universality in
scientic language.
Finally, we suggest that the
incorporation of fungi in educational,
political and conservation contexts would
be more meaningful and eective through
the phrase “Fauna, Flora, and Funga” which
would be intelligible for readers of a wide
range of linguistic origins and sociocultural
sectors. e abbreviation “FF&F” is also
appropriate in the current era of short
communications that represent large
concepts. e concept of the 3Fs also will
assists decision makers in the incorporation
of fungi into every aspect of a countries’
reference to nature and enable the adoption
of policy that incorporates these three larger
macroscopic kingdoms.
GRAMMATICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
e word Funga, standing beside Fauna
and Flora, must be considered a feminine
singular nominative substantive in the
rst Latin declension. Despite the almost
exclusive use in the singular, as in most
collective nouns, the singular genitive as
well as the plural nominative forms must
be Fungae, as it has been used in the plurals
Florae (e.g. Jalas & Suominen 1988, for the
singular genitive) or Faunae (e.g. Barbour &
Loveridge 1928, Yeates & Brid 1994, for the
plural nominative).
IMPORTANCE OF
TERMINOLOGY FOR
CONSERVATION
Species conservation on a global scale
commonly refers to living macroscopic
organisms as Fauna and Flora, with the
total omission of fungi or any microscopic
organisms. Nevertheless, countries like
Chile have taken pioneering steps towards
an ecosystem view of nature through
the incorporation of kingdom Fungi in
public policy (República de Chile 2010:
Par. 4, Arts. 37–38). is has given the
country eective protection of plants,
animals, and fungi, but other countries’
legislation mentions only Fauna and Flora
and sometimes microorganisms, or refers
to “wildlife” – which to many equates to
vertebrates. By the omission of fungi, these
organisms so critical to the maintenance
of healthy ecosystem processes, are
unrecognized and unrepresented.
e international acceptance of the
recognition of the macroscopic organisms
of Earth as Fauna, Flora, and Funga
paves the way for substantial changes in
educational and agricultural policies,
amongst others. is will facilitate the
incorporation of mycology in matters of
national interest, such as conservation,
habitat protection, species protection,
and education. e use of the 3Fs in
overarching international assemblies,
such as the International Union for the
Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the
Convention on Biological Diversity of
the United Nations (CBD), will provide a
modern foundation for reference to what
is emerging as one of the largest groups of
organisms on Earth.
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... The term "plant" is used in BF2020 to encompass all embryophytes (from bryophytes to flowering plants), while "land plants" includes both the non-vascular bryophytes and the vascular land plants. Funga is used as an equivalent term to flora (Kuhar & al., 2018). ...
... The term "plant" is used in BF2020 to encompass all embryophytes (from bryophytes to flowering plants), while "land plants" includes both the non-vascular bryophytes and the vascular land plants. Funga is used as an equivalent term to flora (Kuhar & al., 2018). ...
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The shortage of reliable primary taxonomic data limits the description of biological taxa and the understanding of biodiver-sity patterns and processes, complicating biogeographical, ecological, and evolutionary studies. This deficit creates a significant taxo-nomic impediment to biodiversity research and conservation planning. The taxonomic impediment and the biodiversity crisis arewidely recognized, highlighting the urgent need for reliable taxonomic data. Over the past decade, numerous countries worldwidehave devoted considerable effort to Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC), which called for the preparationof a working list of all known plant species by 2010 and an online world Flora by 2020. Brazil is a megadiverse country, home to moreof the world’s known plant species than any other country. Despite that, Flora Brasiliensis, concluded in 1906, was the last comprehensive treatment of the Brazilian flora. The lack of accurate estimates of the number of species of algae, fungi, and plantsoccurring in Brazil contributes to the prevailing taxonomic impediment and delays progress towards the GSPC targets. Over the past12 years, a legion of taxonomists motivated to meet Target 1 of the GSPC, worked together to gather and integrate knowledge on thealgal, plant, and fungal diversity of Brazil. Overall, a team of about 980 taxonomists joined efforts in a highly collaborative project thatused cybertaxonomy to prepare an updated Flora of Brazil, showing the power of scientific collaboration to reach ambitious goals.This paper presents an overview of the Brazilian Flora 2020 and provides taxonomic and spatial updates on the algae, fungi, and plantsfound in one of the world’s most biodiverse countries. We further identify collection gaps and summarize future goals that extend be-yond 2020. Our results show that Brazil is home to 46,975 native species of algae, fungi, and plants, of which 19,669 are endemic tothe country. The data compiled to date suggests that the Atlantic Rainforest might be the most diverse Brazilian domain for all plantgroups except gymnosperms, which are most diverse in the Amazon. However, scientific knowledge of Brazilian diversity is still un-equally distributed, with the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado being the most intensively sampled and studied biomes in the coun-try. In times of “scientific reductionism”, with botanical and mycological sciences suffering pervasive depreciation in recent decades,the first online Flora of Brazil 2020 significantly enhanced the quality and quantity of taxonomic data available for algae, fungi, andplants from Brazil. This project also made all the information freely available online, providing a firm foundation for future researchand for the management, conservation, and sustainable use of the Brazilian funga and flora.
... The term "plant" is used in BF2020 to encompass all embryophytes (from bryophytes to flowering plants), while "land plants" includes both the non-vascular bryophytes and the vascular land plants. Funga is used as an equivalent term to flora (Kuhar & al., 2018). ...
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The shortage of reliable primary taxonomic data limits the description of biological taxa and the understanding of biodiversity patterns and processes, complicating biogeographical, ecological, and evolutionary studies. This deficit creates a significant taxonomic impediment to biodiversity research and conservation planning. The taxonomic impediment and the biodiversity crisis are widely recognized, highlighting the urgent need for reliable taxonomic data. Over the past decade, numerous countries worldwide have devoted considerable effort to Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC), which called for the preparation of a working list of all known plant species by 2010 and an online world Flora by 2020. Brazil is a megadiverse country, home to more of the world's known plant species than any other country. Despite that, Flora Brasiliensis, concluded in 1906, was the last comprehensive treatment of the Brazilian flora. The lack of accurate estimates of the number of species of algae, fungi, and plants occurring in Brazil contributes to the prevailing taxonomic impediment and delays progress towards the GSPC targets. Over the past 12 years, a legion of taxonomists motivated to meet Target 1 of the GSPC, worked together to gather and integrate knowledge on the algal, plant, and fungal diversity of Brazil. Overall, a team of about 980 taxonomists joined efforts in a highly collaborative project that used cybertaxonomy to prepare an updated Flora of Brazil, showing the power of scientific collaboration to reach ambitious goals. This paper presents an overview of the Brazilian Flora 2020 and provides taxonomic and spatial updates on the algae, fungi, and plants found in one of the world's most biodiverse countries. We further identify collection gaps and summarize future goals that extend beyond 2020. Our results show that Brazil is home to 46,975 native species of algae, fungi, and plants, of which 19,669 are endemic to the country. The data compiled to date suggests that the Atlantic Rainforest might be the most diverse Brazilian domain for all plant groups except gymnosperms, which are most diverse in the Amazon. However, scientific knowledge of Brazilian diversity is still unequally distributed, with the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado being the most intensively sampled and studied biomes in the country. In times of “scientific reductionism”, with botanical and mycological sciences suffering pervasive depreciation in recent decades, the first online Flora of Brazil 2020 significantly enhanced the quality and quantity of taxonomic data available for algae, fungi, and plants from Brazil. This project also made all the information freely available online, providing a firm foundation for future research and for the management, conservation, and sustainable use of the Brazilian funga and flora.
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Background Foraminispora rugosa is a species reported from Brazil, Venezuela, French Guiana, Costa Rica and Cuba. It is a basidiomycete in the Ganodermataceae family. In this study, both chemical composition and cytotoxicity of the ethanolic extract of F. rugosa were investigated for the first time. Results Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the identification of the specimens, and the results of cytotoxicity assays showed that at concentrations of 7.8–500.0 µg/mL the ethanolic extract displayed weak cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines. Five oxylipins were identified by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF–MS). Conclusions This study provides new insights into the current knowledge of bioactive compounds produced by macrofungi, and provides data for future biological assays with relative selectivity and safety.
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Athelicium hallenbergii, Tomentella albomarginata, Tomentella cinereoumbrina, Tubulicrinopsis granulose and Tulasnella calospora are reported as new to Finland. New records of Lindtneria chordulata, Phlebia cremeoalutacea, Tomentella coerulea, Tomentella terrestris, Tomentellopsis zygodesmoides, Trechispora araneosa, Trechispora caucasica, Trechispora minima and nine other little collected species are presented and notes of their substrates are given. Many of these records were made in Southwestern Finland, from the forested islands of the Archipelago Sea. In addition we list 33 aphyllophoroid fungi as new to some section of the boreal vegetation zone in Finland.
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Published in 1891, this revised edition of Oskar Seyffert's Dictionary provides comprehensive coverage of Greek and Roman antiquities, and extends its range to incorporate the areas of mythology and literature. From Abacus to Zosimus, over 2,500 articles cover topics including the lives and work of Greek and Roman philosophers, historians, orators, poets and artists, and related subjects including Greek and Roman religion, philosophy, rhetoric, literature, architecture, painting, sculpture, music and drama. A landmark publication in its time, it is still regarded as factually reliable, and although there have been considerable advances in the interpretation of the data it is valuable as a benchmark for the state of classical scholarship in the late nineteenth century. Enhanced by over 450 illustrations, the volume gives the Latin equivalent for every Greek word, and contains a thorough index.