Chapter

Mental Health in the Islamic Golden Era: The Historical Roots of Modern Psychiatry

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

“Islam the religion is a system of beliefs and practices initially revealed by Allah to Muhammad, enshrined in the Arabic Koran, supplemented by tradition, and modified through the ages in response to changes in time and place… Islam the culture is a compound of varied elements [and] was mainly formulated by conquered peoples, Arabicized and Islamized, rather than by Arabians. It holds the distinction of having been, from the mid-eighth century to the end of the twelfth century, unmatched in its brilliancy and unsurpassed in its literary, scientific, and philosophical output” (Hitti, Islam, a way of life. Regnery Gateway: Washington, DC, 1987). Islam is considered to be a complete code of life by its followers, one that covers every domain of human life including economic, social, political, ethical, religious, and cultural values. It proposes instructions, etiquettes, and standards, addressing fine details for daily living that range from topics such as relationships and rights to proper hygiene, clean eating, and physical and spiritual detoxification. This helps explain the integral role of religion in the lives of Muslims and why religion is frequently referenced as it promises guidance for those who are in pursuit of happiness and success and who wish to live a well-balanced life. The Quran and Hadith, the recorded sayings of Prophet Muhammad, are the two main sources from which Muslims obtain Islamic guidance. In this chapter, the authors will discuss the significance of mental health in Islam, offering an Islamic outlook on its comprehensive construct, a walk through the historical understanding and classifications of mental and psychological illnesses, including developments from major Muslim scholars and their treatises, and finally a brief exploration of pioneering methods used for treatment and care. https://www.academia.edu/38214693/Mental_Health_in_the_Islamic_Golden_Era_The_Historical_Roots_of_Modern_Psychiatry

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Awaad et al., 2019;Haque et al., 2016;Haque & Keshavarzi, 2014;Keshavarzi & Haque, 2013;Rathod, 2017), developing measures (H. AbuRaiya et al., 2008;Jha et al., 2016;Khan & Watson, 2006), suggesting new methods, concepts or approaches(Al-Karam, 2018;Farooqi, 2006; M. I. Husain et al., 2017; Sabry & Vohra, 2013;Skinner, 2010), or conceptualization/founding Islamized psychotherapy(Badri, 2000;Bagasra, 2019;Mitha, 2020;Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob, 2013;Rothman, 2019), etc. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Psychoeducation on sadness from the Holy Qur'an, see Abstract here: http://irep.iium.edu.my/90841/1/3WCII%202021%20abstract%20book.pdf This paper had been double-masked reviewed by internal and external reviewers of WCII-3, IIUM Kuantan, 2021. +Europe PMC Plus: http://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR384519 Please contact to collaborate verifying the psychoeducation.
... Ini adalah rumah sakit jiwa pertama di dunia. Menurut pandangan al Razi, gangguan mental dianggap kondisi medis, dan dirawat dengan menggunakan psikoterapi dan perawatan obat (Awaad, Mohammad, Elzamzamy, Fereydooni, & Gamar, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
The article discusses a description of how Islam as a religion views psychology and its approach to certain mental problems according to Islamic teachings. This paper is more of a lierarature review on the contribution of Islam to psychology and should serve as a catalyst for future research. It should also be noted that the literature on the contribution of Islam to psychology is limited and very spreaded. The author relies on various studies of relevant material from books on this topic. Abstrak Artikel ini membahas tentang bagaimana Islam sebagai agama memandang psikologi dan pendekatannya terhadap masalah kesehatan mental menurut ajaran Islam. Artikel ini lebih merupakan tinjauan lieraratur tentang kontribusi Islam bagi psikologi yang dapat dijadikan sebagai dasar untuk penelitian selanjutnya. Perlu juga dicatat bahwa literatur tentang kontribusi Islam bagi psikologi terbatas. Penulis mengandalkan berbagai studi materi yang relevan dari buku-buku tentang judul ini.
... Awaad et al., 2019;Haque et al., 2016;Haque & Keshavarzi, 2014;Keshavarzi & Haque, 2013;Rathod, 2017), developing measures (H. AbuRaiya et al., 2008;Jha et al., 2016;Khan & Watson, 2006), suggesting new methods, concepts or approaches(Al-Karam, 2018;Farooqi, 2006; M. I. Husain et al., 2017; Sabry & Vohra, 2013;Skinner, 2010), or conceptualization/founding Islamized psychotherapy(Badri, 2000;Bagasra, 2019;Mitha, 2020;Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob, 2013;Rothman, 2019), etc. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper processes themed Qur’anic verses on sadness into culturally-adapted psychoeducational affirmations for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. It is considered as a supporting contribution in preventing or treating depression/grief suitable for Muslim clients from the Islamic Studies field. The Qur’anic scientific methodology applied on the holy text is Qur’anic Thematic Exegetical Analysis (al-Tafsīr al-Mawḍuᶜi). It is educationally important for Muslims’ existential needs to resiliently face the challenges of life in general especially during and post-CoVid-19 pandemic.
... So, we try to contribute something different from what had been done before like outlining previously done researches into literature reviews (Awaad et al., 2019;Haque et al., 2016;Haque & Keshavarzi, 2014;Keshavarzi & Haque, 2013;Rathod, 2017), developing measures (H. Abu Raiya et al., 2008;Jha et al., 2016;Khan & Watson, 2006), suggesting new methods, concepts or approaches (Al-Karam, 2018;Farooqi, 2006;M. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Paper was offered to be listed in Europe PMC Plus: http://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR384519 It was reviewed internally and externally by IIUM WCII-3 2021. At the final stage of acceptance, was asked if verified with patients? Asked people to collaborate but they agreed initially but are stuck due to covid-19 problems. Introduction: This study accommodates existential crisis provoked by the Covid-19 pandemic as observed in previous plagues. It is filling the gap of underrepresentation by academics of Islamic Studies in Islamicizing Psychology, in general. Furthermore, it specifically becomes a collective duty (farḍ al-kifāyah) to deliver Muslims’ spiritual existential needs during pandemic and preparing for anticipated post-pandemic break down. Methods: The main keyword of sadness (Ar: Al-ḥuzn) are searched throughout the Holy Qur’an as it frequently pairs with stressing life events. The compiled Qur’anic verses from Mushaf Uthmani, English translation by Dr. Mustafa Khattab - The Clear Qur’an, and exegesis for each verse from the renowned Andalusian Exegete: Al-Qurtubi’s Exegesis (Tafsīr al-Qurtubī) are thematically analysed based on the Qur’anic Thematic Exegetical Analysis (al-Tafsīr al-Mawḍuᶜi) method. Results: The interpretation of the analysis are converted into Qur’anic culturally adapted psychoeducational affirmations on sadness as an integration into the Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for depression among Muslim clients. Conclusion: The Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is compatible with the nature of Islam according to the late Prof. Malik Badri, e.g. the idea of fixing the ‘beliefs’ (Iṣlāḥ). Thus, theoretically this set of Qur’anic psychoeducational affirmations should offer an effective integration for either preventing or treating depression. Essentially, it is more important for all Muslims to be psycho-educated about this from their childhood to develop their existential resilience in facing the challenges of life in general, specifically during and post-pandemic.
... An emerging form of alternative psychiatric ailments involves the spiritual intervention. The combination of Islamic values with conventional psychoanalysis has been documented since the 8th century [1]. Numerous Islamic physicians have discovered and applied the combination of spiritual components with psychiatric treatments. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mental illness, particularly depression, is an increasing health problem for many people from all walks of life. Both conventional and non-convventional therapies for mental illnesses including depression have been and are still being put to practice. An alternative method for treatment of depressed patients, particularly Muslims, is through the combination of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy with Islamic values, which is known as Islamic Integrated Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. This review discusses the benefits, limitations and future propects of Islamic Integrated Cognitive Behavioural Therapy particularly in treating Muslims with depression.
... An emerging form of alternative psychiatric ailments involves the spiritual intervention. The combination of Islamic values with conventional psychoanalysis has been documented since the 8th century [1]. Numerous Islamic physicians have discovered and applied the combination of spiritual components with psychiatric treatments. ...
Article
Mental illness, particularly depression, is an increasing health problem for many people from all walks of life. Both conventional and non-convventional therapies for mental illnesses including depression have been and are still being put to practice. An alternative method for treatment of depressed patients, particularly Muslims, is through the combination of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy with Islamic values, which is known as Islamic Integrated Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. This review discusses the benefits, limitations and future propects of Islamic Integrated Cognitive Behavioural Therapy particularly in treating Muslims with depression.
... Second, debate, and discussion on the development of the paradigm of the discipline, including ontological, epistemological, and methodological issues, as we understand currently, was not evident in the work of medieval Muslim thinkers as presented by the contemporary writers in the area of Islamic Psychology. Third, the writings of some medieval Muslim scholars such as Al-Tabari, Al-Farabi, and Ibn Rushd, were influenced by Greek philosophers(Al-Khalili, 2011;Awaad, et al., 2019;Virk, 2017). Consequently, some of their ideas might not be based on Islam. ...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, mainstream psychology mostly presented religion in a negative light. However, recent years have witnessed a growing realization that religion has a substantial role to play in improving physical and mental health. Given the importance of religion, the American Psychological Association (APA) has division 36 “Psychology of religion.” But the perspective of mainstream psychology does not acknowledge the spiritual nature of human beings and their connection to God. Islamic psychology is one of the religion-based perspectives which acknowledges it. This perspective has also attracted the attention of Western psychologists. Three different trends have been identified in this area: the Islamic filter approach, the comparison approach, and the Islamic psychology approach. However, despite more than 40 years of work, there is a considerable lack of progress in the development of this paradigm. The present article discussed the emergence and challenges in the development of this new perspective. Moreover, we suggest that the research paradigms of Western social and behavioral sciences are useful for developing Islamic psychology.
Article
Full-text available
Although Islam is the world’s second-largest religion, there continues to be misconceptions and an overall lack of awareness regarding the religious and social worlds that make up the global Muslim community. This is particularly concerning when examining notions of mental ill-health, where a lack of cultural awareness, understanding, and sensitivity can impede adequate treatment. As a global religion, Islam is practiced within various cultural milieus, and, given the centrality of faith amongst Muslim communities, a conflation of religion and culture can occur when attempting to understand mental health paradigms. Whilst much of the discourse regarding Muslim mental health centres on cultural formulations, this article discusses how, historically, conceptualisations relating to medicine and mental health were ensconced within the particular medical paradigm of the day. Specifically, it considers the frameworks within which mental health and illness were understood within the medieval Muslim medical tradition and their relevance to contemporary debates in psychology and psychiatry. In sum, this paper seeks to demonstrate that cultural formulations of mental illness, often viewed as “Islamic”, are distinct from historical Islamic approaches to mental health which employed contemporaneous medical discourse and which act as the reference marker for the emergent revivalist Islamic psychology movement seen today.
Article
Full-text available
Emil Kraepelin's nosology has been reinvented, for better or worse. In the United States, the rise of the neo-Kraepelinian nosology of DSM-III resuscitated Kraepelin's work but also differed from many of his ideas, especially his overtly biological ontology. This neo-Kraepelinian system has led to concerns regarding overdiagnosis of psychiatric syndromes ("nosologomania") and perhaps scientifically ill-founded psychopharmacological treatment for presumed neo-Kraepelinian syndromes. In the early 20th century, Karl Jaspers provided unique insights into Kraepelin's work, and Jaspers even proposed an alternate nosology which, though influenced by Kraepelin, also introduced the concept of ideal types. Jaspers' critique of Kraepelin may help us reformulate our current neo-Kraepelinian nosology for the better.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationships between positive emotions and health. Two positive emotions were considered, hope and curiosity, in conjunction with 3 physician-diagnosed disease outcomes: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and respiratory tract infections. Medical data were abstracted over a 2-year period from 1,041 patient records from a multispecialty medical practice, and emotions were assessed through a mailed questionnaire. Across 3 disease outcomes, higher levels of hope were associated with a decreased likelihood of having or developing a disease. Higher levels of curiosity were also associated with decreased likelihood of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Results suggest that positive emotion may play a protective role in the development of disease.
Article
Full-text available
The field of psychoneuroimmunology has witnessed an explosion of empirical findings during the last two decades. Research has documented the mechanisms through which stressful emotions alter white blood cell function. Stress diminishes white blood cell response to viral infected cells and to cancer cells. Moreover, vaccination is less effective in those who are stressed and wounds heal less readily in those who are stressed. While stress decreases the activity of some white blood cells, stress does not compromise the function of all types of white blood cells. Indeed, some types of autoimmune disease, which involve particular subsets of white blood cells, are exacerbated by stress. The literature documents the efficacy of talk-therapy interventions in altering immune system parameters and enhancing the body's ability to combat disease. The literature also documents the impact of the chronic stress of poverty on immune system function.
Chapter
Psychiatric diagnosis has proven far more complicated than anyone believed 50 years ago when the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual saw the light of day. Psychiatry has always had a nosology, or classification of diseases, beginning with the rough categories established in the early nineteenth century. Between the late nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries, psychiatric classification was shaped by individual authorities, in particular by the great German nosologist Emil Kraepelin. The DSM series of the American Psychiatric Association grew out of a desire to create an American system in line with the International Classification of Diseases series issued by the World Health Organization. In some ways its evolution represents progress towards a genuine medical model of classification. Yet in other respects the series has been hijacked by consensus and horse-trading, becoming a political rather than scientific document. Despite enormous investments of time, thought and academic firepower, the process of establishing a reliable nosology of psychiatric illness continues to elude our grasp.
Article
Some argue that the earliest case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) was reported by Robert Burton in his compendium The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) and that only in the 19th century did modern concepts of OCD evolve, differentiating it from other types of mental illness. In this paper, we aim to reveal an even earlier presentation of the malady we now call OCD based on the 9th century work, Sustenance of the Body and Soul, written by Abu Zayd al-Balkhi during the Islamic Golden Era. Discovery of this manuscript reveals that Abu Zayd al-Balkhi should be credited with differentiating OCD from other forms of mental illnesses nearly a millennium earlier than is currently claimed by anthologies documenting the history of mental illness. Particular attention is paid to al-Balkhi's classifications, symptom descriptions, predisposing factors, and the treatment modalities for obsessional disorders. Analysis of this manuscript in light of the DSM-5 and modern scientific discoveries reveals transcultural diagnostic consistency of OCD across many centuries. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
This article reviews The House of Wisdom: How Arabic Science Saved Ancient Knowledge and Gave Us the Renaissance. by Jim Al-Khalili 302 pp. , New York, 2011. Price: $29.95 (paper) ISBN 978-1-59420-279-7.
Article
Early Muslims wrote extensively about human nature and called it Ilm-al Nafsiat or self-knowledge. In many cases, their works seem to be the original ideas for many modern day psychological theories and practices. What is interesting however is that a lot of what the early scholars wrote was blended with Islamic philosophy and religious ideas. This paper covers major contributions of prominent early Muslim scholars to psychology and outlines the challenges faced by today''s Muslims in adapting to the Western theories. It also offers a few recommendations on the indigenization of psychology for Muslim societies interested in seeking the Islamic perspective on human behaviors.
Article
Integration of behavioral health and medicine has gained increased support recently within the new field of complementary medicine. Providers from both disciplines are acknowledging the "mind-body" connection and recognizing the value of treating the "whole" patient through working within an integrative delivery model. This paper describes two treatment programs which were developed using the principles of the mind-body connection and implemented within an integrative setting at a large HMO. The results of research studies are presented and discussed to demonstrate the efficacy of these programs.
Article
It has been claimed that descriptions of schizophrenia-like disorders were rare before 1800 in the Western world. Historical evidence from medieval Islamic society shows that madness was common in that society. Despite the limitations of the evidence, we propose that medieval Islamic physicians probably diagnosed and treated many cases of schizophrenia.
Article
Psychosis and neurosis have formed one of the crucial dichotomies in psychiatric classification. This has not always been the case, and indeed the distinction is again being blurred (Cooper 1989). This article will show how the dichotomy arose and how it was strengthened during the first fifty years after the introduction of the term psychosis. The relationship between psychosis and neurosis has not been examined historically, except briefly by Berrios (1987). Lopez Piñero (1983) has dealt with the origins of the concept of neurosis, but his study does not address later issues. The term psychosis was coined in 1845 (Feuchtersleben 1845) to denote 'mental disorder which affected the personality as a whole' and was a subcategory of the then much wider category of the neuroses. The latter were described by Cullen (1784) in the late eighteenth century to denote all the diseases of the nerves and muscles. In 1800, therefore, the neuroses were seen as diseases with a physical cause. The insanities, by contrast, were viewed as diseases of the mind and not generally of physical origin. By about 1900 this situation had been reversed. Most psychiatrists believed that the insanities were of organic aetiology, while the neuroses were of psychological origin, although at that time some psychiatrists and neurologists still believed that the neuroses were caused by organic changes, albeit ones which were not detectable by currently available means, and ones which were therefore referred to as 'functional disorders'. The historical contrast between the so-called functional and the organic disorders will be addressed in this article, as will its relationship to historical and contemporary issues regarding the psychosis-neurosis dichotomy.
Article
Observational studies indicate that psychologic factors strongly influence the course of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this review, we examine new epidemiologic evidence for the association between psychosocial risk factors and CAD, identify pathologic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association, and describe a paradigm for studying positive psychologic factors that may act as a buffer. Because psychosocial risk factors are highly prevalent and are associated with unhealthy lifestyles, we describe the potential role of cardiologists in managing such factors. Management approaches include routinely screening for psychosocial risk factors, referring patients with severe psychologic distress to behavioral specialists, and directly treating patients with milder forms of psychologic distress with brief targeted interventions. A number of behavioral interventions have been evaluated for their ability to reduce adverse cardiac events among patients presenting with psychosocial risk factors. Although the efficacy of stand-alone psychosocial interventions remains unclear, both exercise and multifactorial cardiac rehabilitation with psychosocial interventions have demonstrated a reduction in cardiac events. Furthermore, recent data suggest that psychopharmacologic interventions may also be effective. Despite these promising findings, clinical practice guidelines for managing psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice are lacking. Thus, we review new approaches to improve the delivery of behavioral services and patient adherence to behavioral recommendations. These efforts are part of an emerging field of behavioral cardiology, which is based on the understanding that psychosocial and behavioral risk factors for CAD are not only highly interrelated, but also require a sophisticated health care delivery system to optimize their effectiveness.
Al-Mustaṣfā fī ʿIlm al-Uṣūl (the essentials of Islamic legal theory). Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyaa
  • Al-Ghazali Mm
  • MM Al-Ghazali
Al-Dirasat al-Nafsaniyya ‘ind al-‘Ulama’ al-Muslimin (psychological studies of Muslim scholars). Cairo: Dar Al Shuruq
  • M O Nagati
  • MO Nagati
Miskawayh’s refinement of character
  • Q Zurayk
Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb (the comprehensive book of medicine). Beirut: Dar al-Kotob al-Ilmiyah
  • Al-Razi Mz
  • MZ Al-Razi
Al-Akhlaq wa al-Siyar (morals and behavior)
  • Ibn Hazm
  • AA Hazm Ibn
Tahdhib al-Akhlaq (refinement of character). Cairo: Maktabat al-Thaqafa al-Diniyaa
  • A M Miskwayah
  • AM Miskwayah
Al-Tibb al-Ruhani (the spiritual medicine). Cairo: Maktabat al-Nahda al-Misriyya
  • Al-Razi Mz
  • MZ Al-Razi
Timeless healing: the power and biology of belief
  • H Benson
  • M Stark
Translation and annotation of Abu Zayd al-Balkhi’s sustenance of the soul. Richmond: International Institute of Islamic Thought
  • M Badri
The making of humanity. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd
  • R Briffault
Mughni al-Muhtaj ila Ma’rifat alfaz al-Minhaj (the sufficient explanation to the words of al-Minhaj)
  • Al-Shirbini Ma
  • MA Al-Shirbini
Masalih al-Abdan Wa al-Anfus (sustenance of the bodies and the souls)
  • A Z Al-Balkhi
  • M Badri
  • M Ashwi
  • AZ Al-Balkhi
Ulum al-Din (the revival of the religious sciences)
  • M M Al-Ghazali
  • Ihya
  • MM Al-Ghazali
Damascus: Dar Ibn Kathir
  • M I Al-Bukhari
  • Sahih Al-Bukhari
  • MI Al-Bukhari
Ilm al-Nafs fi al-Turath al-Islami (psychological sciences in the Islamic heritage) (1-3). Cairo: Dar Al Salam
  • I S Abdulhamid
  • Abu Sarí
  • O S Abdulmuńim
  • A M Yusuf
  • J S Radwan
  • S J Muhammad
  • IS Abdulhamid
Complex of Sultan al-Mansur Qalawun (Mausoleum, Madrasa and Hospital). Web: Discover Islamic Art
  • T Torky
Majmu’ al-Fatawa (Fatawa collection). Madina: King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Quran
  • A A Ibn Taymiyya
  • AA Taymiyya Ibn
Science in the name of God: how men of God originated the sciences. Buffalo Grove: Knowledge House
  • K Khaleel
Sharh Tanqih al-Fusul. Cairo: Technical Printing United Company
  • A I Al-Qarafi
  • AI Al-Qarafi