The Prevalence of News: Domestic, Foreign, and Hybrid.

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From the 17th through the 19th century, as Wilke (1987) demonstrated in his historical study of foreign news in German, French, English, and American newspapers, there was steady growth in the amount of foreign news coverage. Today, with the increasing globalization of news organizations (Chalaby, 2005) and the greater political and economic interdependence among nations, one could assume that the role of foreign news has increased in importance. As Marshall McLuhan’s concept of the global village seems to have been realized, information from abroad should be more signi!cant and relevant to audiences than ever before. In addition, the recent and rapid dissemination of new technologies enables broadcasters to gather, produce, and distribute without delay news from all over the world. Some studies, however, conclude that there is a shrinking foreign news hole (see, for example, Moisy, 1997; Norris, 1995; Ri#e, Aust, Jones, Shoemaker, & Sundar, 1994).

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... These levels of influence in gatekeeping theory point to a more holistic conceptualization of news making: a set of complex processes in which a variety of factors on both the macro and micro levels of influence are involved. And these forces come into play, perhaps in their strongest form, in the role of profit considerations in news construction, as sometimes what makes it to the news is simply that which may be of some interest to the news audience, regardless of its significance to the public, and has potential to lure the right audience to make profit (see Gans, 1979Gans, /2004Schudson, 2003Schudson, /2011Stępińska, Porath, Mujica, Xu, & Cohen, 2013). ...
... 9 What is more, even when a reporter has already gone out to shoot and, for some reason, the item is not coming together, the editor might prefer to kill it, losing a shooting day, and not waste more money on an editing shift, which is considered highly expensive on the TV news desk. Clearly, news selection, as demonstrated here, is the result of a certain balance between resource allocations and news judgments (Berkowitz, 1991;Epstein, 1974;Stępińska et al., 2013) early on in the production routine. But certain formations of power are also in play here. ...
... During the daily evening broadcast, however, items are constantly dropped. Then, if, say, a sit-up takes longer than planned, or if something else comes up, is an item more likely to be kept for later, although only for a day or two, as "hard-news" items often demand immediate publication and therefore tend to die quickly (see Lehman-Wilzig & Seletzky, 2010;Stępińska et al., 2013;Tuchman, 1978). 12 Budget and competition Budget issues play an important part in the making of national TV filler news items, as there is strong competition for audience share. ...
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This paper follows the news routine of the daily evening news broadcasts of the two Israeli commercial TV channels. It is about a very particular and significant moment in national TV news – the making and gatekeeping process of the national TV news filler, also known by the Israeli news people as the shelf item. Based on a thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with several Israeli TV news professionals, and a textual analysis of a particular TV news item and its shelf potential, findings provide a glimpse at how, and for what reasons, news stories are prioritized, how gatekeeping is performed in national TV news, and the ways in which the stories that are kept aside and left for later illustrate the overall production of newsworthiness.
... Thus, Aalberg et al. (2013, 395) found that, in 8 out of 11 countries, the newscasts of leading television channels allocated less than a quarter of their time to foreign news in 2010. Similarly, Stepinska et al. (2013, 31) concluded that popular television channels in 17 countries devoted an average of only 22 per cent of news items to purely foreign news in 2008. ...
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This study challenges the ruling orthodoxy that foreign news tends to be reported in divergent ways, reflecting the interests and identity of the home nation. Instead it concludes that the Greek and US elections in 2012 were reported in very similar ways in the leading news media of five countries located in different continents. In the case of the 2012 Chinese election, there were striking affinities in the news reporting of four out of five countries. Powerful forces that make for global conformity include the dominance of a small number of international news agencies, the emergence of a transnational journalistic culture, the hegemony of market liberal thought, the legacy of the Cold War, and the shared perspectives of allied states.
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