Conference Paper

Attempts to control sarcoptic mange in Iberian Ibex populations: lessons from uncoordinated disease management actions in the field

BES Annual Meeting 2018, 16-19 December 2018, Birmingham
Session topic. Infectious disease ecology at the human-wildlife interface
Attempts to control sarcoptic mange in Iberian Ibex
populations: lessons from uncoordinated disease management
actions in the field
Emmanuel SERRANO1, Jorge Ramón LÓPEZ-OLVERA1, Santiago LAVÍN1, Jose Enrique
GRANADOS2
1. Wildlife Ecology & Health group (WE&H), Servei d' Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge
(SEFaS). Dept Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB),
E-08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
2. Espacio Natural Sierra Nevada, Carretera Antigua de Sierra Nevada, Km 7, E-18071,
Pinos Genil, Granada, Spain.
Sarcoptes scabiei causes sarcoptic mange in a broad range of domestic and wild
mammals. This tiny mite is responsible for huge economic losses in animal production
systems and devastating short-term mortalities not only in wild canids, wild felids and
wild ungulates all over the world, but also in wombats and koalas in Australia and apes
in Africa. Mange has become endemic in many ungulate populations across Europe
shaping viability of hunting activities. In Spain there is a long tradition of Iberian ibex
(Capra pyrenaica) hunting. Trophy hunting of this endemic ungulate produces high
profits for local economies reaching €322,000 yearly in some rural areas. However,
mange outbreaks can result in devastating mortality of Ibexes. In south Spain, a mange
outbreak killed 95 % of ibexes causing a population collapse and the total cessation of
hunting activities for more than a decade. Other Ibex populations have faced the same
fate causing a strong social conflict among animal rights activists, hunters and local
environmental agencies in charge of regional game activities. In fact, local population
consistently press local administrations for sarcoptic mange prevention and control in
Ibex populations. The lack of national protocol to deal with sarcoptic mange as favored
the emergence of spontaneous disease management initiatives in Spain notably the
delivery of medicated feeder containing ivermectin, the shot of individuals with clinical
manifestations, or the cessation of hunting. Scientific evidences have shown the
natural recovery of a considerable proportion of scabietic ibexes. Mass antiparasitic
treatment, however, is proving less effective than expected and sometimes
counterproductive. In this talk, we will discuss the outcome of the management
initiatives for mange control and the social conflict generated by the different disease
management actions.
Attempts to control sarcoptic mange in Iberian Ibex
populations: lessons from uncoordinated disease
management actions in the field
Emmanuel SERRANO
Jorge Ramón LÓPEZ-OLVERA
Santiago LAVÍN (UAB-WE&H-SEFaS)
Jose E. GRANADOS (SN Sierra Nevada)
Sarcoptes scabiei L., 1758
0.25–0.35 mm (0.0098–0.0138 in)
Sarcoptic mange
27 families, 104 spp
Capra pyrenaica, Schinz 1838
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
1986 mange outbreak
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
1986 mange outbreak
95%
12.000 € / 10,787 GBP
Dos imágenes
61 days post-infection
Male 44
Natural recover
Dos imágenes
61 days post-infection 131 days post-infection
Male 44Male 44
Natural recover
17
Autonomous communities
10
Ibex populations
5
Mange outbreaks
Mange control
Medicated pellets (MP) “Test and Slaughter”
Mange control
Medicated pellets (MP) “Test and Slaughter”
Sensitivity 75-80%
Specificity 16-43%
Mange control
Mange control
Mange control
Mange control
Mange control
20%
20/25
Totally recovered
Died
References
Alasaad et al. 2013. The use of radio-collars for monitoring wildlife diseases: a case study from Iberian ibex affected by
Sarcoptes scabiei in Sierra Nevada, Spain. Parasites & Vectors. 6: 242.
Bornstein et al. 2001. Sarcoptes scabiei and sarcoptic mange. In Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd Ed. W.M. Samuel
et al. Iowa State University Press, Ames, 107-119.
Granados et al. 2001. La cabra montés (Capra pyrenaica, SCHINZ 1838). Galemys. 13: 3-37.
Palomo et al. 2007.Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Mamíferos Terrestres de España. Dirección General para la Biodiversidad
SECEM-SECEMU, Madrid, 588 pp.
Pence, D. P., Uekermann, E. 2002. Sarcoptic mange in Wildlife. Rev. sci. tech. Off.int. Epiz.21: 385-398.
Photos. Antonio Hernández Robles, Casals & Jurado, José Enrique Granados, Xavier Fernández-Aguilar .
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Wildlife radio tracking has gained popularity during the recent past. Ecologists and conservationists use radio-collars for different purposes: animal movement monitoring, home range, productivity, population estimation, behaviour, habitat use, survival, and predator-prey interaction, among others. The aim of our present study is to highlight the application of radio-collars for wildlife diseases monitoring. The spread of wildlife diseases and the efficacy of management actions for controlling them propose serious challenges for ecologists and conservationists, since it is difficult to re-capture (or simply observe) the same animal in pre-determined temporal interval, but such difficulty is overcome by the use of gps-gsm radio collars. In the present study we report, for the first time to our knowledge, the use of radio-collars in the monitoring of Iberian ibex affected by Sarcoptes scabiei in Sierra Nevada mountain range, Spain. Twenty-five moderate or slightly mangy animals were radio-collared between 2006 and 2013. The radio-collars allowed us to confirm the presence of resistance to S. scabiei within Iberian ibex population. Twenty (80%) of the collared animals recovered totally from mange, while the disease progressed in the other five Iberian ibex (20% of the collared animals) and the animals died. The average estimated recovery time of the resistant animals was 245 +/- 277 days, and the estimated average survival time of the non-resistant Iberian ibex was 121 +/- 71 days. Non-resistant animals survived at least 100 days, while all of them died with less than 200 days. Sixty per cent of the resistant animals were recovered with less than 200 days. We report, for the first time, the successful use of radio collars for wildlife diseases monitoring using Iberian ibex/S. scabiei as a model. By using radio collars we documented that most of the Sarcoptes-infected Iberian ibex are resistant to this disease, and we estimated the average time for Iberian ibex recovering from mange infection and the average survival time of the non-resistant ones. We expect wider use of radio-collars for wild animals diseases monitoring, affected/not-affected animals interaction, and treatment efficacy, among others.
Article
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* Con este artículo queremos rendir homenaje a nuestro amigo y compañero Isidoro Ruiz Martínez, que nos dejo tras sufrir un accidente de montaña mientras trabajaba con cabras monteses en Sierra Morena. INTRODUCCIÓN De distribución paleártica, dentro del género Capra se distinguen una gran variedad de formas. Todas se caracterizan por presentar un patente dimorfismo sexual, apareciendo en ambos sexos cuernos persistentes, no ramificados, forma-dos por un soporte óseo recubierto de un estuche córneo. En general, las cabras son animales de tamaño mediano con una longitud total de 115-140 cm, altura en la cruz de 60-110 cm y peso oscilante entre 30 y 120 Kg. Debido a la similitud de los parámetros corporales y a una misma dotación cromosómica (2n= 60, Nadler et al. 1974) todas las especies pueden cruzarse entre sí, por lo que se piensa que es un grupo que no ha llegado al culmen evolutivo y ello ha provocado que dentro del género Capra se hayan descrito numerosas especies (subespecies y formas diferentes) durante este siglo. Estas van desde las nueve nom-bradas por Lydekker (1913), a las cinco reconocidas por Ellerman y Morrison-Scott (1951), pasando por la única admitida por Herre y Röhrs (1955), las siete considera-das por Corbet (1980) o las seis descritas por Fandos (1994). Según este último au-tor, las características morfológicas de las especies son principalmente adaptacio-nes a nuevos hábitats y nuevos comportamientos (Fandos 1991). Recientemente la IUCN ha reconocido la existencia de cinco especies dentro del género Capra (Shackleton 1997) (Tabla 1).
Article
Full-text available
Sarcoptic manage caused by Sarcoptes scabiei is responsible for epizootic disease in populations of wild canids in North America, Europe and Australia, wild cats in Europe and Africa, wild ungulates and wild boars in Europe, wombats and koalas in Australia, and great apes and various wild bovids in Africa. Although short-term mortality may appear devastating, in a self-sustaining population, mortality is non-compensatory and a mange epizootic generally does not affect long-term population dynamics. Alternatively, the net effect of a mange epizootic can have serious consequences in remnant or fragmented populations of CITES-listed, threatened, or endangered species where loss of even a few individuals can be critical to the survival or restoration of a species (CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). The pathogenesis and concordant clinical symptoms of mange depends on the immune status of the respective host. Naïve, immunocompromised or anergic animals that are unable to evoke hypersensitivity responses develop an extensive epidermal hyperkeratosis usually without marked alopecia, but with an underlying chronic dermal inflammation and an abundance of mites in the skin. Immunocompetent hosts are able to develop strong types I and IV hypersensitivity responses that result in a marked decrease and eventual loss of mites in the skin. However, there are dramatic structural and functional changes in the skin; it becomes extensively thickened, greyish in colour and there is a marked eosinophilia throughout the epidermis and dermis. There is often almost complete alopecia. Isolation and treatment of infected individuals may be warranted, and has met with some success in small remaining populations of certain highly endangered species.
Chapter
IntroductionThe MiteLife HistoryDistribution, Epidemiology, and TransmissionClinical SignsPathogenesis and PathologyDiagnosisImmunologyControl and TreatmentPublic Health ConcernsLiterature Cited