Book

Vegetarian nutrition

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Abstract

Approximately 12 million U.S. citizens consider themselves vegetarians, and 13.5 percent of all U.S. households claim to have at least one family member practicing some form of vegetarianism. In the past 30 years, scientific endeavors in the area of vegetarian nutrition have progressively shifted from investigating dietary concerns held by nutritionists and other health professionals to creative solutions for various medical conditions and preventive approaches to chronic diseases. Although professional interest in vegetarian nutrition has now reached unprecedented levels, scientific knowledge regarding vegetarian diets and their positive effects on human health is far from complete. Vegetarian Nutrition provides data to explain the preventive role of vegetarian diets for many chronic diseases such as heart disease and some types of cancers while including recommendations and guidelines for vegetarians and those prescribed vegetarian diets. Based on scientific sources and research, and presenting information in both tabular and prose formats, the book details various diet regimens, health concerns, and energy expenditure. This handbook is written for academic and clinical nutritionists, dieticians, and graduate students in nutrition ad public health, with each chapter rendering a scholarly review of the particular topic. While considering both health benefits and nutritional concerns Vegetarian Nutrition addresses such topics as chronic disease prevention; adequacy of the diet for children, in pregnancy, lactation, and for the aging population; recommendations for a healthy vegetarian diet; and global perspectives.
... kaynaklarını optimize etmelidir. Düşük su ve karbon tüketimine sahip gıda üretme ihtiyacını göz önünde bulundurmanın yanı sıra gıda biyolojik çeşitliliğini ve özellikle yerel ve geleneksel gıda ürünlerini teşvik etmelidir (Houghton, 2008;Karabudak, 2012;Sabaté, 2001;Venderley ve Campbell, 2006). ...
... Pisagor vejetaryenliği ve bazı Yunan düşünürlerin klasik antik dönemden inançlarına ilişkin bir açıklama, ruhların göçüne veya ruhların metemikozuna inanmalarıydı. Ölümden sonra ruh başka bir hayvan türünün bedenine geçebilseydi, o zaman yamyamlığı önlemenin tek yolu vejetaryenlik olurdu düşüncesindeydi (Mason ve Mullins, 2016;Meister, 1997 (Sabaté, 2001;Silva vd., 2015). Kilise cemaati üyeleri bu hareketi 1817 yılında ABD'ye taşımışlardır. ...
... Bir yandan, hayvansal menşeli ürünlerin aşırı tüketimi, çeşitli kronik hastalık riskinin artmasıyla bağlantılıdır. Öte yandan, hayvansal ürünlerin aşırı tüketiminin neden olduğu zararlardan uzaklaşmak ve daha uzun ömür beklentisi için meyve ve sebzeler, baklagiller, tam tahıllı ve yağlı meyveler gibi gıda ürünleri, daha düşük bir kronik risk ile ilişkilendirilmiştir (Houghton, 2008;Karabudak, 2012;Leitzmann, 2014;Meister, 1997;Phillips, 2005;Sabaté, 2001). Vejetaryen diyetinin benimsenmesi daha iyi sağlık anlamına gelmez. ...
... Inicialmente, as preocupações eram focadas apenas em problemas como fome e inadequação nutricional e as recomendações alimentares enfatizavam fontes alimentares animais para melhoria do estado nutricional. Actualmente, devido ao crescente conhecimento sobre a influência da alimentação na saúde, as recomendações concentram-se também na prevenção de doenças crónicas (21) . Escolhas alimentares inadequadas em qualquer padrão, vegetariano ou não vegetariano podem levar a problemas de saúde. ...
... Têm sido expressas preocupações relativamente à adequação da ingestão de energia, proteína, ácidos gordos essenciais, ferro, zinco, cálcio, vitamina D e vitamina B 12 em grávidas que seguem uma alimentação baseada em alimentos vegetais (21) . Em algumas populações macrobióticas, verificou-se baixo peso à nascença dos recém-nascidos, facto que tem sido atribuído ao baixo aumento de peso da mãe durante a gravidez (46) . ...
... Assim, independentemente do tipo de alimentação serão necessárias adaptações durante esta fase da vida para garantir a sua adequação. Contudo, atletas que consomem uma dieta rica em frutos, hortícolas e cereais integrais obtêm grandes quantidades de antioxidantes que ajudam a reduzir o stress oxidativo que acompanha o exercício rigoroso (21) . Por outro lado, dietas baseadas em alimentos hortícolas são ricas em fibra, o que levanta preocupações acerca da sua capacidade de atingir as recomendações energéticas diárias de atletas com um programa de exercício árduo. ...
... Keywords Plant-food diet · Vegetarian diet · VegPyramid · Food guide respect of calorie requirements; the intake of natural, non-processed plant foods; attention towards the intake of the critical nutrients and discretionary calories [3,4]. ...
... Our proposal of a Food Guide for Italian vegetarians, VegPyramid ( Fig. 1 [8]), takes into account these considerations and the recommendations of the previous Dietary Guidelines for Vegetarians, General Population and Healthy Eating proposed in the USA [3,4,5,9] and fits them into the framework of a Mediterranean diet. It indicates the amount of different foods to consume daily to obtain a well planned vegetarian (both lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan) Italian diet (Tables 1 and 2). ...
... "An abundant consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts and legumes has been related to a lower risk for several chronic western diseases. Although vegetarian diets, as any other diet pattern, may have potential health risks (related to marginal intake of a few essential nutrients), from a public health viewpoint, the health benefits of a vegetarian diet far outweigh its potential risks" [3]. This 8 Mediterr J Nutr Metab (2009) C cereals or grains, P protein-rich foods, V vegetables, F fruits, Fat fat foods, ω3 omega-3-rich foods is the reason why not only should vegetarian subjects receive information on how to achieve a well balanced vegetarian diet, but also a diet very rich in vegetables, vegetarian or quasi-vegetarian, should be promoted to the general population. ...
... Hal ini terlihat dengan meningkatnya jumlah populasi vegetarian di dunia serta meningkatnya publikasi artikel ilmiah dan non ilmiah tentang vegetarian. 1 Pada survei 1997 terdapat 1% penduduk Amerika Serikat yang vegetarian, kemudian meningkat menjadi 2,5% pada tahun 2000, 2,8% pada tahun 2003, dan pada tahun 2006 diperkirakan telah mencapai 30-40%. 2 Newspoll Phone Survey tahun 2010 melaporkan bahwa 2% penduduk Australia adalah vegetarian. Sedangkan di India pada tahun 2003, 50% penduduknya adalah vegetarian. ...
... Beberapa penyakit kronik degeneratif yang dapat dicegah dengan pola makan vegetarian diantaranya adalah penyakit jantung, hipertensi, kanker, obesitas, diabetes melitus, gangguan syaraf dan osteoporosis. 1,[5][6] Namun, pada suatu keadaan dimana metabolisme tubuh tinggi seperti pada masa kehamilan, menyusui dan pertumbuhan, diet vegetarian dianggap berisiko karena dapat menyebabkan defisiensi beberapa zat gizi. 1 Berbagai pustaka yang membahas tentang status gizi vegetarian menunjukkan bahwa ibu dari kelompok vegetarian mempunyai rata-rata nilai IMT lebih rendah dibandingkan non-vegetarian. 1,7-9 IMT prahamil ibu dan kenaikan berat badan selama hamil berhubungan dengan berat lahir bayi. ...
... 1,[5][6] Namun, pada suatu keadaan dimana metabolisme tubuh tinggi seperti pada masa kehamilan, menyusui dan pertumbuhan, diet vegetarian dianggap berisiko karena dapat menyebabkan defisiensi beberapa zat gizi. 1 Berbagai pustaka yang membahas tentang status gizi vegetarian menunjukkan bahwa ibu dari kelompok vegetarian mempunyai rata-rata nilai IMT lebih rendah dibandingkan non-vegetarian. 1,7-9 IMT prahamil ibu dan kenaikan berat badan selama hamil berhubungan dengan berat lahir bayi. ...
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Berat lahir bayi, khususnya bayi dengan berat badan lahir rendah, merupakan masalah gizi intergenerasi yang akan mempengaruhi kualitas kesehatan sepanjang daur kehidupan seorang manusia. Diet vegetarian dianggap berisiko karena konsumsi makannya yang terbatas dikhawatirkan dapat menyebabkan rawan terjadinya defisiensi zat gizi. Penelitian dengan desain retrospektif ini bertujuan mengetahui hubungan antara status gizi ibu hamil vegetarian (indeks masa tubuh/IMT prahamil dan kenaikan berat badan hamil) dengan berat lahir bayi pada kelompok vegetarian di DKI Jakarta. Sampel adalah 85 anak berumur 1 bulan-5 tahun yang dipilih secara purposive sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata IMT prahamil sebesar 20,2 kg/m2 (±3,2 kg/m2), kenaikan berat badan hamil 15,5 kg (±6,4 kg) dan berat lahir bayi 3212 g (±417,7 g). IMT prahamil dan kenaikan berat badan hamil berhubungan signifikan dengan berat lahir bayi vegetarian. Tidak ada hubungan antara IMT prahamil dan kenaikan berat badan hamil. Berdasarkan analisis multivariat ditemukan bahwa variabel yang berhubungan dengan berat lahir bayi adalah IMT prahamil, asupan protein, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn, dan jenis kelamin. Disarankan agar ibu vegetarian dapat memperoleh informasi mengenai pentingnya status gizi prahamil, kenaikan berat badan hamil yang optimal, serta menjaga kecukupan asupan protein, vitamin B12, Fe dan Zn selama hamil.
... Hal ini terlihat dengan meningkatnya jumlah populasi vegetarian di dunia serta meningkatnya publikasi artikel ilmiah dan non ilmiah tentang vegetarian. 1 Pada survei 1997 terdapat 1% penduduk Amerika Serikat yang vegetarian, kemudian meningkat menjadi 2,5% pada tahun 2000, 2,8% pada tahun 2003, dan pada tahun 2006 diperkirakan telah mencapai 30-40%. 2 Newspoll Phone Survey tahun 2010 melaporkan bahwa 2% penduduk Australia adalah vegetarian. Sedangkan di India pada tahun 2003, 50% penduduknya adalah vegetarian. ...
... Beberapa penyakit kronik degeneratif yang dapat dicegah dengan pola makan vegetarian diantaranya adalah penyakit jantung, hipertensi, kanker, obesitas, diabetes melitus, gangguan syaraf dan osteoporosis. 1,[5][6] Namun, pada suatu keadaan dimana metabolisme tubuh tinggi seperti pada masa kehamilan, menyusui dan pertumbuhan, diet vegetarian dianggap berisiko karena dapat menyebabkan defisiensi beberapa zat gizi. 1 Berbagai pustaka yang membahas tentang status gizi vegetarian menunjukkan bahwa ibu dari kelompok vegetarian mempunyai rata-rata nilai IMT lebih rendah dibandingkan non-vegetarian. 1,7-9 IMT prahamil ibu dan kenaikan berat badan selama hamil berhubungan dengan berat lahir bayi. ...
... 1,[5][6] Namun, pada suatu keadaan dimana metabolisme tubuh tinggi seperti pada masa kehamilan, menyusui dan pertumbuhan, diet vegetarian dianggap berisiko karena dapat menyebabkan defisiensi beberapa zat gizi. 1 Berbagai pustaka yang membahas tentang status gizi vegetarian menunjukkan bahwa ibu dari kelompok vegetarian mempunyai rata-rata nilai IMT lebih rendah dibandingkan non-vegetarian. 1,7-9 IMT prahamil ibu dan kenaikan berat badan selama hamil berhubungan dengan berat lahir bayi. ...
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Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW), are intergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life. Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective study aims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy) and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2), pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg) and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs). Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birth weight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy.
... Although various studies have shown numerous advantages of vegetarian diet, 1-5 but at a high body metabolism such as pregnancy and lactation, vegetarian diet increases the risk of nutrient deficiencies. 2 Research shows that adolescent vegetarian posture, both vegan and lacto-ovo vegetarians, have a lower body mass index (BMI) than non-vegetarians. 2,6-8 Therefore, maternal prepregnancy BMI among vegetarian is usually lower than that of non vegetarian. ...
... In developed countries, due to high intake of vegetables and fruits, vegetarian diets tend to contain higher folic acid and magnesium intakes than those of non-vegetarians. 2 However, in Indonesia, Susianto 9 found that vegetarian nutrient intake is dominated by carbohydrate-source food but less Fe and folate-rich foods. Studies in Indonesia showed that the consumption of vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and folate in the vegetarian mothers found to be lower than Indonesia Recommended Dietary Allowances (Angka Kecukupan Gizi=AKG). ...
... In some cases, a very low reserve of vitamin B 12 of infants were reported among women who have not been consumed animal food for long time and were exclusively breast-fed. 2 This study shows that vitamin B12 played different role compared to other nutrients. It is the only nutrient under study that significantly influenced infant birth weight but not maternal pregnancy weight gain. ...
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Vegetarian diet undoubtedly has many advantages; however, when body metabolism is high such as during pregnancy and lactation, vegetarian diet increases the risk of nutritional deficiency. Studies highlighted the intakes of carbohydrates, protein, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and folate which are important during pregnancy and lactation but not consumed adequately by vegetarian mothers. Relationship between maternal nutrient intake and pregnancy weight gain as well as relationship between pregnancy weight gain and infant birth weight has consistently been proven. However, the relationship between maternal nutrient intake and infant birth weight is not clear because of limited data. This study aimed to examine nutrient intake of vegetarian pregnant mothers in Indonesia in the relation to the outcome of pregnancy. The study was conducted in Jakarta among vegetarian mothers who have children age 1 month to 5 years. Total sample was 85 mothers selected conveniently from Indonesia Vegetarian Society database. The results showed that macronutrients intake among vegetarian mothers were higher than RDA, but the intakes of micronutrients were lower than the RDA. Intake of these nutrients (except vitamin B12 intake) was associated significantly with pregnancy weight gain. In contrast, only intake of vitamin B12 was significantly associated with infant birth weight. This finding suggests that vitamin B12 was utilized mainly for fetal development rather than maternal tissue development. Furthermore, based on low intake of vitamin B12 among vegetarian mothers as found in this study and considering negative impact of vitamin B12 deficiency on fetus, vegetarian mothers are expected to consume vitamin B12 supplement during pregnancy.
... In the present study, we used a four-question questionnaire about whether or not to eat meat over the past 6 months to classify participants as nonvegetarians or vegetarians. Studies suggest that some people who self-defined as vegetarians also eat flesh foods as part of their diets [62,63], which can be ascribed to the discrepancy in motivations for becoming a vegetarian and in operational definitions for conducting vegetarian studies [64]. People who choose to become a vegetarian for health reasons typically have more flexibility in using animal foods and products, e.g., flexitarians [64]. ...
... Studies suggest that some people who self-defined as vegetarians also eat flesh foods as part of their diets [62,63], which can be ascribed to the discrepancy in motivations for becoming a vegetarian and in operational definitions for conducting vegetarian studies [64]. People who choose to become a vegetarian for health reasons typically have more flexibility in using animal foods and products, e.g., flexitarians [64]. Additionally, some studies operationally defined vegetarians as those who eat flesh foods less than once per week (semi-vegetarian) [28], less than one per month [8], or less than 10 g/d [62], as well as those who occasionally eat fish, but not meat or meat products (pesco-vegetarians) [65]. ...
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Religious vegetarianism has become more popular with women and increases with age. However, concerns have been raised that vegetarians are less productive than nonvegetarians. Thus, we aimed to compare the characteristics of physical activity and physical performance in properly matched religious vegetarian and nonvegetarian women aged ≥ 45 years. Participants (n = 160) were recruited via convenience sampling in the community of Hualien, Taiwan, and matched by demographic and cognitive characteristics. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Physical performance was assessed with handgrip strength, five-times-sit-to-stand, gait speed, timed up-and-go, and functional reach tests (FRT). Overall, 90% of religious vegetarians practiced lacto-ovo-vegetarianism. The proportions of those with low physical activity levels and poor physical performance did not significantly differ between religious vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Additionally, there were no significant between-group differences in IPAQ-SF scores and physical performance, except for FRT performance (mean 24.5 cm vs. 19.7 cm, p < 0.001). Exhaustion after work, busyness, and a lack of interest were three main reasons for low physical activity levels, and none of these had significant between-group differences (p = 0.936). Our results show a similar profile of physical activity and physical performance in religious vegetarian and nonvegetarian women.
... Meat eating is also linked to the current major leading causes of death such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. 21 Well-established evidence has shown that saturated fat -animals being the primary source -increases cholesterol level in the human body, therefore leading to cardiovascular diseases. 22 Vegetarians have been shown to have lower incidence of ischemic heart disease. ...
... In comparison there is a much higher risk for cardiovascular diseases and some cancers correlated to the consumption of animal foods. 21 The American Dietetics Association has also stated in its position paper that "appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases". 28 Pro-arguments for animal foods tend to focus on choosing lean meat and low fat dairy as healthy alternatives. ...
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While improvement in agricultural technology had enabled the production of abundant food, it has thus far failed to eliminate hunger. Malnutrition is expected to reach an all time high. Evidences have suggested that animal based diet has put immense pressure on the already fragile food system, contributing to problems in terms of global food security, health security, and environmental sustainability. Plant based dietary approaches may therefore, target some of these problems from the roots, and may be a solution to improving ethical issues and equity in the current food system. This paper examines how meat production and consumption contributed to the current crises in the food system through the lens of ethics--the moral compass--to find directions on how the present generation should eat, and how the food system could be maintained for a better future.
... In addition to environmental and ethical considerations, a transition towards plant-based diets is supported by public health considerations. Comprehensive reviews on the health effects of consuming vegetarian diets suggest that they can offer some health benefits (Campbell and Campbell 2006;Marsh et al. 2012;McEvoy et al. 2012;Sabaté 2001) and reduce all-cause mortality ( Orlich et al. 2013). It has been suggested that, based on health effects alone, meat consumption in the developed world should be decreased to less than half of its current level ( McMichael et al. 2007). ...
... From a social perspective, it should prove useful to acknowledge plant-based diets in national food recommendations, so that consumers become aware of their nutritional effects. This is important as citizens have been found to lack such knowledge (Sabaté 2001) or even what is meant by a vegetarian diet ( Lea et al. 2006;Vinnari et al. 2008). ...
Article
Societal and technological development during the last century has enabled Western economies to achieve a high standard of living. Yet this profusion of wealth has lead to several outcomes that are undesirable and/or unsustainable. There is thus an imperative need for a fundamental and rapid transition towards more sustainable practices. While broad conceptual frameworks for managing sustainability transitions have been suggested in prior literature, these need to be further developed to suit contexts in which the overall vision is arguably clear, such as in the case of consuming animal-originated foodstuffs. In this article we introduce a novel transition management framework that is based upon the dimensions of sustainability. The suggested transition process includes the identification of objectives and obstacles, the listing of options and their opportunities and threats as well as the evaluation of the outcomes (the Five O's). We argue that sustainability transition management should be a process in which the identification of the relevant dimensions of sustainability and related objectives forms the foundation for strategic, tactical and operational governance activities. We illustrate the practical applicability of the framework in the case of transition towards plant-based diets.
... alimentos de origem animal (com exceção talvez do mel), os lactovegetarianos ingerem produtos lácteos e os ovolactovegetarianos consomem também ovo além do leite e derivados, excluindo qualquer outro alimento de origem animal (HADDAD;TANZMAN, 2003;PEDRO, 2010).Alguns instrumentos têm sido desenvolvidos para o planejamento da alimentação específicos para o vegetarianismo. Um dos principais instrumentos é o guia vegetariano desenvolvido pela Universidade de Loma Linda(SABATÉ, 2001;COUCEIRO;SLYWITCH;LENZ, 2008). A pirâmide vegetariana da Universidade de Loma Linda é composta por nove grupos de alimentos (Figura 1Guia Alimentar da Pirâmide Vegetariana -Universidade de Loma Linda. ...
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O número de casos novos de câncer se tornou a segunda causa de morte no país. Esse fato se explica devido à maior exposição dos indivíduos a fatores de risco, tais como ambientais comportamentais ou hereditários, sendo a alimentação inadequada um dos fatores de maior impacto. Baseado nestes dados, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o consumo alimentar, hábitos de vida e composição corporal de pacientes com diagnóstico de neoplasia no trato gastrointestinal e relacionar essas variáveis com o risco de desenvolver a doença. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, tendo como amostra 42 pacientes em tratamento quimioterápico no Hospital do Câncer de Francisco Beltrão – PR. Foram coletados dados referentes à idade, renda, hábitos de vida, história familiar, história atual, composição corporal e consumo alimentar. Os resultados demonstraram uma maioria de indivíduos em eutrofia (54,76%) segundo o IMC, porém com alto risco para desenvolvimento de complicações metabólicas (46,61%). A análise de a frequência alimentar demonstrou um baixo consumo de alimentos com fatores protetores a doença, como frutas (52,5%), verduras e legumes (59,6%) e cereais integrais (86,7%), e uma elevada ingesta alimentos com compostos cancerígenos, como carnes (N=29), embutidos (N=23), conservas (N=22), chimarrão (N=34), e alto teor em gordura (N=25).Os hábitos alimentares irregulares, associada a um estilo de vida sedentário, hábito tabagista e uso de bebida alcoólica são fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de neoplasia. Diante disso, cabe ao nutricionista orientar quanto a um estilo de vida e hábitos alimentares saudáveis, promovendo a prevenção ao câncer.
... Vegetarians eat fruits, grain, nuts, beans, and vegetables and restrict their intake of certain food groups such as meat, fish, and poultry [26], and these are different dietary features from non-vegetarian. In this study, the difference in the energy intake between the groups was slight, although the energy intake from fat was significantly lower in the vegetarian diet group (p < 0.01). ...
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The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women.
... During the past 20 y, scores of nutritional epidemiologic studies have documented important and quantifiable benefits of vegetarian and other plant-based diets, namely a reduction of risk for many chronic degenerative diseases and total mortality (14,15). Vegetarians living in affluent countries enjoy remarkably good health, exemplified by low rates of obesity (16)(17)(18), coronary diseases (19)(20)(21), diabetes (22), and many cancers (21,23,24), and increased longevity (25)(26)(27). ...
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Advances in nutrition research during the past few decades have changed scientists' understanding of the contribution of vegetarian diets to human health and disease. Diets largely based on plant foods, such as well-balanced vegetarian diets, could best prevent nutrient deficiencies as well as diet-related chronic diseases. However, restrictive or unbalanced vegetarian diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies, particularly in situations of high metabolic demand. If some vegetarian diets are healthier than diets largely based on animal products, this constitutes an important departure from previous views on dietary recommendations to prevent disease conditions. Based on different paradigms, 3 models are presented depicting the population health risks and benefits of vegetarian and meat-based diets. This series of models encapsulates the evolution of scientific understanding on the overall effects of these dietary patterns on human health. Recent scientific advances seem to have resulted in a paradigm shift: diets largely based on plant foods, such as well-balanced vegetarian diets, are viewed more as improving health than as causing disease, in contrast with meat-based diets.
... The vision of a sustainable future depends upon individuals who feel responsible for the environment and health. One of the most effective ways to achieve the goals of nutrition ecology, including healthy and sustainable food choices, is a vegetarian lifestyle (37). ...
Article
Nutrition ecology is an interdisciplinary scientific discipline that encompasses the entire nutrition system, with special consideration of the effects of nutrition on health, the environment, society, and the economy. Nutrition ecology involves all components of the food chain, including production, harvesting, preservation, storage, transport, processing, packaging, trade, distribution, preparation, composition, and consumption of food, as well as disposal of waste materials. Nutrition ecology has numerous origins, some of which go back to antiquity. The introduction of industrialized agriculture and mass animal production gave rise to various negative influences on the environment and health. Food quality is determined in part by the quality of the environment. The environment, in turn, is influenced by food consumption habits. Research shows that vegetarian diets are well suited to protect the environment, to reduce pollution, and to minimize global climate changes. To maximize the ecologic and health benefits of vegetarian diets, food should be regionally produced, seasonally consumed, and organically grown. Vegetarian diets built on these conditions are scientifically based, socially acceptable, economically feasible, culturally desired, sufficiently practicable, and quite sustainable.
... La visión de un futuro sostenible depende de los individuos que se sienten responsable del medioambiente y la salud. Una de las formas más efectivas de lograr los objetivos de la nutrición ecológica, incluyendo una elección saludable y sostenible, es un estilo de vida vegetariano (37). ...
... [2] Production and consumption of functional foods has gained much importance as they provide a health benefit beyond the basic nutritional functions. Sabate J, [3] Said functional foods must remain foods and that they are not pills or capsules but, components of diet or part of food that is beneficial for the consumer. They are designated to have health benefits that have advantages in reducing the risks factor of chronic diseases scientific investigations have moved from the primary role of food as the source of energy and body-forming substances to the more subtle action of biologically active food components on human health [1]. ...
... During the past 20 y, scores of nutritional epidemiologic studies have documented important and quantifiable benefits of vegetarian and other plant-based diets, namely a reduction of risk for many chronic degenerative diseases and total mortality (14,15). Vegetarians living in affluent countries enjoy remarkably good health, exemplified by low rates of obesity (16)(17)(18), coronary diseases (19)(20)(21), diabetes (22), and many cancers (21,23,24), and increased longevity (25)(26)(27). ...
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Our knowledge is far from complete regarding the relationship between vegetarian diets and human health. However, scientific advances in the last decades have considerably changed the role that vegetarian diets may play in human nutrition. Components of a healthy vegetarian diet include a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, legumes and nuts. Numerous studies show important and quantifiable benefits of the different components of vegetarian diets, namely the reduction of risk for many chronic diseases and the increase in longevity. Such evidence is derived from the study of vegetarians as well as other populations. While meat intake has been related to increased risk for a variety of chronic diseases, an abundant consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, and legumes all have been independently related with a lower risk for several chronic degenerative diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and many cancers. Hence, whole foods of plant origin seem to be beneficial on their own merit for chronic disease prevention. This is possibly more certain than the detrimental effects of meats. Vegetarian diets, as any other diet pattern, have potential health risks, namely marginal intake of essential nutrients. However, from the public health viewpoint the health benefits of a well-planned vegetarian diet far outweigh the potential risks.
... Over the ages, soybean grain and their products, such as soy milk, soya sauce, miso, tofu, and tempeh, have been an important component of the diet in Asian countries. Based on them, pastes and spreads are made as are substitutes of cereal products (bread, pasta, flour), dairy products (soy milk, cheese), or meat substituted [2,[8][9][10][11]. Soy milk is a basic ingredient in the production of diverse soy products including tofu, soy yogurt, and cheeses [12][13][14]. ...
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The content of protein, moisture content and essential amino acids in conventional and genetically modified soybean grain and selected soybean products (soybean pâté, soybean drink, soybean dessert, tofu) was analyzed in this paper. The following comparative analysis of these products has not yet been carried out. No differences were observed in the amino acid profiles of soybeans and soybean products. The presence of essential amino acids was confirmed except for tryptophan. Its absence, however, may be due not to its absence in the raw material, but to its decomposition as a result of the acid hydrolysis of the sample occurring during its preparation for amino acid determination. Regardless of the type of soybean grain, the content of protein, moisture content and essential amino acids was similar (statistically insignificant difference). Thus, the type of raw material did not determine these parameters. There was a significant imbalance in the quantitative composition of essential amino acids in individual soybean products. Only statistically significant variation was found in genetically modified and conventional soybean pâté. Moreover, in each soy product their amount was lower irrespective of the raw material from which they were manufactured. Therefore, the authors indicate the necessity of enriching soybean products with complete protein to increase their nutritional value.
... However, nuts and seeds are very good sources of unsaturated including essential fats and if included within the general category of vegetables and fruits, as advocated by WHO (WHO, 1990a), are important in both energy-dense and also starch-based diets, as protection against heart disease, and possibly against diseases of the nervous system. (Sabate, 2001). ...
Technical Report
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The report is designed to answer a number of relevant questions. • Do vegetables and fruits protect against disease? • Is the concept of ‘Five + a Day’ valid? • Does the concept have universal application? • Is ‘Five + a Day’ the same as the ‘5 a Day’ project? • Is the US ‘5 a Day’ project a model for WHO? • How should WHO promote vegetables and fruits? The conclusions and recommendations of the report are in its next three chapters, between pages 12 and 26, together with suggested principles on which a global programme led by WHO and other relevant UN agencies together with national governments, may be based. The next four referenced chapters, between pages 27 and 68, include more detailed discussions of the ‘Five + a Day concept, the ‘5 a Day’ project, and contexts and issues for ‘Five + a Day’ programmes. The annex, between pages 69 and 82, indicates how a global ‘Five + a Day’ programme might be developed, in the case of one major middle-income country, Brazil. This report should contain the technical and other information needed as a basis for decisions. It includes observations and recommendations on food and nutrition policy as a whole, and on the political and economic contexts for such policies. (This report was commissioned by the WHO directorate responsible for prevention of chronic diseases and was used as a discussion document internally and in discussions with partners, in preparing the WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. It was not published).
... 18 The marginal intake of some nutrients does not prevent these diets from being recommended, based on strong scientific evidence showing that the health benefits of these diets exceed potential risks. 19 Studies comparing body weight of vegetarians and non-vegetarians have shown that those who follow a vegetarian diet tend to have lower weight. 5 Therefore, it seems that the main characteristic of vegetarian diets, i.e., the exclusion of meat or reduction of its consumption, when combined with a high nutrient density, plays an important role in maintenance of a healthy nutritional status. ...
Article
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Background: Vegetarian diets have been linked to reduced risk of chronic noncommunicable diseases, since they positively modulate biochemical parameters, particularly those related with glycemic control and lipemia, and considered as potential strategy for weight control. Objective: To compare the nutritional status, lifestyle and lipid profile of adult vegetarians with omnivores in a sample of individuals in the city of São Paulo. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric, biochemical and lifestyle variables were compared between vegetarians and omnivores. A significance level of 5% was considered for all analyses. Results: Vegetarians were more likely to practice physical activity (64.3% vs 42.5%, p = 0.056) and consuming dietary supplements (48.1% vs 20.5%, p = 0.012). There was no statistically significant difference for the variables: age, sex, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein between the two groups. Vegetarians had significantly lower weight [60.8 kg (56.7 - 69.4) vs 71.1 kg (58.0 - 75.4), p = 0.038], BMI [22.4 kg/m2 (20.9 - 23.8) vs 24.6 kg/m2 (21.7 - 26.1), p = 0.001], and waist circumference [(81.8 ± 8.2 vs 87.8 ± 10.9 cm, p = 0.003)], and higher high-density lipoprotein (54.88 ± 14.44 vs 47.30 ± 12.27 mg /dL p = 0.008) than omnivores. Conclusion: Compared with omnivores, vegetarians had a better nutritional status, with lower BMI and waist circumference, significantly higher levels of plasma lipoprotein high-density, and healthier lifestyle.
... Kepercayaan yang dianut mempunyai aturan agama yang mengatur hal-hal yang diperbolehkan untuk dikonsumsi baik makanan maupun minuman. 1 Berbagai alasan mendorong seseorang untuk menjadi seorang vegetarian. Alasan-alasan tersebut terkait dengan kesehatan, mempertimbangkan lingkungan dan animals welfare. ...
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Vegetarian diet merupakan salah satu gaya hidup. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis perbedaan status gizi, status kesehatan, dan gaya hidup serta menganalisis hubungan status gizi, status kesehatan dengan gaya hidup pada kelompok lakto vegetarian dan nonvegetarian. Desain studi yang digunakan yaitu cross sectional study dengan melibatkan 80 wanita usia 40-65 tahun sebagai subjek yang terbagi menjadi 2 kelompok dan pengambilan data dilakukan di Provinsi Bali. Data analisis menggunakan Man Whitney U Test dan uji hubungan menggunakan Rank Spearman. Penelitian ini didanai oleh Neys-van Hoogstraten Foundation, the Netherlands. Pengumpulan data karaktersit subjek menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur, dan untuk atropometri dilakukan penguran secara langsung. Subjek non vegetarian yang termasuk kedalam kategori obesitas (50%) dan hipertensi (37,5%) lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kelompok lakto vegetarian. Sebanyak 70% subjek lakto vegetarian termasuk kedalam kategori anemia. Hasil penelitian menunjukan adanya perbedaan status gizi, status anemia, dan konsumsi kopi pada kedua kelompok subjek (p<0,05). Hasil uji hubungan menunjukan tidak ada hubungan antara status gizi dengan gaya hidup dan status kesehatan dengan gaya hidup pada kelompok lakto vegetarian dan non vegetarian (p>0,05). Penelitian ini menunjukan status gizi, status kesehatan, dan gaya hidup pada kelompok lakto vegetarian lebih baik dibandingkan dengan kelompok non vegetarian. Kelompok lakto vegetarian berisko lebih tinggi terkena anemia.
... [2] Production and consumption of functional foods has gained much importance as they provide a health benefit beyond the basic nutritional functions. Sabate J, [3] Said functional foods must remain foods and that they are not pills or capsules but, components of diet or part of food that is beneficial for the consumer. They are designated to have health benefits that have advantages in reducing the risks factor of chronic diseases scientific investigations have moved from the primary role of food as the source of energy and body-forming substances to the more subtle action of biologically active food components on human health [1]. ...
Article
Production, quality evaluation and postprandial effect of high fibre fructose sweetened confectionery snacks (cookies) as functional diet was investigated. It was to establish the chemical, sensory evaluation and postprandial effects of the products, cookie ingredients were purchased from Ankpa Kogi state, date fruits (Dabino) was processed into powder both sweetener were weighed rations. A creaming method cookie production was used and standard methods were used for the analyses. Triplicate values were obtained in each case and expressed on dry weight basis. All data collected were analysed statistically using SPSS version 20.0 package. Means and standard deviation were calculated at significant level of p ≤ 0.01. From the analyses, proximate composition (%) at (30, 40 and 50) in various ratios; showed that Moisture; (11.20 to 13.10) in sample C and B, [8.30 to 10.03] E and B (6.44 to 10.41) in B and C. Ash was (0.33 to 0.53) in C and D, (0.40 to 0.58) for C and B and (0.73 to1.0) E and B respectively, crude fibre were (0.17 to 0.41) in C and B (0.2 to 0.48) and (0.33 to 0.37) in C and A while crude fat included; (13.83 to 16.21), A and B, (8.23 to11.70) C and B and (7.83 to 13.43) in A and B, proteins was (12.98 to 17.16) for C and D, (11.17 to 12.90) E and D, (12.52 to 17.80) C and D and Carbohydrates included; (53.60 to 83.62), in B and E. (65.53 to 69.53) for D and C and (57.95 to 70.00) in E and A. Minerals in mg/100 included; sodium (52.50 to 70.33) B and A, (45.87 to 74.10) E and A and (41.23 to 76. 20) in B and D, Potassium (30.50 to 37.30%) in C and E, (30.60. to 56.0) in E and B (27.40 to 57.80) B and D, calcium (215.97 to 251.20) in C and D, (42.87 to 74.12) C and B (41.23 to 76. 20) B and D magnesium included (28.60 to 127.22) B and D, (112 to148.30) for C and B (115.50 to 142.20) phosphorus; (55.60 to 73.46) in A and B and (54.14 to 67.20) C and A. (56.18 to 71.36 ) for A and D. ferrous were (8.12 to 20.20) for B and E (11.71 to 30.07) C and B (17.04 to 29.42) in E and D Phytochemical contents at 30, 40 and 50% (mg / 100g) included; Tannic acid (1.8 to 2.9 mg), (2.20 to 3.44) and (2.76 to 5.00) flavonoid (2.27 to 3.74), (3.78 to 5.91) and (4.07 to6.96) phenolic acid (7.38 to 3.58), (8.71 to 16.43), (8.71 to16.43) Saponin (1.00 to 2.09), (1.05 to 2.47) and (1.05 to 2.46) Carotenoid included; (5.31 to 8.77), (1.05 to 2.56), (1.05 to 2.47) Alkaloid (0.08 to 0.40), (0.10 to 0.25) and (0.10 to 0.25) C and B for all the samples. The Sensory attributes in in ratios and at 30, 40 and 50% included; taste (7.00 to 8.30), (6.60 to 8.17) both samples were the same in 2:1 and 0:1 but 50% was (5.27 to 8.00) in 1:0 and, 1:1 the colour of the samples included (5.16 to 7.70),in 2:1 and 0:1 (6.17 to 7.67) in 1:0 and 1:1 and (5.37 to 8.37) 2:1 and, 0:1 Flavour included; (5.10 to 8.10), (5.77 to 8.67) and (6.27 to 7.67) in 1:0 and 1:2, crispness (5.77 to 7.27) 1:2 and 0:1 (5.77 to 8.70) 1:0 to, 1:2 (6.00 to 7.17) for 0:1 and 1:0 while the texture were in the range of (6.767 to 7.87) 1:0 and, 0:1 (5.67 to 7.50) for 2:1 and 1:1 and (6.00 to 7.07) in ratios 0:1 and 1:1. The postprandial effect of cookies in mmol / L showed (5.64 to 7.87) in ratio 1:0 and 1:2 and (6.20 to 6.8) for 1:1 and 1:2 at 30% and 40% respectively. The inhibitory effects of date fruits at 50% in ratio 1:0 (date palm) only can be modified optimized and use as potential pharmaceutical therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and other parameter tested moisture contents, phytochemical and postprandial effects were within the acceptable limit.
... Evidence suggests that a plant-based diet may result in more effective exploitation of economic resources, which may reduce environmental impacts [50,65,78,79]. Concerning environmental protection, the ameliorating effects on global warming and environmental pollution are mostly reported by researchers [14,15,32,78,80]. ...
Article
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In recent decades, the food industry has been faced with new challenges, and it has had to develop new types of diets and produce new types of foods that can slow down the spread of chronic diseases. The aim of our research was to identify the characteristics of plant-based nutrition, based on international and Hungarian literature. The comprehensive analysis was performed based on the theoretical model called Theory of Planned Behavior, in the course of which the perceived and objective benefits of and barriers to the conversion to a plant-based diet were examined. According to our results, the main benefits of plant-based nutrition are its many factors associated with a reduction in risk of developing numerous chronic diseases. This is followed by benefits of well-being and satisfaction, followed by ethical and environmental benefits. The most commonly reported inhibitory factor of a vegetarian diet is the enjoyment of eating meat and the difficulty in giving up meat consumption. This is followed by health considerations, e.g., lack of various ingredients in foods. Convenience and taste factors are also important disincentives, as well as the irrelevant nature of some plant-based nutrition information sources. Besides, social barriers, negative discrimination, and negative effect on mental health associated with them can also be a hindrance, as can financial barriers. The classification developed during our analysis can serve as a relevant guideline for decision-makers, and also as a basis for further primary qualitative and quantitative research.
... Nutrients with intakes below recommendation in vegetarian diets are energy, protein, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and foliate. In rural areas due to high intake of vegetables and fruits, vegetarian diets tend to contain higher folic acid and magnesium intakes than those of non‐vegetarians (Sabate, 2001). Overall, the nutritional status of adolescent girls is critical given close associations that their growth status and reproductive health have with birth outcomes and child survival (Dennedy and Dunne, 2010). ...
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Protein nutritional intake by women at inception and during pregnancy is very essential and has great influences on the growth and potential development of the foetus. Poor Nutrition during pregnancy however affects not only foetal development but chronic diseases situations can develop in the infants. The study investigated proteinn intake by mothers in Moyamba-township and is effect on development of a child during the critical " window of opportunity " period that seems to occur from conception to 24 months of age, and is now commonly referred to as the " first 1000 days " of the baby. The research adopted descriptive and longitudinal survey designs. It used multistage and purposive simple random sampling techniques to select both the mothers and children. Structured and semi-structured questionnaire were administered to 160 participants in Moyamba Town in Moyamba District to collect data for this study. This study revealed that in Sierra Leone today, there is a strong link between foetal development and consequent development of chronic diseases in children due to poor nutrition (21.3%). It also revealed that breastfeeding has increased dietary needs because of the extra energy and nutrients needed to produce breast milk ((18.8%). It was concluded that most of the mothers and their children have access to enough and varieties of protein sources which has led to mothers' wellness, as a result of the nourishment of their bodies to enable them to endure greatly in most of their life pressing issues. Likewise, most diseases that easily affect children have been prevented. It was recommended that humanitarian organizations assist women in this township to own large vegetable farms which can provide enough yield for marketing and self-consumption. This would be done by organizing women into Agricultural Organizations with the capacity to own farm lands, swamps and boli-lands for maximized agricultural production throughout the year.
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Introduction: Vegetarian mothers are known to have lower pre-pregnancy nutritional status, thereby posing an increased risk to pregnancy outcomes, including lower maternal fat stores for lactation. This study aimed at analysing the association between predominant breastfeeding on the nutritional status of lactating vegetarian mothers and growth of their breastfed infants. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted on mother-infant pairs who practised breastfeeding in five cities in Indonesia, selected purposively based on the Indonesia Vegetarian Society database. A total of 42 pairs of vegetarian and 43 pairs of non-vegetarian were followed since delivery to 24 weeks infant age. Anthropometric measurements (weight of infant and mother, length of infant) were taken of each subject every 4 weeks. Finally, 15 vegetarian and 18 non-vegetarian mother-infant pairs who had successfully followed through the 24 weeks of predominant breastfeeding were analysed. Results: Socio-demographic characteristics did not differ between the two dietary groups except in maternal parity. Vegetarian mothers had lower pre-pregnancy BMI but higher pregnancy weight gain compared to non-vegetarian mothers. This study shows that predominant breastfeeding had no effect on infant weight and length but had significant effect on mothers' BMI and weight loss. Conclusions: Without adequate energy intake during lactation, the postpartum nutritional status of the vegetarian mothers declined over time. The mothers in the non-vegetarian group in this study had a significantly greater energy intake compared with the vegetarians. This is the key factor for successful lactation performance of a 6-month duration of predominant breastfeeding as it offers good nutritional outcomes for both the mother and the infant.
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A first objective of the present study was to estimate the acid-base balance of the food intake in vegetarians and non-vegetarians. A second objective was to evaluate if additional input of specific food items on the existing potential renal acid load (PRAL) list was necessary for the comparison of the two dietary patterns. Thirty vegetarians between the age of 18 and 30 years were matched for sex, age and BMI with 30 non-vegetarians. Based on the 3-days food diaries the acid-base status of the food intake was estimated using the PRAL method. Mean PRAL values as estimated with the standard table yielded an alkaline load of -5.4 +/- 14.4 mEq/d in the vegetarians compared to an acid load of 10.3 +/- 14.4 mEq/d in the nonvegetarians (p<0.001). Mean PRAL values as estimated with the extended table yielded an alkaline load of -10.9 +/-19.7 mEq/d in the vegetarians compared to an acid load of 13.8 +/- 17.1 mEq/d for the non-vegetarians (p<0.001). The findings of this study indicate that vegetarian food intake produces more alkaline outcomes compared to non-vegetarian diets. The use of the standard PRAL table was sufficient for discrimination between the two diets.
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Healthcare professionals working in the field of obstetrics and gynaecology may encounter patients from a variety of cultural backgrounds, particularly in our inner cities. These women may have similar cultural beliefs and values about aspects of care they experience compared with native women, but they may also have differing beliefs and may present with preconceptions about the care they expect to receive. In our experience, traditional medical training has limited core teaching on the existence of such cultural variations, and professionals often only experience them through working in the clinical setting. This review was, therefore, undertaken with the aim of increasing awareness of such variations, in order to promote more holistic management, and ultimately to enhance patient care.
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The issue of meat consumption has been a subject of interest that has been looked at from environmental, animal and human perspectives. This paper contributes to the discussion by clarifying the diversity of views with regard to the future of meat consumption. Two round Delphi expert interviews and a consumer survey were conducted in order to collect information. Five coherent future images were constructed: Traditional Approach, Business as Usual, Humans First, Wellness and Vegetarian Society. The discussion part of the paper presents possible ways of influencing meat consumption according to the holders of these different images of the future.
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Cancer survivors are often highly motivated to seek information about food choices, physical activity, dietary supplement use, and complementary nutritional therapies to improve their treatment outcomes, quality of life, and survival. To address these concerns, the American Cancer Society (ACS) convened a group of experts in nutrition, physical activity, and cancer to evaluate the scientific evidence and best clinical practices related to optimal nutrition and physical activity after the diagnosis of cancer. This report summarizes their findings and is intended to present health care providers with the best possible information on which to help cancer survivors and their families make informed choices related to nutrition and physical activity. The report discusses nutrition and physical activity issues during the phases of cancer treatment and recovery, living after recovery from treatment, and living with advanced cancer; selected nutritional and physical activity issues such as body weight, food choices, and complementary and alternative nutritional options; and selected issues related to breast, colorectal, lung, prostate, head and neck, and upper gastrointestinal cancers. In addition, handouts containing commonly asked questions and answers and a resource list are provided for survivors and families. Tables that grade the scientific evidence for benefit versus harm related to nutrition and physical activity for breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers are also included for this growing body of knowledge to provide guidance for informed decision making and to identify areas for future research.
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Objective To show that the practice of wholesome nutrition meets the demands of the concept of the new nutrition science, at present and in the future. Method To define ‘wholesome nutrition’, to describe its origin and to discuss its recommendations; and to cite practical examples showing that wholesome nutrition includes the dimensions and domains that are the basis of the concept of the new nutrition science. Conclusion The recommendations of wholesome nutrition are an effective implementation of the concept of the new nutrition science.
Thesis
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Vegetarianism is a growing global trend. Movie stars and world class athletes proudly brand themselves vegetarian. Apart from its health implications vegetarianism has been extensively studied as a social and psychological phenomenon. However the understanding that has emerged from these studies has almost exclusively reflected Caucasian Western societies. Internationally there is a paucity of research regarding vegetarianism among people of African descent. The purpose of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by exploring the development of a vegetarian identity among Black urban South Africans living in Cape Town and the contextual factors involved in their adoption and practice of vegetarianism. Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological systems theory which emphasizes the bidirectional influence between human behaviour and broader contextual factors was used as a theoretical framework for understanding vegetarianism among Black South Africans. This study used a qualitative exploratory approach to describe the perceptions and experiences of Black vegetarians. Snowball sampling was used to locate eight Black South African adult vegetarians who were interviewed in depth. The audio recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed through thematic analysis yielding three main themes. The first and central theme is that “vegetarianism is life.” This theme encapsulates the fact participants view vegetarianism as an instrument through which the highest ideals of life are attained including physical vitality, spiritual vibrancy and intellectual superiority. In the second theme the process of developing a vegetarian identity was unfolded. Contextual religio-cultural influences of Rastafarianism and Seventh day Adventism were a major influence in the development of a vegetarian identity. The last theme unfolds the experience of Black vegetarians living in meat dominated society. The study reveals that becoming a vegetarian definitely affects one’s social relations. However the gender of the vegetarians modulated the reaction of family members. Vegetarians also employed several strategies to manoeuvre difficult social situations. This study is among the first to contribute an African perspective to the global vegetarian discourse. It has highlighted the way Black Africans develop a vegetarian identity and the contextual factors acting as barriers and facilitators to this development. It has highlighted how this identity is informed by their Africanness though at times it conflicts with certain African ideals. Finally it has identified the social, cultural and psychological variables involved in the vegetarian phenomenon on the African continent.
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant level, serum cholesterol and skin -carotene, of female elderly who had been living more then 10 months in institutions which offered either vegetarian or non vegetarian diet. Methods: Total of 110 female elderly, 56 from institution serving vegetarian diet and 54 from nonvegetarian diet, were recruited from institutions located in S and N city in Korea. -carotene level was measured on their palm using Pharmanex Biophotonic Scanner and annual health evaluation data was utilized for the analysis of serum cholesterol. Results: The subjects on a vegetarian diet had a significantly higher level of phosphorus, carotene, and folic acid. The elderly who were living in an institution offering a vegetarian diet had a lower level of serum cholesterol and higher level of skin -carotene, compared to those living in an institution offering a non-vegetarian diet. Conclusion: This study reveals that a vegetarian diet is beneficial in increasing skin -carotene level, decreasing serum total cholesterol level. The skin -carotene measurement appear valuable as a bio-marker of antioxidant intake. Further study on antioxidant food and effective serving strategy for elderly are recommended.
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erschienen in: Strüver, Anke (Hrsg.): Geographien der Ernährung – Zwischen Nachhaltigkeit, Unsicherheit und Verantwortung. Hamburg 2015 (Hamburger Symposium Geographie, Band 7): 31-49
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Plant foods are staples of many cultures in the world. Conversely, the appearance of vegetarianism in Western countries is a relatively recent phenomenon, showing an upward trend: people following vegetarian diets (both lacto-ovo-vegetarian-LOV and vegan-VEG), account today for about 10% of the Western population. According to the principle of non-discrimination, the most recent national dietary guidelines for the general population (DGLs) of some Western countries have adapted their contents to comprise vegetarian eating patterns. Moreover, since 1997, specific vegetarian food guidelines (VFGs) were developed. The aim of this review was to summarize and compare the information and recommendations of the food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) contained in the DGLs usable by vegetarians, and in the main VFGs; to extract a list of basic criteria for the planning of a well-balanced vegetarian diet, and to identify the most valid FBDG for vegetarians. An Internet search was conducted in the English language, in order to identify national DGLs applicable to vegetarian dietary patterns, and international VFGs. Four Western DGLs and six VFGs were selected. Compared to the majority of DGLs, VFGs are not an "adaptation" of omnivorous (OMN) eating patterns to vegetarian ones, but rather devoted guides: they include only foods consumed by vegetarians, and take into account their specific nutritional needs. VFGs offer qualified advice to meet the most updated standards of adequacy and safety of the diet: the varied consumption of all plant foods, mainly unprocessed; the respect of individual's calorie requirements; the optional addition of small amounts of foods of animal origin (dairy/ eggs); the attention towards some potentially critical nutrients. According to this criteria, the VFG for North American Vegetarians can represent the most accurate and practical model: not only is it consistent with research on the adequacy of vegetarian diets, but it is applicable both to LOV and VEG eating patterns and to all lifecycle stages beyond 4 years of age.
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