The increase in the availability of individual Apis mellifera genomes has resulted in significant progress toward understanding the evolution and adaptation of the honey bee. These efforts have identified new subspecies, evolutionary lineages, and a significant number of genes involved with adaptations and colony-level quantitative traits. Many studies have also developed genetic assays that are being used to monitor the movement and admixture of honey bee populations. These resources are valuable for conservation and breeding programs that seek to improve the economic value of colonies or preserve locally adapted populations and subspecies. This review provides a brief discussion on how population and quantitative genomic studies has improved our understanding of the honey bee.